Cancer Types, Symptoms Causes And Prevention

What Is Cancer? - What Are The Causes Of Cancer? | Cancer -  Sign And Symptoms, Prevention | 5 Types Of Cancer |  6 Characteristics Of Cancer Cells - www.pupilstutor.com


Cancer Types, Symptoms Causes And Prevention

Meaning:

Cancer is also known as a malignant tumor or a malignant neoplasm is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

6 Characteristics Of Cancer Cells

The characteristics of cancer cells are:

  1. Cell growth and division without the proper signals to do so.
  2. A limitless number of cell divisions.
  3. Promoting blood vessel construction.
  4. Continuous growth and division even when there are signals telling them to stop.
  5. Avoidance of programmed cell death.
  6. Invasion of tissue and formation of metastases.

What Are The Causes Of Cancer?

Most cancers are related to

  • Environmental,
  • Lifestyle, or
  • Behavioral exposures.

The term "environmental", as used by cancer researchers, refers to everything outside the body that interacts with humans. In this sense, the environment is not limited to the biophysical environment (e.g. exposure to factors such as air pollution or sunlight, encountered outdoors or indoors, at home or in the workplace), but also includes lifestyle, economic and behavioral factors.

  • Common environmental factors that contribute to cancer death include tobacco.
  • It is nearly impossible to prove what caused cancer in any individual because most cancers have multiple possible causes.

    • For example, if a person who uses tobacco heavily develops lung cancer, then it was probably caused by the tobacco use, but since everyone has a small chance of developing lung cancer as a result of air pollution or radiation, then there is a small chance that cancer developed because of air pollution or radiation.
  • Cancer is generally not contagious in humans, though it can be caused by oncoviruses and bacteria.

It should be noted that aging has been repeatedly and consistently regarded as an important aspect to consider when evaluating the risk factors for the development of particular cancers; aging is considered a risk factor and this is explained by the observation that many molecular and cellular changes are involved in the development of cancer, so it is very likely that these changes accumulate during the aging process.

  • Cancers are potentially avoidable by reducing key risk factors, of which much the significant is tobacco use, which is the cause for more cancer deaths.
  • Another important reason is

    • obesity,
    • a poor diet,
    • lack of physical activity, and
    • drinking alcohol.
  • Other factors are

    • Infections,
    • Exposure to ionizing radiation, and
    • Environmental pollutants.

In the developing world, nearly 20% of cancers are due to infections such as

  • Hepatitis B,
  • Hepatitis C, and
  • Human papilloma virus.

These factors act, at least partly, by changing the genes of a cell.

  • Typically, many such genetic changes are required before cancer develops.
  • Approximately 5–10% of cancers are due to genetic defects inherited from a person's parents.

Signs And Symptoms Of Cancer

Not all tumors are cancerous. Possible signs and symptoms of cancer include:

  • A new lump,
  • Abnormal bleeding,
  • Unexplained weight loss, and
  • A prolonged cough,
  • A change in bowel movements among others.

While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may also occur due to other issues. There are over 100 different known cancers that affect humans.

What Are The Five Types Of Cancer?

There are more than 100 types of cancer. Types of cancer are usually named for the organs or tissues where the cancers form.

For example,

  • Lung cancer starts in cells of the lung, and
  • Brain cancer starts in cells of the brain.

Cancers also may be described by the type of cell that formed them, such as an

  1. Epithelial Cell Or
  2. Squamous Cell.

The Five Types of Cancer Are:

Carcinoma:

  • Carcinomas are the most common type of cancer.
  • They are formed by epithelial cells, which are the cells that cover the inside and outside surfaces of the body.

Leukemia:

  • Cancers that begin in the blood-forming tissue of the bone marrow are called leukemia.
  • These cancers do not form solid tumors.
    • Instead, large numbers of abnormal white blood cells (leukemia cells and leukemic blast cells) build up in the blood and bone marrow, crowding out normal blood cells.
  • The low level of normal blood cells can make it harder for the body to get oxygen to its tissues, control bleeding, or fight infections.

Lymphoma:

  • Lymphoma is cancer that begins in lymphocytes (T cells or B cells).
  • These are disease-fighting white blood cells that are part of the immune system.
  • In lymphoma, abnormal lymphocytes build up in lymph nodes and lymph vessels, as well as in other organs of the body.

Sarcoma:

Sarcomas are cancers that form in bone and soft tissues, including

  • Muscle,
  • Blood vessels,
  • Fat,
  • Lymph vessels, and
  • Fibrous tissue.

Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors:

  • There are different types of brain and spinal cord tumors.
    • These tumors are named based on the type of cell in which they formed and where the tumor first formed in the central nervous system.
    • For example, an astrocytic tumor begins in star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes, which help keep nerve cells healthy.
  • Brain tumors can be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer).

Preventive Measures For Cancer

  1. Avoid tobacco
  2. Limit Processed Meats:

    • A report from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the cancer agency of the World Health Organization, concluded that eating large amounts of processed meat can slightly increase the risk of certain types of cancer.
  3. Healthy Diet:

    • Plenty of fruits and vegetables and other foods from plant sources, whole grains, and beans.
  4. Avoid Obesity:

    • Eating lighter and leaner by choosing fewer high-calorie foods, including refined sugars and fat from animal sources.
  5. Maintaining a healthy weight and being physically active

    • It lowers the risk of various types of cancer, including cancer of the
      • Breast,
      • Prostate,
      • Lung,
      • Colon and kidney.
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