Cardiovascular Disease Causes And Prevention


What Are Cardiovascular Disease (Heart Disease) And How To Prevent It | What Are Causes Of Cardiovascular Disease? | Cardiovascular Main Risk Factors -

Cardiovascular Disease Causes And Prevention

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

  • Cardiovascular disease includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as Angina and Myocardial (commonly known as a heart attack).
  • Other CVDs are

    1. Stroke,
    2. Aortic aneurysms,
    3. Rheumatic heart disease,
    4. Cardiomyopathy,
    5. Hypertensive heart disease,
    6. Atrial fibrillation,
    7. Congenital heart disease,
    8. Endocarditis,
    9. Peripheral artery disease and
    10. Venous thrombosis.

Causes Of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD):

There are several risk factors for heart diseases (cardiovascular diseases). They are

  • Age,
  • Gender,
  • Excessive alcohol consumption,
  • Unhealthy diet,
  • Tobacco use,
  • Physical inactivity,
  • obesity,
  • Raised blood cholesterol,
  • Psychosocial factors,
  • Family history of cardiovascular disease,
  • Raised blood pressure (hypertension),
  • Raised blood sugar (diabetes mellitus),
  • Poverty and low educational status, and
  • air pollution.

While the individual contribution of each risk factor varies between different communities or ethnic groups, the overall contribution of these risk factors is very consistent.

Some of these risk factors, such as age, gender, or family history, are immutable; however, many important cardiovascular risk factors are modifiable by

  1. Lifestyle change,
  2. Social change,
  3. Drug treatment and prevention of hypertension,
  4. Hyperlipidemia, and
  5. Diabetes.

Age is very much related to serum cholesterol levels.

  1. The serum total cholesterol level increases as age increases.
  2. In men, this increases levels off around age 45 to 50 years.
  3. In women, the increase continues sharply until age 60 to 65 years.
  4. The risk of stroke doubles every decade after age 55.
  5. Men are at greater risk of heart disease than pre-menopausal women.

Once past menopause, it has been argued that a woman's risk is similar to men.

  1. If a female has diabetes, she is more likely to develop heart disease than a male with diabetes.
  2. It is also found that gender differences explain nearly half the risk associated with cardiovascular diseases.
  3. One of the proposed explanations for gender differences in cardiovascular diseases is hormonal difference.
  4. Among women, estrogen is the predominant sex hormone. Estrogen may have protective effects through glucose metabolism and hemostatic system and may have a direct effect on improving endothelial cell function.
  5. The production of estrogen decreases after menopause and this may change the female lipid metabolism.

Another main cause is physical inactivity.

  1. Insufficient physical activity is currently the leading risk factor for mortality worldwide.
  2. In addition, physical activity
    • Assists weight loss and improves blood glucose,
    • Control blood pressure, lipid profile, and insulin sensitivity.
  3. High dietary intakes of saturated fat, trans fats, and salt and low intake of fruits, vegetables, and fish are linked to cardiovascular risk.
  4. The amount of dietary salt consumed is also an important determinant of blood pressure levels and overall cardiovascular risk.
  5. Frequent consumption of high-energy foods, such as processed foods that are high in fats and sugars, promotes obesity and may increase cardiovascular risk.

Cardiovascular Disease Prevention And Control

  1. A low-fat, high-fiber diet including whole grains and fruit and vegetables.

    • Five portions a day reduce risk by about 25%.
  2. Tobacco cessation and avoidance of second-hand smoke.
  3. Increase daily activity to 30 minutes of vigorous exercise per day at least five times per week.
  4. Reduce sugar consumptions.
  5. Avoid alcohol consumption.
  6. Lower blood pressures, if elevated.
  7. Decrease psychosocial stress.
  8. Decrease non-HDL cholesterol.
  9. Decrease body fat if overweight or obese.
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What Are Causes Of Cardiovascular Disease? Notes

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