Value Education: (B.Ed Notes In English)


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Table Of Contents

1. Concept Of Values - Meaning, Definition, Elements And Nature

17. Role Of Teachers In Teaching Value Education

2. What Is Value Education? - Meaning, Definition And Approaches

18. Role, Responsibility And Duty Of Peer Groups In Promoting Value Education

3. Massey’s Stages Of Value Development

19. Role Of Different Religion In Fostering Value Education

4. Kohlberg’s 3 Levels Of Moral Development

20. Role, Responsibility And Duty Of Indian Government In Developing Value Education In Children

5. Aims And Objectives Of Value Education

21. Role Of Mass Media In Value Education

6. Sources Of Values

22. Role Of Voluntary Organization In Fostering Value Education

7. Types Of Values

23. 10 Different Methods Of Fostering Values In School

8. What Is The Role Of Schools In Value Education?

24. Pedagogy Of Values

9. Why Is Value Education Important?

25. What Is Whole School Approach In Value Education & How Is It Implemented?

10. Family Values And Beliefs

26. What Is The Best Way To Inculcate Values Through School Programmes?

11. Character Education

27. How Do You Inculcate Values Among Students?

12. Status Of Value Education In The Indian Curriculum

28. What Is Value Clarification Approach In Teaching? - Define And Explain Its Strategies

13. What Are Core Values And Its Types?

29. How To Foster Values Through Curricular Activities?

14. Rath’s Process Of Value Clarification

30. How To Develop Values Through Co-Curricular Activities?

15. Value Crisis Meaning & Causes

31. Co-Curricular Activities For Value Development

16. Role Of Parents And Family In Value Education

32. Value Development Through Various Subjects

Concept Of Values

The concept of values refers to the criteria used for determining levels of

  • Goodness,
  • Worth or
  • Beauty
Values are estimable and hence worthy of being possessed.

Meaning Of Values

The most popular meaning of the values is given by John Dewey is

To value means primarily to prize, to esteem; but secondarily it means to apprize, to estimate.

It means, that is, the act of cherishing something, holding it dear, and also the act of passing judgment upon the nature and amount of values as compared with something else.

Our values give an indication of our character and determine our moral and ethical choices.
Values represent the aspirations of religions and philosophies that aim to guide people along the path to a better existence.

People who practice values develop inner strength and can resist common human weaknesses.
Values are the beauty and grace of life. They are essential constituents of civilization.

Definition Of Values

According to Allport, "Value is a belief upon which a man acts by preference".

According to Hill, "Values are individual beliefs to which people attach significant worth and by which they organize their life. Hence it can be said that values are principles before us that guide and direct our behavior. Things or ideas are valuable because we value them and desire to possess them or desire to cherish them".

According to W.H. Kilpatrick, “That out of man’s capacity for goal-seeking behavior arise his wants and efforts and out of these come in consciously chosen goals. Because goals conflict, man is led weigh his goals against each other”.

It is generally accepted that values are at the root of all types of behavior, including those that are morally, politically, or economically motivated.

  • Values are our convictions that guide our behavior.
  • Values are subtle & are exhibited through behavior.
  • Values help us in deciding what is right and what is wrong.

Parsons (1951) opined that the basic social function of values is to motivate and control the behavior of group members.

Values shape the behavior of both individuals as well as of organizations.

The behavior of individuals affects the behavior of an organization if the individual is a part of the organization.
Values are more significant to our functioning as individuals and as people.
Values are used to characterize societies and individuals, to trace change over time, and to explain the motivational bases of attitudes and behavior.
Values exert desirable influences on the way that individuals select, behave and evaluate their worlds.

Values Have Three Basic Elements,

  1. Cognitive,
  2. Affective And
  3. Volitional.

Thus, a value goes beyond the cognitive domain to an affective domain to incorporate a volitional element or disposition to act.

An individual organizes his values in a hierarchical way because they differ in their importance to him.
Human needs and social demands determine the values of a person apart from his cultural background.

It is also said that

‘Values are global in nature and culture specific’.

Nature And Characteristics Of Values

The nature and characteristics of value education science can very well be described with the support of the following attributes.

  1. The process of acquiring values begins at birth. That is, primarily values are learned at home but in due course, they will change according to their experience.
  2. Values are relatively stable and persistent.
  3. Different regions may have different values and different cultures have different values.
  4. Values changes over time within the same society.
  5. They are influenced by the changing needs and present situations of society. Therefore, culture has a strong influence on values.
  6. Values differ from generation to generation.
  7. Values are self-imposed rules, or ethical policies we adopt in order to travel through life with clear ethics.
  8. Values are the determinants of the attitudes and behavior of an individual.

Thus, the concept of value may be concluded as they are

  1. Priced,
  2. Desirable,
  3. Precious,
  4. Dear And Valuable Material Things Such as
    1. Property,
    2. Good Appearance,
    3. Money,
    4. Children Etc.,
  5. Worthwhile,
  6. Non-Material and Abstract Beliefs or Ideas Such as
    1. Honesty,
    2. Truth,
    3. Desire,
    4. Honesty,
    5. Justice,
    6. Piety,
    7. Self-Respect Etc.
  7. Estimable

Meaning Of Value Education


Societies considered education as an instrument for improving the socio-economic conditions of their subjects and an instrument for promoting the qualities of tolerance, justice, sharing, and cooperation, etc., of their citizens.

The two distinct roles that are expected from education are:

  1. The development of socially-oriented citizens with good citizenship qualities, who would be helpful in the development of organized societies.
  2. The development of socio-economic conditions of citizens and also the development of economic, social, and political aspects of societies.

 It is for these reasons; education is universally aspired by all and value education is also acclaimed for the same reason.

What Do You Mean By Values?

Value is something or anything which appeals to us, satisfying our needs, whether it is material or non-material, satisfaction and desirability are common elements in it.

Values mean something that is precious, dear, worthwhile, valuable, and estimable, and hence worthy of possession.

  • Values are the guiding principles of life that are conducive to all-round development.
  • Values bring quality to life.
  • Values give direction and firmness to life and bring joy, satisfaction, and peace to life.

Value is a standard. A value may be described as an emotional attitude, which motivates a person directly or indirectly to act in the most desirable way preferred by him or her.

Values are embedded in

  • Every word we select and speak,
  • Ways in which we interact,
  • What we wear,
  • Our perceptions and interpretation of other's reactions to what we are saying and so on.

Values involve the processes of thinking, knowing/understanding feelings, and action. These involve

  • A strong liking for something,
  • Feeling deeply about the things one values and so on.

Values regulate and guide human behavior and action in our day to daily life.

Definition Of Value

Values are defined as "Beliefs upon which man acts by preferences".

 “The things in which people are interested – things they want to desire to be or become; feel as obligatory, worship or enjoy.” - Dictionary of Education (1959)

"Value means primarily to the prize, esteem, appraise and estimate. It means the act of cherishing something, holding it dear, and also the act of passing judgment upon the nature and amounts of values as compared with something else". - John Dewey

Values are the ideals, beliefs, or norms which a society or the large majority of a society’s members hold.” - Kane (1962)

Values are ideas and beliefs which people cherish. These ideas contain or express the judgment which people have, of the relative importance of things.” - Cuber (1962)

A value is defined as an endeavor which satisfies need system, psychological as well as physiological needs. Almost all human beings have the same physiological needs but differ in their psychological needs, hence differ in their values and styles of life.” - N.K. Dutt (1986)

"Value is something of great worth or importance or standard or principle that is valuable in life." - Oxford Dictionary

Values is an enduring belief, a specific mode of conduct or end along a continuum of relative importance.” - Rokeach (1973) 

Value is a judgment concerning the worth of an object, person, group, or situation. Value judgment contains evaluative rating terms, such as good, bad, moral, immoral, beautiful, ugly, etc.” - M.P. Hunt (1975)

Value Education

Value education has a paramount role to play in creating a society that is

  • Tolerant,
  • Humane,
  • Socially cohesive and ethically righteous.

Education in values is an integral component of the program of education. Values are integral to the process of education. They are not add-ons. All education is, in a sense, value education.

If knowledge is left without being tempered by values and morals, the power generated by such knowledge would only be disastrous and catastrophic in its effects.

Education is a process of bringing about ‘desirable’ changes in the way one thinks, feels, and acts in accordance with one’s concept of the good life.

  • Value education is not value imposition or value indoctrination. It is not a direct inculcation of values and morals.
  • Value education is a process of helping the students to
    • Think freely and critically on values,
    • To act responsibly and with courage and conviction.

What Is The Real Meaning Of Value Education?

Value education is a form of education that stresses the acquisition of living values by learners.

It inculcates universal and ethical values such as
  • Compassion,
  • Courage,
  • Honesty,
  • Tolerance and truthfulness.
This helps in nurturing balanced individuals thus creating a humane society.
  • Values are what promote human beings to personhood.
  • These values are inherent in all people and acting contrary to them negates one’s personhood.
Values education is a term used to name several things, and there is much academic controversy surrounding it.
  1. Some regard it as all aspects of the process by which teachers (and other adults) transmit values to students.
  2. Others see it as an activity
    • That can take place in any organization during which people are assisted by others, who may be older, in a position of authority, or are more experienced,
    • To assess the effectiveness of these values and associated behavior for their own and others’ long term well-being and
    • To reflect on and acquire other values and behavior which they recognize as being more effective for long term well-being of self and others.

This means that values education can take place at home, as well as in schools, colleges, universities, offender institutions, and voluntary youth organizations.

There are two main approaches to values education.

  1. Inculcating or transmitting a set of values that often come from societal or religious rules or cultural ethics.
  2. Others see it as a type of Socratic dialogue where people are gradually brought to their own realization of what is good behavior for themselves and their community.

The German Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche first used the word ‘Values’ in 1880. Until then the word value was used as a verb meaning to value as esteem something or as a singular noun meaning the measure of something, for example, the value of money, food, or labour.

Nietzsche used the word ‘Values’ in the plural to denote moral beliefs and attitudes that were personal and subjective.

In a modern democratic society, this concept of values has changed. The word ‘Values’ has come to be used in plurals for over a century. As the world is becoming more civilized, education is becoming more or less materialistic and old value traditions are being slowly given up.

It is an imperative need in the present context of things that the whole educational system should be restructured to include value education in the process of education.

Massey’s Stages of Value Development

The human behavior is determined by the consolidated values. It is the consolidated values that provides predictability of human behavior; and indeed, the very foundation of the personality that has been described as the style of the man or woman.

Sociologist Morris Massey has described three major periods during which values are developed.

  1. The Imprint Period
  2. The Modeling Period
  3. The Socialization Period

1) The Imprint Period (Up to Age 7)

Up to the age of seven, we are like sponges, absorbing everything around us and accepting much of it as true, especially when it comes from our parents.

  • The critical thing in this period is to learn a sense of right and wrong, good and bad.
  • The confusion and blind belief of this period can also lead to the early formation of trauma and other deep problems.
  • This is a human construction which we nevertheless often assume would exist even if we were not here (which is an indication of how deeply imprinted it has become).

2) The Modeling Period (8-13 Age)

Between the ages of eight and thirteen, we copy people, often our parents, but also others.

  • Rather than blind acceptance of their values, we are trying them on like a suit of clothes, to see how they feel.
  • At this age we may be much impressed with religion or our teachers.

For Example: You may remember being particularly influenced by junior school teachers who seemed so knowledgeable, maybe even more so than your parents.

3 ) The Socialization Period (13-21 Age)

Between 13 and 21, we are very largely influenced by our peers.

Lawrence Kohlberg Stages Of Moral Development

Kohlberg (1971) who was influenced by John Dewey and Jean Piaget, postulated cognitive developmental series of stages of moral development.

According to him the stages follow the same order in all the children but the rate at which they will attain mastery of various stages may vary also.

Kohlberg believes that we should stimulate children to move to higher moral stages, arguing that this is constitutional, philosophically justified and socially useful.

  • Kohlberg stated that children’s thinking about right and wrong begins with operant conditioning.
  • Kohlberg (1984) proposed that moral thinking is based on an individual’s thinking regarding
    • Justice,
    • Fairness, and equity.
  • As the child matures, he is able to think about right and wrong in terms of reciprocal activities and then progresses to conventional thinking where he begins to think in terms of important group members such as parents, teachers, or friends before moving to a society-maintaining orientation of following laws and regulations.
  • Theoretically, some people move to post-conventional thinking where they accept principles in a contract and select their own moral principles.

Lawrence Kohlberg (1977) elaborated Piaget’s theory of moral development and identified three levels of morality. He assumed that the development of the capacity for moral judgment is continuous and gradual.

The Kohlberg’s three levels of moral development is divided into six stages. Each of the six stages are defined by 12 basic moral aspects, issues or values.

Kohlberg's 6 Stages of Moral Development

Level I: Pre-Conventional / Premoral

  • Stage I - Moral motives are defined in terms of avoiding punishment.
  • Stage II - It is the desiring for obtaining rewards to have favors returned.

Level II: Conventional / Role Conformity

  • Stage III - Moral conscience functions to avoid disapproval and dislikes by others.
  • Stage IV - It functions to avoid censure by legitimate authorities and the resulting guilt level.

Level III: Post Conventional / Self-Accepted Moral Principles

  • Stage V - Motivation lies in the desire to maintain the respect of an impartial spectator judging the terms of community welfare.
  • Stage VI - Conformity to moral principles serves to avoid self-condemnation.

Level I: Pre-Conventional / Premoral

Moral values reside in external, quasi-physical events, or in bad acts.

  • The child is responsive to rules and evaluative labels but views them in terms of pleasant or unpleasant consequences of actions, or in terms of the physical power of those who impose the rules.

Stage I - Moral motives are defined in terms of avoiding punishment.
  • Egocentric deference to superior power or prestige, or a trouble-avoiding set.
  • Objective responsibility.

Stage II – It is the desire for obtaining rewards to have favors returned.
  • Right action is that which is instrumental in satisfying the self's needs and occasionally others.
  • The relativism of values to each actor's needs and perspectives.
  • Naive egalitarianism, orientation to exchange, and reciprocity.

Level II: Conventional / Role Conformity

Moral values reside in performing the right role, in maintaining the conventional order and expectancies of others as a value in its own right.

Stage III – Moral conscience functions to avoid disapproval and dislikes by others.
  • Orientation to approval, to pleasing and helping others.
  • Conformity to stereotypical images of the majority or natural role behavior.
  • Action is evaluated in terms of intentions.

Stage IV - It functions to avoid censure by legitimate authorities and the resulting guilt level.
  • Orientation to "doing duty" and to showing respect for authority and maintaining the given social order for its own sake.
  • Regard for earned expectations of others.
  • Differentiates actions out of a sense of obligation to rules from actions for generally "nice" or natural motives.

Level III: Post Conventional / Self-Accepted Moral Principles

Morality is defined in terms of conformity to shared standards, rights, or duties apart from supporting authority.

  • The standards conformed to internal, and action decisions are based on an inner process of thought and judgment concerning right and wrong.

Stage V – Motivation lies in the desire to maintain the respect of an impartial spectator judging the terms of community welfare.
  • Norms of right and wrong are defined in terms of laws or institutionalized rules which seem to have a rational basis.
  • When conflict arises between individual needs and law or contract, though sympathetic to the former, the individual believes the latter must prevail because of its greater functional rationality for society, the majority will, and welfare.

Stage VI – Conformity to moral principles serves to avoid self-condemnation.
  • Orientation not only toward existing social rules, but also toward the conscience as a directing agent, mutual trust and respect, and principles of moral choice involving logical universalities and consistency.
  • Action is controlled by internalized ideals that exert pressure to act accordingly regardless of the reactions of others in the immediate environment.
  • If one acts otherwise, self-condemnation and guilt result.

Education is not merely acquiring knowledge, gathering and correlating facts, it is to see the significance of life as a whole.

Aims Of Value Education

Value education aims at transforming a mind into healthy, innocent, natural, and attentive, capable of higher levels of sensitivity and perception.

The Aims of Value Education Can be understood with the following points.

  1. Build The Foundation For Lifelong Learning
  2. Preparing Student for The World Of Work
  3. Enrich Level Of Understanding
  4. Encourage Young People’s Awareness
  5. Promote Social Cohesion And National Integration
  6. Develop Skill To Deal With Conflicting Values

1) Build The Foundation For Lifelong Learning And Promoting Human Excellence

At the individual level, fostering values in school students, therefore, needs to be seen as an investment in building the foundation for lifelong learning and promoting human excellence.

  • The capacity to listen, patience, endurance, cooperation, team work, positive attitude towards study, work, and life are the hallmarks of a good student or a person.
  • So, values, in fact, promote both academic as well as human excellence.
  • In this sense education for values humanizes education.

2) Value Education Aims at Preparing Student for The World Of Work

Education in values also prepares students for the world of work.

  • The attitudes and values of hard work, discipline, cooperation, communication skills, etc. enable them to develop healthy interpersonal relationships at home and in school which in turn facilitate their better adjustment on the job.

3) Enrich The Level Of Our Understanding

Value education system aims to enrich the level of our understanding and respect for such values and aims to bring us maturity of mind is called value-based education.

  • Value-based education gives youth the altruistic and benevolent sense of living for others.

4) Encourage Young People’s Awareness

The aim of values education is to encourage young people’s awareness of having values and their corresponding relationship to the world in which they live.

  • It is, therefore, necessary to try and convey the idea of which values people in our society regard as necessary (and through which our society is shaped today).

5) Promote Social Cohesion And National Integration

At the societal level, value education aims at promoting social cohesion and national integration for transforming societies, nations and creating a better world.

It can contribute to creating the place

  • With an aspiration for the transformation of the culture of war, violence, and greed into a culture of peace;
  • where people learn and understand more about each other’s uniqueness, human rights, and fundamental freedom;
  • where people learn to care and share to live together in a just, peaceful, and compassionate society both in their immediate contexts and in the world at large.

6) Develop Skill To Deal With Conflicting Values And To Make Independent Decisions

A democratic society demands that an individual should have many skills, among them the skill to deal with conflicting values and to take independent decisions.

  • It demands a critical faculty as well as competence to judge based on your moral principles.
  • Democratic societies must therefore take an interest in such skills be encouraged.

Educators and teachers as well as parents are not just there to practice behavior based on values, but are mainly there

  • To help adolescents to understand the rules which society has developed,
  • To be able to apply them independently and also
  • To participate in political discussions regarding any possible changes to these rules

For this reason, we need educators who do not insist on their own interpretation of moral principles, rather educators who help adolescents to develop their own skills in applying morals to their lives.

Some More General Aims And Objectives Of Value Education Are:

  1. It helps us accept and respect the attitudes and behaviors of those who differ from us.
  2. It develops moral, spiritual, aesthetic, and social values in a person.
  3. Value education aims at promoting broader capabilities, attitudes and skills that matter not just in schools but also life beyond schools, making the world a better place not just for themselves but also for their
    • Family,
    • Friends,
    • Colleagues and others.
  4. Value Education teaches to preserve whatever is good and worthwhile in the culture we inherited.
  5. Values education underpins the understanding that values are to be inculcated in students not just, for their own interest but also for the common good reflecting the balance between individual’s interest and larger interest.
  6. The aim of holistic development of students is located in education for values.

Sources Of Values

Values are the treasures of life making us wealthy and rich. 

  • Values are friends which brings happiness.
  • A life filled with values is a life of self-respect and dignity.
  • Values bring independence and freedom expand our capacity to be self-sufficient and protect us from external influences.

These values can be trapped from 3 different sources like

  1. Socio-Cultural Tradition
  2. Constitution
  3. Religion

i) Socio-Cultural Tradition

Institutionalized relationships of the members of a given society which determine their behaviors are called social traditions.

In every society there is a set of system of working that regulates the behaviors of members in a certain form of relationships. Thus, social institutions reflect social, traditions, cultural basis and its various dimensions.

Social Institutions Of A Society That Regulate The Life Styles Of The People Are:

  • Family,
  • Education,
  • Marriage,
  • Caste,
  • Religion,
  • Economy,
  • Law and order,
  • Art and amusement etc.

Cultural traditions are well established traditions concerned with the values or beliefs, ideas, practices etc. Thus, the behavior and belief of individuals in a society depends on the established traditions of that society.

Indian culture is a composite culture blended with

  • Social institutions,
  • Customs,
  • Values,
  • Beliefs of different races and communities.
In spite of its cultural diversity, a basic cultural unity has been maintained in India.

India’s cultural unity lies in

  • Universality,
  • Humanism,
  • Saintliness,
  • Manliness,
  • Tolerance,
  • Non-violence,
  • Love,
  • peace, and individuality with fullest expressions.

The essential characteristics of Indian culture is appreciation for

  • Others way of life,
  • Religion and culture adjustment,
  • Harmony, secularism and good will.

Socio-cultural traditions provide the purpose, meaning and rationale of life of the people. Education helps the young ones to gain values from the society and its cultural traditions.

At the same time education should help to impart knowledge to eliminate undesirable traditions like evils of

  • Caste system,
  • Feeling for rich and
  • Poor superstitious exploitations from the society.

The characteristic elements of social and cultural traditions should be regarded as rich source of values. The parents, teachers and society must initiate the young minds to promote cultural tradition by cooperating with others.

ii) Constitution

India became an independent country on August 15, 1947 and a democratic constitution was established on January 26, 1950.

The Indian society upholds a set of values namely democracy, socialism and secularism which guide the life of the individuals and group functioning.

These three basic values are stressed in the preamble of the Constitution of India as

We the people of India have solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and to provide security to all its citizens.
  • India constitution provides preferment for the basic values of democracy, socialism and secularism.
  • These values are the guiding principles for all individual and group functioning.

The principles relating to constitutional values are:

1. Democratic principles such as
  1. Freedom,
  2. Tolerance,
  3. Equality and respect for other’s view sharing and scientific temper of mind.
2. Socialist principles like
  1. Respect for equality in status and opportunity,
  2. Equitable distribution of wealth,
  3. Maximizing production of wealth
3. Secular principles such as
  • Respect for all religion,
  • Freedom of worship and management of civic affairs.

The idea of what values should be fostered through education has been best expressed in the Constitution of India.

The Indian Constitution has explicitly laid down fundamental duties of its citizens in Article 51A emphasizing that every Indian citizen would:

  1. Promote harmony and spirit of common brotherhood transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectoral diversities;
  2. Renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
  3. Develop the scientific temper;
  4. Protect and improve the natural environment;
  5. Value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
  6. Abjure violence and
  7. Strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavor and achievement.

The Constitution of India lays emphasis on the four pillars of democracy.

The four basic principles of our Indian constitution are:



  • Social,
  • Economic And
  • Political



  • Of Thought
  • Expression
  • Belief
  • Faith And
  • Worship



  • Of Rights And Opportunity And
  • To Promote Among Them All


  • Assuring The Dignity Of The Individual And
  • The Unity And Integrity Of The Nation.

The values expected from the citizens of the country can be seen in the ten fundamental duties laid down in the Constitution as follows:

  1. To abide by the Constitution and respect the National Flag and the National Anthem.
  2. To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom.
  3. To protect sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
  4. To defend the country.
  5. To promote the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all people of India.
  6. To preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
  7. To protect and improve the natural environment.
  8. To develop the scientific temper and spirit of enquiry.
  9. To safeguard public property.
  10. To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity.

The fundamental rights guaranteed in the Indian Constitution also reflecting the values held by the Indian nation are classified under seven groups:

  1. Right To Equality
  2. Right To Particular Freedom
  3. Right Against Exploitation
  4. Right To Freedom Of Religion
  5. Cultural And Educational Rights
  6. Right To Property
  7. Right To Constitutional Remedies

The directive principles of the Indian Constitution are aimed at establishment of economic and social democracy pledged for in the Preamble.

Our constitution assured provision for

  1. Promotion of basic values,
  2. Equality for all the citizens before the law and equality of educational opportunities,
  3. Justice in human spheres and freedom of faith and expression etc.

Apart from enacting suitable laws, Planning Commission has been formulating comprehensive Five-Year Plans for development and change in accordance with constitutional provisions and directive principles.

iii) Religion

All religions are friends and partners in the pursuit of spiritual life. All religions are bound together in a holy partnership to advance the cause of peace justice and freedom. - Dr. Radhakrishnan

Religion is not the only source of essential values; it certainly is a major source of value.

  1. There is no religion which does not emphasis values and virtues in the process of preparing noble human beings for tomorrow.
  2. Religion purifies man’s inner life and makes him fit for the pursuit of spirituality.
  3. It also deals with the spiritual and moral problems of the human beings.
  4. Religion teaches human beings the purpose of life and gives answer to several basic questions which worry them.
  5. It removes all kind of duality.
  6. The practice of religion transforms the
    • Man Into Universal,
    • Finite into infinite,
    • Self-centered into the self-expressive.

Religion is nothing but a spiritual quest. It is the reaction of the whole man to the whole reality.

According to Gandhiji’s view “Religions is the expression of the permanent nature of man. Religion purifies and elevates one’s nature. It arouses in man a sense of spiritual restlessness a kind of thirst which enables the individual to cultivate and develop a sense to the right and good and make him truly moral man”. Gandhi believes that religion involves a conscious and sincere love and striving for truth.

  • Tolerance, accommodation and love for humanity with universal outlook have been bases for peace in society.
  • Teachings of religious leaders and scriptures act as the good source of knowledge of reality and truth.

All religions advocate, professes and promote various values binding man back to its source and his fellow human beings and other creatures.

The values recognized by all religions include:






Hard Work




Mutual Cooperation


Respect For Others View

Purity Of Conduct

Selfless Action

Sacrifice Of One’s Pleasure For Others Etc.

In the words of Dr.S. Radhakrishnan

True religion is in the heart of man not in man-made creeds. It believes in the spiritual nature of man the essential divinity of the human soul. All religions emphasize this aspect. Man has within him the power by which he can rise to the heights of achievement. He shakes off shame and sorrow and conquers darkness.

Types Of Values

Classifying values has always been a complicated task and have been classified differently. This is due to the fact that there are no hard and fast rules to classify values as they are closely interlinked and interrelated.

  • Values are sometimes classified according to the needs and demands of the society.

11 Different Types of Values Are:

  1. Moral Values
  2. Personal Values
  3. Cultural Values
  4. Social Values
  5. Ethical Values
  6. Spiritual Values
  7. Aesthetic Values
  8. Behavioral Values
  9. Instrumental Values
  10. Intrinsic Values
  11. Democratic Values

1. Moral Values

Moral values are those values that enable an individual in making a distinction between right and wrong and good and bad etc.

  • It particularly refers to the conduct of man towards man in the various situations in which human beings come together.
  • They reveal a person’s self-control.

Examples of Moral Value:




Human Dignity



Sense Of Responsibility

Compassion Etc.

2. Personal Values

Personal Values are personal to an individual both in terms of their possession and their use. It is a desire and cherished by the individual irrespective of his or her social relationship.

  • Each and every individual like to imbibe these values at their personal level.
  • These values make a person good for himself.

Examples of Personal Value:










Dignity Of Labor











Purity etc.

3. Cultural Values

Cultural values are the standards of what is acceptable or unacceptable, important or unimportant, right or wrong in a community or society.

  • It gives importance to preserve cultural practices, ceremonies, traditions and way of life which might be threatened by the materialistic culture of modern times.
  • They maintain the integrity of language behavior and traditional rites.

Examples of Cultural Value:


Codes Of Conduct

Social Order




Love Etc.

4. Social Values

Social values are certain behaviors and beliefs that are shared within specific cultures and social groups. These values are cherished and practiced because of our association with others.

  • It imposes the interaction of two or more persons.
  • Social values are always practiced in relation to our:
    • Neighbors,
    • Community,
    • Society,
    • Nation and world.
These values are good for the society and form the basis of the relationship of an individual with other people in society.

Examples of Social Value:



Civic Duty




Trust And Truth

















Team Spirit

Tolerance Etc.

5. Ethical Values

Ethics are based on the awareness that a human being is essentially spiritual and intrinsically valuable.

  • A person with ethical values can be trusted and will be respected and revered.
  • Ethical values respect human rights through self-restraint, non-aggression, integrity, justice and honesty.
  • These values presuppose moral courage and the power to act according to one’s moral convictions even at the risk of financial, emotional or social security.
  • These values relate to our personal behavior with our fellow beings.
  • Among these we include values like honesty and truth etc.
  • All moral values are also covered under ethical values.

6. Spiritual Values

Spiritual values are characterized by the process of reflecting on non-material dimensions of life and acquiring insights into personal experiences which are of enduring worth.

  • They are related to soul and immaterial reality related.
  • They need not be religious values.
  • They are intangible and are not concerned with material things.
  • Spiritual values are eternal and they do not change.
  • They are real ideas.
  • They affect the individual in his relations with himself’.
  • These are concerned with the realization of the ‘Self’ and being one with ‘Divinity’.

Examples of Spiritual Value:





Pure Love







Devotion To God Etc.

7. Aesthetic Values

Values which give us pleasure and happiness are known as aesthetic values.

  • Aesthetic values represent and seek to emulate the beauty of the Divine through the arts.
  • Things and activities which gives joys of beauty are aesthetic values.

Examples of Aesthetic Value:

  • Beauty
  • Taste
  • Architecture
  • Calligraphy And Literature.

8. Behavioral Values

Behavioral values refer to all good manner that are needed to make our life successful and joyous.

  • They are those values which will express our conduct and behavior in our daily life.
  • Behavioural values will adorn our life and spread cordiality friendliness love all around.

Examples of Behavioral Value:

  • Cordiality,
  • Integrity,
  • Trustworthy,
  • Kindness,
  • Loyalty Etc.

9. Instrumental Values

Instrumental values are such values that are useful in deriving some other benefit through them such as economic gain or an increase in status.

  • A subject is said to have instrumental value when it is pursued not for its own sake but for some ends beyond itself.
  • Instrumental values include preparatory or introductory practical or utilitarian socializing and conventional values.

Example of Instrumental values:

  • Education,
  • Political Power Etc.

10. Intrinsic Values

Intrinsic value are values which are judged well not for something else but in and of themselves.

  • Intrinsic values are such values that are pursued and possessed for their own sake.
  • It refers to the value of an object has solely by virtue of its ‘intrinsic properties’.
  • Intrinsic values are said to be inherent in themselves.
  • They are supposed to be invaluable in an absolute sense.

Examples of Intrinsic Value:

  1. Goodness
  2. Beauty
  3. Artistic Expression
  4. Happiness
  5. Truth And Bliss.

11. Democratic Values

A person with democratic outlook is characterized by –

  • Respect for individuality equal treatment to all irrespective of their:
    • Sex,
    • Caste,
    • Language,
    • Religion,
    • Color,
    • Race,
    • Family,
    • Status, etc.
  • Ensuring equal social, political and religious rights to all impartially and Social justice and respect for the democratic institutions.

According to National Curriculum framework for School Education (2000)

Truth, righteous conduct, peace, love and non-violence are the core universal values that can become the foundation for building the value-based education programme.

Role Of School In Value Education

The development of values is influence by a complex network of environmental factors like –

  • Home
  • Peer group
  • Community
  • Media and the general ethos prevailing in the society.

Schools and teachers have an important role to play in this but the extent to which it can be effectively done depends upon the nature and extent of

  • School exposure
  • Physical conditions
  • Professional commitment and
  • Idealism of teachers

Schools by virtue of their institutional nature are eminently suited to contribute to some aspects of value development and are severely limited in relation to others this feature of schools should not be lost sight of.

How School Play An Important Role To Foster The Values In The Students

  1. Kindle the moral and aesthetic sensibilities of children through exposure to appropriate objects events and experiences.
  2. Helps students to understand and appreciate the values of democracy, secularism, social justice, scientific temper and other values supportive of social cohesion and national unity.
  3. Enhance awareness and sensitivity to moral aspects of major issues and concerns of modern life like
  4. Develop the ability to reflect with an open mind on the moral dimension of contemporary social events and incidents of everyday occurrence.
  5. Enable students to develop a concern for and commitment to these values and
  6. Provide appropriate opportunities for students to practice and live by these values.

B.M.T. Ramji in his book “Value-oriented School Education” has suggested that the students should be encouraged to acquire the following values:

  • Cleanliness
  • Courtesy
  • Service
  • Truth
  • Dignity Of Manual Work
  • Joy
  • Courage
  • Purity
  • Manual Work
  • Peace
  • Universal Love

Values Needed To Be Inculcated Among School Students

Care For Public Property



Consideration Of Others


Hard Work


Love For One’s Country



Scientific Temper



Service To People

Team Spirit


Need And Importance Of Value Education

Good values are the spontaneous manifestations of a sound character and values form the central pole around which our actions desires and ambitions are organized.

Importance of Values

  1. Values guide our behavior and give meaning to our existence.
  2. Values assist us to take right decisions and make choices.
  3. Values give direction and firmness to life and help us to be morally sound.
  4. Values set goals for achievements and they motivate define and color all our activities in cognitive, affective and conative domains.

Need And Importance Of Value Education

Value education has a special role in our country with different diversities in religion, ethnicities, cultures and language backgrounds.

  • Gandhiji’s considers value as an inseparable component in the full flowering and development of personality.
  • These values are also considered as determinants of human behavior.
  • They play a vital role in the lives of every individual.
  • Values are enduring and they facilitate standards that guide the conduct of human beings.

In this present modern era, there has been a substantial erosion of values. The fabric of society is being from and age-old ties are breaking up and hence value education aims to provide direction for

  • Personal,
  • Emotional,
  • Ethical,
  • Social,
  • Cultural,
  • Moral,
  • Humanistic and spiritual development.

There has been a rise in the number of cases of children with emotional disturbance, anti-social behavior, and drug abuse.

  • The magnitude of value crisis indicates the need for value education in schools and demands conscious planned persistent and purposive efforts by teachers.
  • Value education needs to be integral component of curricular and co-curricular activities.

Education becomes meaningless unless accompanied by knowledge of values.

  • Educated and intelligent people with poor values in life not only make their own life miserable but also bring more harm to the society than good.
  • The goals of education are not just to produce individuals with knowledge and memory but also to produce individuals with values.
  • Superstitious ignorance, intolerance and narrow perceptions lead to fights riots and war making life miserable to everyone.

The consumerist and commercial ethos of our times have made primary goal of education to be to acquire material success and power in goal of education to be to acquire material success and power in this competitive world.

  • As a result, the basic values like honesty and tolerance are neglected in personal and public life of people resulting in the rise of
    • Crime,
    • Violence,
    • Cruelty,
    • Greed and apathy to human sufferings.
  • There is a need to overcome the narrow castes, communalist, linguistic and regional divides among the people and to promote unity, social and national outlook.

Values of idealism altruism selflessness and service to fellow humans are vanishing from our life. There is also a need to develop sensitivity to the beauty of art literature craft and nature.

A number of modern values such as democracy, equality, liberty, fraternity, global perception, international co-operation, environmental protection of human rights has developed in recent decades.

  • These values are to be inculcated in the children right from childhood.
  • Children inherit their values from parents’, teachers and those around them.
  • The information on values they get from these sources has to be supplemented or corrected through value education in the school.
  • They should be made aware of the importance of leading value-based lives.
  • Values should be deliberately inculcated directly or indirectly so that along with mainstream curriculum they also acquire necessary knowledge and skills that prepare them to be responsible citizens.

The National Curriculum Framework (2005) stress on education for peace in schools as a counteracting measure to the unprecedented violence that exists globally nationally and locally.

Education without values is not Education at all. In these circumstances the need to reorient education and the school curricula with value education should receive priority.

  • There is a need for country wide concerted efforts in this respect.
  • A majority of the children are studying in schools today and they would become tomorrow’s full-fledged citizens.
  • Anything imbibed at an impressionable age would have long lasting effect.
  • If they come out of schools with a value-laden bent of mind, the country’s future would be in safe hands.

Define The Meaning Of Family Values

Family values sometimes referred to as familial values, traditional or cultural values (that is values passed on from generation to generation within families) that pertain to the family's

  • Structure,
  • Function,
  • Roles,
  • Beliefs,
  • Attitudes and ideals.

Family traditions are usually defined as ‘a combination of social ideals, personal attitudes, ideas and environment derived from our parents or relatives'.

While family values usually refer to how we frame our personal life in our relationship with our family members to maintain harmony.

  • The values of a family depend on the dynamics of the family.
  • It will also depend on education culture and the society in which the family lives.
  • The family values will be different for each family as well as for each generation.

As values are integrated with culture, religion, as well as socially determined attitudes, behaviors, and customs, an evaluative and critically questioning methodology, is required for the promotion of family values.

Character Education

What is Character Education?

Character education is an umbrella term generally used to describe the teaching of children in a manner that will help them develop as personal and social beings.

However, this definition requires research to explain what is meant by "personal and social being".

Concepts that fall under this term include:

  1. Social and emotional learning,
  2. Health education;
  3. Violence prevention,
  4. Moral reasoning or cognitive development,
  5. Life skills education,
  6. Ethical reasoning,
  7. Critical thinking,
  8. Conflict resolution and
  9. Mediation.

What Are The Principles Of Character Education?

11 Principles of Effective Character Education prepared by Lickona, Schaps, and Lewis (2000) are:

  1. Promote core ethical values as the basis of good character.
  2. Caring for communities.
  3. Define character comprehensively to include thinking, feeling, and behavior.
  4. Promote core values intentionally and proactively through all parts of school life.
  5. Give students opportunities for moral action.
  6. Have meaningful and challenging academic curriculums that respect learners.
  7. Have professionals who exemplify core values and maintain a moral community.
  8. Require moral leadership from educators and students.
  9. Develop students’ intrinsic motivation.
  10. Evaluate school character, student character, and adults as character educators.
  11. Recruit parents and community members as full partners.

Benefits Of Character Education In Schools

Schools that embrace character education become places people want to be because they bring out the best in everyone.

  • Comprehensive character education addresses many tough issues in education while developing a positive school climate.
  • It can be effective in any school setting, as our National Schools of Character demonstrate.
  • Character education includes and complements a broad range of educational approaches such as whole child education, service-learning, social-emotional learning, and civic education.
  • Character education share a commitment to helping young people become
    • Responsible,
    • Caring and contributing citizens.
  • Educators from this diverse array of schools have
    • Transformed their school cultures,
    • Reduced discipline referrals,
    • Increased academic achievement for all learners,
    • Developed global citizens, and
    • Improved job satisfaction and retention among teachers.

Students spend so much time in school, so schools offer a critically important opportunity to ensure that all students get the support and help they need to reach their full potential.

To be effective in schools,

  • Character education must involve everyone - school staff, parents, students, and community members - and be part of every school day.
  • It must be integrated into the curriculum as well as school culture.

When this happens and school communities unite around developing character, schools see amazing results.

  • Character education is not new and it is something we can all agree on.
  • It was an important objective for the first schools and today it is mandated or encouraged in most states.

The current movement is simply a reminder of education’s long history of stressing shared values and character.

Status Of Value Education In The Curriculum In India

Education was conceived as an effective means of attaining spiritual liberation from the bondage of ignorance.

India evolved different systems of education in accordance with the changing needs of the times.

  • The Gurukul system characterizes the most important feature of ancient Indian Education.
  • Under the Buddhist system, the attainment of liberation by the individual ceased to be the ultimate aim and the person who succeeded in acquiring enlightenment was expected to work for the good of the fellowmen instead of remaining satisfied with his own nirvana.

Ever since India achieved its political freedom, it has made systematic efforts to transform itself into a secular democratic republic.

This means that the education system must make its contribution to the development of habits, attitudes, and qualities of character which will enable its citizens to shoulder worthily the responsibilities of democratic citizenship.

Why Values Education Is Included In Our Curriculum

The Secondary Education Commission realizes the need for religious and moral instruction in schools stressed the importance of “the influence of the school through the conduct and behavior of teachers themselves.

With the rapid and unprecedented development and growth of democratization of education, the Indian school system has undergone a transformation from a restricted to a mass education system.

  • The aim of value education is to cultivate essential values in the students so that civilization helps them to develop.
  • Value education and its curriculum is to supplement education so that education becomes complete and realizes the objective of the whole man.
  • Curriculum can provide knowledge and understanding values.
  • In addition to the knowledge component, attitudinal aspects are also to be interwoven with the process of teaching-learning.
  • This will empower students to make an appropriate value judgment and to act accordingly when such a situation arises.
  • Teacher educators must have a planned, purposive, and conscious approach for the inculcation of values among teacher trainees.

According to the Indian Education Commission (1964-66),

“We would like to emphasize that the consciousness of values must permeate the whole curriculum and the program of activities in the school”.

The curriculum is expected to be a repository of values and the spirit of value education is visible when different subject matters are taught while transacting curriculum, teachers, and students become value-conscious, if this is applied in curricular and co-curricular activities of the school, then education and its curriculum is complete.

The value education curriculum should include the following according to the age of the students:

This helps the students to bring their values to the conscious level which in turn helps to harmonies and justify values.

Thus, value education is always essential to shape one’s life and to give him an opportunity of performing himself on the global stage. So, the value education curriculum should be framed to fulfill the above needs.

  • The moral and spiritual well-being of the nation should be promoted through a conscious and deliberate educational effort in the field of moral and spiritual values.

Present education system deals with imparting knowledge of “Apara Vidya” i.e., the study of

The knowledge which we possess through the present education system is Apara Vidya which means that although we have knowledge of the world, we do not have knowledge of our own self, of the supreme reality which is beyond time and space.

Today’s education system is designed in such a way that a human being will achieve materialistic success and superficial achievements but he will lack virtues like

  • Kindness,
  • Honesty,
  • Compassion,
  • Righteousness,
  • Peace,
  • Love,
  • Non-violence etc.

Human beings have become individualistic and self-centered.

  • This infuses in them jealously, Hatred and rivalry.
  • The stability of society is threatened by the breakdown of ethics.

The basic aim of education should be to produce men of knowledge and culture.

Values such as Patriotism, anti-untouchability, the dignity of individuals, endurance, social service, justice, national integration find no place in today’s world of

  • Corruption,
  • Violence,
  • Intolerance and money-making.

What Are The 5 Core Values?

Core values are universally accepted values by all major religions. But they are abstract and sub-values are more concrete and observable in behavior.

List Of Five Most Important Core Values

  1. Truth
  2. Peace
  3. Love
  4. Righteous Conduct
  5. Non-Violence

A brief description of these core values given by NCERT (1987) are as follows

1. Truth

Truth is the unchanging reality.

  • It is representing the real “I” or the diving principle in each of us.
  • The role of human intellect is to find out the truth.
When one realizes and experiences this truth, one sees that the same truth pervades every other person and object and in essence we all are one.

2. Peace

Peace is the end purpose of all human endeavors and it is a state of emotional equilibrium.

  • Peace and love are closely connected.
  • If love is blocked it will result in loss of peace. When the flow of love is restored, then peace returns.

3. Love

Love is the supreme value.

  • It is a form of energy which each individual transmits and receives.
  • The essence of value education is to train students to start the day with love, fill the day with love and to end the day with love.

4. Righteous Conduct

Truth in action be considered as right conduct.

  • It represents unity in thought, word and action of an individual.
  • It covers all aspects of life and concerned not only in one’s own welfare, but in the well-being of all.

5. Non-Violence

  • Non –violence means not to injure others either by our:
    • Thoughts,
    • Words, or action.
  • Non-violence is based on the understanding of oneness or underlying unity of all beings.

Rath’s Process Of Value Clarification

One educational approach to help students make values decision is the values clarification process outlined by Rath.

Rath’s process of values clarification is one method to help people identify values or make moral decisions.

  • Rath Values Clarification Process believes that every decision or choice an individual makes is based upon his beliefs, attitudes, and values.
  • Valuing activities allow the individual student the opportunity to identify a personal set of beliefs that aids in the decision-making process.

According to Rath, students need a systematic approach for the development of values. We should be less concerned with the individual value a person selects and more concerned with the process used to arrive at that value.

Rath assumes that educators know what processes are most effective in helping students develop their individual system of values.

7 Steps Of Value Clarification

Rath’s 7 step process of value clarification is listed below:

Step 1 - Choosing Freely

  • Students must be able to select values without coercion from others.
  • The facilitator needs to develop an environment which is conductive to allowing participants to express and choose their values without peer pressure or ridicule.

Step 2 - Choosing from Alternatives

  • As with any decision-making process, there must be at least two options (or in this case, values) from which to choose.
  • Obviously, if there is only one value to choose from, there is no choice involved.

Step 3 - Choosing after Thoughtful Consideration of the Consequences of Each Alternative

  • This calls for careful consideration of the risks and benefits of each alternative.
  • The consequences of each alternative must be identified before an intelligent decision can be made.

Step 4 - Prizing and Cherishing

  • If a person has truly developed a value, he/she should be willing to respect that value.
  • A value is only meaningful if the person believes that the value is worth prizing and cherishing.

Step 5 - Affirming

  • If a value has met the aforementioned criteria, then the person should be willing to publicly affirm and support that value position when appropriate.

Step 6 - Acting upon Choices

  • The value position one has selected should provide guideposts for behavior.
  • If the value is prized and cherished and selected from alternatives after weighing the consequences of each alternative, the person is likely to exhibit behaviors congruent with the value.

Step 7 - Repeating

  • A value position which serves as a guidepost for behavior tends to be applicable in a variety of situations.
  • A value position which influences one’s behavior tends to form a pattern in one’s life.

According to Rath, the process of values clarification is more important than the actual value selected. Unless a person satisfies all the criteria listed in the seven-step process, the results or position cannot be considered a value.

This method of defining a value, although somewhat concise, eliminates a variety of beliefs, attitudes, feelings, and opinions from consideration as values.

Instead, these terms have been labelled values indicators. They include

  1. Goals,
  2. Aspirations,
  3. Attitudes,
  4. Interests,
  5. Feelings,
  6. Beliefs,
  7. Activities, and worries.

What Is Value Crisis?

Value crisis in a society implies the erosion of traditional values of society or a situation of a dilemma when there is little balance between traditional values and modern values.

Causes Of Value Crisis

Crisis is not so much intellectual but rather moral and spiritual.

1. Distortion of values is partially due to imbalance between ancient values and explosion of knowledge in war field technology.

  • Atomic weapons, bio-weapon, explosives, missiles, etc., are threatening the whole of mankind.
  • Today the entire mankind is living in the shade of fear. Man’s very expense is at stake as he is indulging in wicked activities.
  • Developed countries possess all kinds of dreadful weapons and are trying to boss over all developed and underdeveloped countries.

2. There is a lack of development of sound moral vision among human being along with scientific and technological development.

  • Wealth worshipped as God; Pride has become a creed
  • Selfishness is entrenched in the intellect
  • Hypocrisy has become the hallmark of life
  • Love and affection have become lustful afflictions.
  • Compassion has dried up,
  • Gratitude has waned,
  • The ego is flaunted,
  • Desires become an adornment,
  • Righteousness has become merely a figurehead in the world.

Human beings can produce such powerful means of destruction like hydrogen and nuclear bombs that can destroy the whole world in no time.

3. The modern youth receiving education are losing their idealism and living in a spiritual vacuum.

  • Moral values have no respect now.
  • Human relations are becoming impersonal and secondary.
  • Man fails to distinguish between right and wrong, good and evil.
  • Religion has now become a private affair and stress is being laid on the secularization of social relationships.
  • The highest respect is being placed on wealth and power.

4. Even in this dynamic society, values, and standards do not change quickly and some of them, at any rate, have an abiding significance.

  • Cultural values, the gracious fruit of centuries of cooperative efforts, and moral values, which is distinguished, which distinguish men from animals, have been totally changed in these years.
  • The whole socio-political setting and physical environment in which they have to be worked out are in a state of constant transition and consequently, they have to be interrupted in the light of new conditions.

5. Prostitution, illegal marriages, broken home structure, divorce, etc., are also factors responsible for the decline of values.

  • Lack of mutual concern between parents at home, disaffection, and lack of securities in families are other factors responsible for the erosion of values.
  • The role of home, school, and society cannot be neglected in the degradation of values.

For instance: The living styles of parents leave a deep impression on the minds of children.

6. Loss of leadership among the teachers is another manifestation of the deterioration of values in modern society.

7. The older generations have lost their sense of morality. Therefore, the younger generation completely ignores the traditional or even any idea of the value system.

Value Crisis In Indian Society

At present, India is passing through a period of value crisis in several fields of national life.

  • It is generally being said that the life of individuals, as well as our social life, is plagued with the evil values of
    • Corruption,
    • Cynicism,
    • Disparity,
    • Disruption,
    • Hypocrisy and violence.
  • It is very unfortunate that our role models i.e., leaders of various shades fail to inspire us to pursue higher values of life.
  • Several conflicting ideologies are also at work.
  • On the one hand, there is the value crisis of Indianization and on the other hand value-crisis on account of overemphasis on modernization and westernization.

The Education Commission 1964-66 has observed,

“we believe that India should strive to bring science and the values of the spirit together in harmony and thereby pave their way for the eventual emergence of a society which would cater the needs of the whole man and not only to a particular fragment of his personality.”

Role Of Parents In Value Education

Role, Responsibilities, And Duties of Family And Parents in Fostering Value Education In Children

  • A spirit of understanding and sympathy has to be pervaded at the home, creates a sort of value education and knowledge.

For Instance:

  • From the age of 2to 5 the children look up to their mother, and so the mother’s behavior has to be very proper.
  • Teaching children ‘We must always speak the truth’, provides a way of ethical education.

Ninety percent of the blame for spoiling the behavior and character of children goes to the parents because they show unnecessary affections and give too indiscriminate freedom to them.

  • The endearing nature of parents is fading out rapidly in a mist of affected nature.
  • Most of the parents pay no attention to the anxieties of the growing child.
  • It is not all to shift the responsibility by admitting the child in a ‘Top School’ and washing their hands off the child.
  • The problems faced by children affect the smooth running of school life.
  • What is learned at school turns out to be quite contrary to what actually happens at home.
  • Whatever parents have to do, cannot be overdone at school, however, responsible teachers may be.

Knowledge can be given by the teachers; however, the discipline, the rigorous control of the senses and behavior must be administered by the parents so that the latter also practice the human values and reform their children. Then the children become sacred souls and holy individuals.

  • Parents must ensure that the right values are developed in children.
  • Parents must also volunteer themselves to initiate such efforts that could contribute to the process of inculcating values in society.
  • Plays, books, stories, and a congenial environment at home will help a lot in inculcating values.

Character is the most precious gift of education. Politics without principles, education without character, science without humanity, and commerce without morality are not only useless but positively dangerous. Present-day education develops intellect and basic skills but does little to develop good qualities.

It has been remarked by a great thinker that if a teacher is devoid of values, it is better to take to shopkeeping.

Role Of Teachers In Value Education

Role, Responsibilities, And Duties of Teacher in Fostering Value Education In Children

The influence of the school environment is expected to enable students to obtain social competence and individual development.

  • Such an expected influence largely depends upon the teacher’s positive role in creating and sustaining a conducive environment in the school.

A teacher should establish clear standards of behavior and encourage their students to behave

  • Towards himself,
  • Towards one another, And
  • Towards the whole community in an orderly and considerate way.

The teacher should, therefore, develop a rational acceptance of these standards in his students and also the ability to discriminate right from wrong.

Traditionally teachers are regarded as the torchbearers of the race and the makers of history. Although their role in this respect has diminished, still it must be admitted that they exercise their considerable influence on children.

Gandhiji has observed,

“The secret of teaching values is to inspire and kindle the quest among the students by means of one’s own example of character and mastery of knowledge. It is by embodying values within themselves that the teachers can really radiate values to their students”.

Mazumdar (1983) said,

  • Values cannot be taught through formal and direct teaching.
  • Values can be inculcated only when the institutions provide activity for it and experiences inside and outside the school that promote
    • Responsibility,
    • Cooperation,
    • Honesty,
    • Fair play, and
    • Self-control.
  • Education for values has to be based on the ideas of the supremacy of reasoning over anything else and not only unintelligent conformity.

One of the challenges before a modern teacher is how to make value education effective and interesting to the modern youth?

The present-day youth with all its potential and goodwill to learn seem to concentrate on all other academic subjects except value education. This poses a challenge to all concerned with the all-around development of the students through education.

  • There are occasions when children express wild impulses and passions, and often they are in revolt.
  • There are occasions when children get vexed, become sulky, and go on strike.
  • Children have their own daily battles of loyalties and friendship, and there are moments of desperate depression and of violent enthusiasm.

With patience and perseverance, the teacher can utilize all these occasions to show the truth and light and to awaken among the children the right sense and the right direction of true progress.

  • The important aspect in the role of a teacher is that they should set good examples of conduct and behavior which students may imbibe in themselves.
  • All occasions of daily life should be utilized by the teacher to bring his student nearer to the realization of the ideals.
  • Teachers have to be professionally prepared and made to internalize their role in value inculcation.

Role Of Teachers For Development Of Values

Since every teacher is a valued educator, it is expected that she/ he:

  1. Would be able to analyze his own biases and attitude towards students.
  2. Would evolve a positive approach to authentic orientation related to different religions-related values.
  3. Would develop a clear vision of his role in value orientation.
  4. Would be able to devise a number of innovative ways for value education to be applied in the classroom.
  5. Would be able to identify the potential of different subjects and situations in school for fostering universal human values and be sensitized about his own influences as role models.
  6. Would be able to incorporate moral themes while teaching subjects.
  7. Would be able to delineate stage-specific strategies.
  8. Would be a good communicator.

Teachers are a role-model for the students. Their actions convey more than their words.

  • Teacher makes a maximum impact on the personality of a student in the formative years.
  • Students learn values from what the teachers are rather than from what they say.
  • Students imbibe virtues and vices knowingly and unknowingly from these role models.

Teachers demonstrate the appropriate behavior of their students by their actions.

  • Teachers must have a healthy attitude and should possess rich values.
  • Teacher should act as a friend, philosopher, and guide.
  • Teaching is all about attitude-positive/ negative towards their job of imparting quality education.

A teacher is not only a source of information but is also a mentor and guardian. For this teacher must respect the teaching profession, love her subjects and students, Students will seek inspiration from teachers who have high self-esteem.

A decade back or so the role of a teacher was limited to being a source of information. But today this place is shared by

  • Books,
  • Coaching classes,
  • Multimedia technology etc.

So, the role of a teacher is marginalized.

In modern times we are experiencing transition, the role of a teacher has increased manifold.

  • A teacher can maintain values and nurture them.
  • A teacher has an immense potential of bringing about a sea change in society by demonstrating essential values of head and heart.

How Can A Teacher Inculcate Moral Values In Students?

Teacher can impart values in students by giving them instructions through discussion, experimentation, and lectures and in the following mentioned ways:

  1. Teachers should give importance to cooperative learning.
  2. Teachers can maintain a case-study register to closely observe the students and note down the positive and negative traits of their personalities.
  3. By organizing cultural and sports events values like team spirit, sharing, the spirit of cooperation, patience, courtesy, etc can be imparted.
  4. Teacher must explain to the students the importance of meditation& yoga practices for realization or the attainment of oneness with God.
  5. Every day a teacher must spend at least 5 minutes on moral lecturing.
  6. “Thought for the Day” should be employed in assemblies. Moral thoughts trigger in them moral thinking.
  7. Teachers should also tell the students to maintain a spiritual diary in which they will surrender themselves to God and take an oath to follow the path shown by him.
  8. Impart knowledge of foreign languages to make them know different cultures.
  9. Organize games, excursions, visits to places of historical importance. Club activities like nature club, literary club, wildlife prevention club, social service camps, blood donation, etc.
  10. Teacher must tell the students to go to the libraries- the treasure house of knowledge. Classics available in the library are morally rich and inspiring.
  11. Suicidal tendencies in students should be curbed. They must be prepared by the teacher to face the challenges of a life fearlessly and with courage.
  12. Skits, role plays propagating moral values can be performed by students under the guidance of the teacher.

The most important agent for building the character of the student is a teacher.

Swami Vivekananda says that

Character is nothing but a bundle of habits formed through repeated acts. It comes through “Samskaras” or past impressions. Character building can change the nation. A strong foundation is required for a strong building, strong character is required for nation-building.

Thus, the Teachers Society plays an important role in the nation-building by character building of the students.

  • The best and the greatest profession in the world is that of a teacher because the future of a nation depends upon the type of teachers who shape the future generations.
  • Every teacher plays the most important role in shaping the students as enlightened citizens.

Swami Vivekananda’s words should not be forgotten by the teachers- “Arise, Awake and Stop not till the goal is achieved”.

Role Of Peer Groups In Value Education

Peer group is

  • Age-matched,
  • Like-minded,
  • Harmonious relationship between people of equal status, or an informal group.
It can meet the young people for friendship, security, self-esteem, identity, and many other needs, and thus into the peer group values and behavior of children and young people formed an important source of influence.

Youth are interested in participating in peer group activities, and loyal to the peer groups.

  • Peer group is a prime factor in society which influences the values of children.
  • The peer group persists as a factor of environment throughout life, of course changing with time and maturity, but forcing the individual to live up to his/her “reputation” in the group.
  • Furthermore, peer group’s values and interest are mostly influenced by positive and negative peer pressure.

When children are small, their minds are not developed enough to understand such things, but as they grow older more and more peer pressure situations start arising.

  • Peer pressure is the psychological force exerted by another, or orders, in equal standing, which often influences one into acting or behaving in a manner that is generally inconsistent with one’s normal behavior.
  • Both children and adults fall victim to peer pressure. It is human nature to be influenced by someone who is a part of our friend circle and to be tempted to do whatever he/she is doing.

Positive Effects Of Peer Pressure:

Peer pressure is something that impacts child’s life in a positive way.

  1. Parents can use child’s peers to their advantage by making use of positive peer pressure tactics.
  2. Positive peer pressure helps children to acquire
    • Good values,
    • Attitude,
    • Habits and
    • Behavior.
  3. Parents should appreciate the good qualities of their child’s friends to motivate the child to follow the same.
  4. At times friends can help them give an altogether new perspective and attitude towards life, through sharing of opinions and thoughts.
  5. They learn to accept the point of view of other people and become more sociable.
  6. It can shape their personality and thought process and help them become better human beings.
  7. Children’s life can certainly change for better by using positive peer pressure.

Role Of Religion In Value Education

Religion is nothing but a spiritual quest. It is the reaction of the whole man to the whole reality.

Religious value is

  • The faith in God,
  • An attempt to understand God,
  • Fear of divine worth and thinking,
  • Believing and behaving according to ethical codes prescribed in the religious books, religious leaders and teachings.
  • The religious values are expressed through behavior are going on pilgrimage, worshipping God and speaking truth.

According to Swami Krishnananda, “Religion is the language of the spirit in man. It is the urge of the soul within, the response of the whole that is man to the call of the Absolute.”

Bertocci (1951) says, “The essence of religion is the personal belief that one’s most important values are sponsored by, or in harmony with the enduring structure of the universe whether they are sponsored by society or not.

According to Gandhiji’s view “Religions is the expression of the permanent nature of man. Religion purifies and elevates one’s nature. It arouses in man a sense of spiritual restlessness, a kind of thirst which enables the individual to cultivate and develop a sense to the right and good and make him truly moral man”.

Vivekananda says, “Of all the forces that have worked and are still working to mound the destiny of the human race, none certainly is more potent than the manifestation of which we call religion.”

Values Recognized By All Religions

The values recognized by all religions include:

  1. Truth,
  2. Goodness,
  3. Respect for others view,
  4. Purity of conduct,
  5. Non-violence,
  6. Hard work,
  7. Determination,
  8. Forgiveness,
  9. Contentment,
  10. Beauty,
  11. Modesty,
  12. Mutual cooperation,
  13. Love,
  14. Selfless action,
  15. Sacrifice of one’s pleasure for others etc.

Every religion encourage man to lead life in consonance with these values in order to achieve spiritual bliss or self- realization.

According to Dr. Radhakrishnan ‘All religions are friends and partners in the pursuit of spiritual life. All religions are bound together in a holy partnership to advance the cause of peace, justice and freedom’.

The major religions of world like Hinduism, Christianity and Islam have a common teaching, connotations, orientations for humanity, therefore, they all three show equal or same communication in the pursuit of spiritual life.

Disciplines of Religion

Religion involves two disciplines i.e.

  1. An external part which is expressed in ceremonies or Shariyats or Karmkands. The external part differs from religion to religion and communities and is dependent upon time and climate of the place.
  2. Inner discipline i.e. Spiritual part. The inner part is the same in all religions.

All religions advocate, profess and promote various values, binding man back to its source and his fellow human beings and other creatures.

Values In Hinduism

Hinduism is one of the oldest and powerful religion of the world. Vedas are one of the oldest literatures of the world which means knowledge.

Fundamental Values In Hinduism:

The most fundamental values in Hinduism are:

  • Self-control,
  • Truthfulness,
  • Ahimsa,
  • Self-realization,
  • Love and satisfaction.

Chief Characteristics Of Hinduism

According to Dr. Radhakrishnan “The Hindu Method of religious reform is essentially democratic. It allows each group to get to the truth through its own tradition by means of discipline of mind and morals. Each group has its own historic tradition and assimilation of it is the condition of its growth of spirit ...”

The chief characteristics of Hinduism is:
  1. It is an attempt to know reality as against appearance,
  2. Morality constitutes an integral part of Hinduism, Modern Hindu ethics discards caste system.
  3. Maya is material cause of the universe.
  4. Ethics starts from the path of positive action and gradually progresses on the path of liberation.
  5. It accepts experience as a base for test of truth.
  6. It promotes ideals of Purusharthas (doctrine of life) with its four ends namely, Artha, Kama, Dharma, Moksha to realize through four ashramas of
    • Brahmacharya,
    • Grahastha,
    • Vanaprastha and
    • Sanyas.
  7. Mystic experience is a vital factor of Hinduism and it is included in all the religions of the world.
  8. Brahman or Atman is the ultimate reality.

Value Education In Islam

Islam is one of the major religions of the world. It represents

  • A complete way of life,
  • A code of conduct,
  • A unique ideology,
  • A system of values,
  • A socio-economic order and
  • The doctrine of faith in oneness of allah (God).

Islam is the complete and perfect code of life for all the human beings. According to teachings of Mohammad Islam does not admit any dualism in human nature. Man is integral of body and soul.

Islam preaches and promotes the following behavior-based values:

  1. Honesty
  2. Forgiveness
  3. Humility
  4. Politeness
  5. Sympathy
  6. Goodness
  7. Reliability
  8. Patience
  9. Courage

Christianity And Value Education

The faith of Christianity is centered in Jesus Christ, who is called the God.

  • Education is regarded as an important activity in Christianity.
  • Education to a Christian is a means of true moral life, enabling the child to learn how to serve the individual as well as society.

Christianity insists the following nine Godly habits that will change anybody’s life. They are:

  1. Live with a clear conscience.
  2. Finish what you start.
  3. Strive for excellence in all what you do.
  4. Spend time regularly with God in prayer and bible study.
  5. Handle criticism in a Godly manner.
  6. Live by faith.
  7. Live by discernment. Be a giver.
  8. Be peaceful
  9. Avoid strife

Role Of Indian Government In Value Education

Government acts as a facilitator for greater participation in the field of education.

  • Government takes steps to make higher education more relevant and purposeful and impart to the students, skills, and knowledge that are relevant to the current trends of society.
  • Government has established various organizations to propagate truth, goodness, and beauty. They also impart cultural values among the Indian citizens.

The report of the Indian Parliamentary standing committee (January 1999) rightly points out that there has been continuous erosion of values in our society, which is reflected in our day-to-day life.

The National Curriculum Framework of School Education, India – 2005 also voices serious concern over the erosion of values in our society and stresses the need for inculcating values in children to bring about desirable change in society.

It is said that education is an instrument for social change and social control and it is the only means for bringing about desirable changes in society.

  • So urgent steps must be taken to inculcate values in children.
  • Families, as well as schools that lay the foundation for future citizens, must undertake the task of inculcating values in children at once.
  • Hence the society has the responsibility to ensure that values are inculcated in children and a congenial environment is created to nurture values.

But even after so many years of independence, we have not brought about desirable changes in society. Thus, the progress of a nation and society depends on how much value the citizens attach to their duties to the nation, society, and to fellow citizens.

Role Of Mass Media In Value Education

The mass media is responsible for both reflecting values of a society and fostering values to a good extent.

Forms Of Mass Media

The most important and prominent forms of mass media are

  • Television,
  • Magazines,
  • Radio,
  • Newspapers,
  • Pamphlets,
  • Books,
  • Movies,
  • Internet,
  • Music etc.

Main Functions Of Mass Media

The main functions of mass media are

  • Interpretation,
  • Surveillance,
  • Linkage and entertainment.

Role Of Mass Media Is Transmission Of Values

One subtle but extremely important role of mass media is the transmission of values. It has also been called the socialization function.

Socialization refers to the ways an individual comes to adopt the behavior and values of a group. The mass media’s portrayal of society plays a vital role in molding the audience’s psychology.

The media influences the behavior pattern of persons in a different manner. Each of them evolved as a powerful medium in its own way.

  • Values lie at the core of society. Media evolved and become part of society over the years.
  • Both tradition and modernization contribute to the development of values.
  • Media is far-reaching and it makes or breaks values.
  • Mass media is the direct and responsible authority to communicate and train the child to the desires and demands of the standard form of culture.
  • Mass media plays a significant role in bringing positive social change, particularly with respect to education and creating awareness.
  • The mass media have a strong social and cultural impact upon society. This is projected upon their ability to reach a wide audience with a strong and powerful message.

Mass media with the advent of new technologies carry the news even to the remotest village the moment it happened in any part of the world.

Media should play a constructive role in society’s development and educate the masses about our community values and tradition.

It is high time we realize our own culture and start nurturing it in the young minds instead of blindly following ideologies imported from other countries.

Role Of Voluntary Organization In Value Education

Voluntary organizations are independent organizations that are established for the purpose of adding value to the community as a whole, or a significant section of the community and which are not permitted by their constitution to make a profit for private distribution.

  • Voluntary organizations work for promoting the mental and moral welfare and improvement of the community.
  • They contribute by providing humanitarian aid and meditation, empowerment of society, etc.

Methods Of Teaching Value Education

The task of inculcating values is not an easy task. Some of the Methods and strategies of fostering values in students and children are:

  1. Dramatization
  2. Story Telling
  3. Personal Examples
  4. Role Plays
  5. Group Singing
  6. Value Clarification
  7. Anecdotes
  8. Questioning
  9. Group Activities
  10. Reflective Process

1) Dramatization

In today’s increasingly polarized and intolerant culture, the ability to understand others’ motives & choices is crucial. 

  • Dramatization help to build responsible global citizens.
  • Drama accomplishes several goals at once enriching students’ school experience through art as well as reinforcing traditional academics.
  • Drama can be used to promote active learning in any subject to give students a kinesthetic and empathetic understanding as well as an intellectual understanding of a topic.

Story dramatization is identified as one of the expressive arts that are concerned with children’s inner imaginative thought and their spontaneous dramatic action in creative ways.

  • Using dramatization in the classroom will stimulate awareness of the importance of acting truthfully and honestly, helping to recognize how our behavior affects others.
  • A dramatization in young children’s expression is
    • Spontaneous,
    • Improvised, and a
    • Creative enactment.
  • Nowadays dramatic arts are an important means of stimulating creativity in problem-solving.
  • Dramatic exploration can provide students with an outlet for emotions, thoughts, and dreams that they might not otherwise have the means to express.
  • It can challenge students’ perceptions about their world and about themselves.

2) Story Telling

Stories on the life of great men and women, saints and heroes will kindle the spirit of inquiry & promote higher ideals and understanding of human values.

  • Storytelling is both an art as well as science.
  • If used effectively, this technique has great potential of inculcating all values.
  • The main aim of storytelling is to elevate man’s spirit and to cultivate an inner vision that makes man finally realize his real self and inculcate certain values in life.

Stories have always been considered to be the best way to get across an important value-based message.

  • The stories present accounts of the personal view that people take of life, people, things, and events.
  • These could be around a personal life experience or somebody else's experience, either obtained first hand or by word of mouth or drawn from the literature.
  • These experiences serve the purpose of providing inspiration to people especially to boost their spirits in times of stress and conflict and may give a new direction to the life of a person.
  • The emphasis has to be on drawing lessons directly and or indirectly appropriate to the age of the students.
  • Stories and examples of the lives of men of eminence can include the emphasis that greatness achieved is not sudden but through patience, perseverance and practice.

The study of religious stories highlighting the essentials of all religions would be rewarding as a step towards harmony among religions as basic teachings of all great religions of the world are the same.

  • The narration of such stories by parents and teachers can be most effective particularly in the junior classes.
  • At the post-elementary stage, it is essential that students are given time to study the lives of great religious and spiritual leaders of all important faiths.
  • Every county has a treasure house of legends and folktales and stories of the exemplary life of great men and women which become a potent source to communicate values.

Storytelling is a powerful technique as it leaves a perennial impression on the minds of children.

3) Personal Examples

Our youngsters can learn from the life experiences of great and noble persons like:

  • Gandhi,
  • Dhyan Chand,
  • Tagore,
  • Abraham Lincoln,
  • Jagadish Chandra Bose,
  • Abdul Kalam Etc.

The lives of all great men remind us that we can also make our lives sublime.

Personal examples help students

  • To deepen understanding, motivation, and responsibility with regard to making personal and social choices;
  • To inspire individuals to choose their own personal, social, moral, and spiritual values and be aware of practical methods for developing and deepening them.
  • Autobiographies, biographies, and experiences of great and noble persons also provide inspiring values to the learners.

4) Role Plays

Students generally take pleasure in playing the role of other persons. This technique is basically a socio-drama technique. It provides an ideal setting for highlighting values.

Role-plays are used as a methodology for inculcating values where the emphasis is not on the acting capabilities but on the projection of ideas or values and analysis of the same. The analysis brings out why a person should or should not accept the value in question and act on all occasions upholding the same.

Advantages Of Role Play Method

According to K.H. Hoover (1976), role-play has the following advantages:

  1. The technique provides the learner with new insights into possible responses to social situations.
  2. An analysis of the dramatized situation stresses factors that contribute to actual feeling reactions.
  3. The enactment of selected situations provides a valuable opportunity for discussion of actual feeling reactions.
  4. Role-plays can be conducted according to the age groups.
  5. The role-playing technique combines the joy of acting with learning.
  6. To live for a short while in the shadow of another person offers a significant opportunity for insight into another person’s feelings.
  7. The process of acting out helps in better understanding and reinforcing the importance of values.
  8. A simulation of reality may be superior to reality itself for instructional purposes.
  9. The feelings often concealed in real life come forth during the role-playing sessions.

The whole process of teaching through role-plays revolves around

  • Acting out the story
  • Depicting certain values
  • Miming
  • Reporting involving, the processes of seeing, judging, acting, and internalizing.

5) Group Singing

Group signifies unity, towards a common purpose or goal, co-operation, discipline, self-restraint, and the spirit to accommodate.

Group singing is important as values in the lyrics of the song remain in the consciousness for a long time.

Selection of song is important. These could be chosen to reflect good thoughts and feelings of

  • Sacrifice,
  • Love of nature,
  • Universal love,
  • Motherland,
  • Respect for one's heritage and other's culture.

6) Value Clarification

The process of acquiring values begins at birth.

  • Values develop through life and evolve from life experiences.
  • They are formed by combing:
    • Intellect,
    • Will,
    • Emotions, and
    • Spiritual needs.

Value clarification is a technique for encouraging students to relate their thoughts and their feelings and thus enrich their awareness of their own values.

  • Through exercises and discussion, students should be made aware of the influences on their values, and explore and acknowledge what they truly value in their lives.
  • As values are the driving force behind most of your decisions and actions, the class activities should focus on engaging students in exercises that force them to wrestle with their values as they apply to subjects such as
    • War,
    • Family,
    • Future, and
    • A whole range of human relationships and situations.

7) Anecdotes

Anecdotes like stories, present a variety of perspectives on certain life situations, different ways one could experience and understand things that are important in one's life.

Anecdotes are accounts of real-life experiences which portray genuine human feelings and expressions. It could be an event, which created a lasting impression on a person's mind touched the core of heart, and may have brought about a shift in the course of life.

The anecdotes help in

  • Communicating the matter in a user-friendly manner,
  • Understanding the matter by making abstract, concrete, and easily comprehensible;
  • Motivating and inspiring people to reflect,
  • Think deeply about the situations.

These also help in

  • Learning about different perspectives and choices and skills in dealing with conflicts,
  • Identifying with those living by the values;
  • Events and day to day situations;
  • Providing a contextual understanding of the varied situations;
  • Evoking emotions and feelings.

8) Questioning

Questioning is one of the commonly used techniques in traditional classroom teaching to test knowledge and grasp of materials learned by students.

  • Questioning is an art and skill which can also be used for
  • Its intended purpose is basically to raise the curiosity of students and elicit involvement for active learning.
  • Thus, the type of thinking it provokes depends on the type of questions asked.

Most of the questions which teachers ask in the class are those for which they already know the answer.

  • Over 90% of the questions asked by the teachers call for information given in the textbooks.
  • These questions are highly structured.
  • Closed types of questions are commonly used by providing only one correct answer to the question.
  • Open-ended questions are rarely used. The open-ended question provides opportunities for students to explore new ways of looking at or thinking about problems.

Selection of appropriate format of questions is also important.

  • The format may be verbal, non-verbal, symbolic, pictorial depending on the subject area and the context.

In values development, processing questions are helpful in making the students understand better their feelings and thoughts about the value being developed.

9) Group Activities

Group activities provide opportunities for learning many values concurrently.

  • The development of fundamental values of love, tolerance, cooperation, peaceful co-existence, respect for others is important.

By working in groups, students learn the value of each other's sincere efforts, the joy of doing one's best for the good of the whole group.

  • Role plays, games, group discussions, group projects, etc. are part of group activities that could be used in the teaching subjects as well.
  • The manner in which such activities are meaningfully organized is important.

10) Reflective Process

A key implication for values education is allowing time for reflection.

  • Too much of the work in schools is busy work, frenetic work, which may or may not be productive.
  • Even if it is productive, it is rarely balanced with peace, calmness, and time for oneself.
  • If students are given time and space for thinking back on their experiences, they can then begin to see
    • What is important to them,
    • Where mistakes are being made,
    • Where things can be improved and so on.

How it is possible to do this in an already over-packed school schedule?

This is for the school to decide and prioritize.

In any case, the significant point to remember is that any kind of activity must be followed by reflection on a particular experience. Reflection is not enough on its own. What matters is the effect it will have on self.

It is often said that action without reflection is just busyness.

The real benefit of reflection is to be able to see things in a new light. The ability to effect change in one's attitude is perhaps the greatest strength of reflective practice.

Pedagogy Of Values

Pedagogy refers to the art and science of teaching, the way teachers accompany learners in the process of their growth and development. It is not just about teaching the subject content but the entire gamut of relationships, processes, and strategies which are designed to enhance learning.

The pedagogy of values has to be different from the conventional pedagogy based on the Banking Model of Education which places greater emphasis on contents instead of the learner.

  • The banking model of education focuses on the teacher as the principal source of a student’s knowledge.
  • Students are empty vessels into which knowledge must be poured.
  • Interaction between the teacher and the student is minimal.
  • At the end of the year, an examination is set out to see how much knowledge, the student has retained.
  • This kind of model provides major attention to the teacher who stands at the front.

The pedagogy for values, on the other hand, is grounded on the philosophy that children construct their own theories of how the world works, though their minds are less developed than those of educated adults.

  • Teaching for values is not like teaching any other school subject. It is about teaching the learner how
    • To think about something,
    • To reflect,
    • Appreciate one’s own values and those of others,
    • Develop better communication,
    • Critically evaluate,
    • Better decision-making so that the concepts ultimately find their way into behaviors and actions.
  • It is not confined to the cognitive level but covers the affective and behavioral levels.
  • For example, understanding any concept like cooperation is not enough. Ultimately, the task is to ensure that cooperation becomes one’s internal disposition.
  • Attitudes, values, and skills cannot be developed by forcing students to memories words, and also not by impositions.
  • Experiences and opportunities must be given to internalize such attitudes and values, which can be sustained in the long run. The learner can only then take a conscious decision of practicing values, consciously and responsibly.

FOR EXAMPLE : There can be many ways to instill the understanding of compassion.

  • It can be imbibed by experience, the environment of love and kindness at home and school.
  • It can instill by studying the lives of people who are famous for their comparison.
  • It can be nurtured by exposing students to the sufferings of others and by learning to serve the needy and disadvantaged.
  • The pedagogical demand for such a kind of learning is thus to move away from the traditional banking model to an experiential or participatory model.

This model assumes that it is not what you teach but how you teach, that is important, and that is the essence of education for value.

Whole School Approach In Value Education

In the whole-school approach, value education is woven into the totality of educational programs in schools where value education does not form a mere appendage of all other subjects but would stand out as an over-arching concern of basic importance.

  • The methods of teaching that are used by teachers,
  • The amount of freedom/initiative they enjoy,
  • The books that students read,
  • The school activities that are favored or not favored,
  • The methods of evaluation, promotion, the way teachers are treated,
  • The manner in which particular events are celebrated and are chosen to exemplify their significance,
  • The kind of people serving on the school board and
  • The way administrative staff functions is monitored etc., reflect and symbolize values.

The school atmosphere is surcharged with positive values to imbibe and internalize.

  • Every teacher is a teacher of values.
  • Teachers are properly oriented to create such an environment for children where those values become vibrant.
  • Their role is to put the child on the right path not by imposing but by watching, suggesting, helping.
  • Each unit of study in the textbook for different subjects is related to value concerns through exercises, examples and questions/discussions, etc. as far as possible.
  • Values permeate the formal curriculum as well as hidden curriculum and the pedagogical approach.

Factors Essential For The Success Of Whole School Approach

This approach requires conscious attempt and proper planning. Teacher-student interaction requires a great deal of openness.

  • It requires certain pedagogical skills as teachers are required to integrate the relevant values in their lessons in different subjects or in other activities outside the classroom.
  • The subject matter is not only important but the total school management, the administrative staff are geared towards value education.
In such an approach, some ways of knowing the impact of value education in terms of
  • Appreciation/awareness,
  • Solving value dilemmas,
  • Exhibiting value-based behavior, etc. is considered important.

Assumption in The Whole School Approach

The underlying assumption in the whole school approach is integration.

  • It is the integration of an individual’s concern with society, with his/her physical and ecological environment, and the diversity within the culture.
  • It is the integration and harmony within self and others around.
  • It is the integration of all the aspects of the development of students.

It is the integration of

  • Formal curriculum,
  • Hidden curriculum,
  • Pedagogical strategy, and
  • The evaluation system in the school.

An integrated approach is considered to be effective because the school, environment, creates a variety of contexts through the totality of educational experiences for students to explore, think, reflect and internalize positive dispositions and values.

Five Steps For Inculcation Of Values Through School Programmes

The following five steps have been identified for the inculcation of values through school programs:

  1. Knowing
  2. Believing
  3. Making Judgement
  4. Action
  5. Spontaneous Action

Step 1 - Knowing:

The child must be made aware of the values through programmes.

Step 2 - Believing:

Children must develop faith in these values.

Step 3 - Making Judgement:

The child must be provided with conflicting situations to judge the implications of related values.

Step 4 - Action:

The child may be encouraged to practice these values in actual life situations.

Step 5 - Spontaneous Action:

The various programs of the schools must take the child to the stage where the practice of values may become spontaneous and immediate.

Values Inculcation

Values Inculcation is known to be the oldest and most commonly used strategy. It is a direct teaching method through the use of

  • Lectures,
  • Songs,
  • Stories,
  • Poems,
  • Reinforcement techniques,
  • Games and simulation techniques.

Multi-media (film-showing, tapes, and slides) are identified to be very effective in inculcating or transmitting values concepts in Science and Technology.

  • There are many science concepts and values that can be directly taught from the lives of scientists.
  • This can be presented to project the scientists as normal human beings who succeeded because of their qualities and values which they have developed through their
    • Hard work,
    • Persistence,
    • Devotion and genuine commitment.
  • Direct teaching through moralizing, however, is recognized to have limitations especially for adolescents who by nature are indifferent or react negatively to techniques of prodding, nagging, and pure lecturing.

Values inculcation strategies may be used more effectively if these are preceded or accompanied by meaningful experiential and clarifying activities.

Values Inculcation Analysis

Values Analysis is a problem-solving type of strategy where,

  1. The students identify a problem or purpose of the learning activity,
  2. Gather evidence for positive and negative positions about the situations, and then
  3. Make inferences and conclusions that will represent their convictions about the value-learning situations.

Individual or group analysis of news materials, local issues/situations, speeches, science reports, collages, etc., are corresponding learning events.

Value Clarification

Value clarification strategy is an attempt at explaining the process of acquisition of values of children.

  • According to the authors of this concept, this strategy has important implications for teachers for facilitating and structuring the learning situations relating to values.
  • The concept of value clarification was coined by L.E. Rathus, M.F. Harmin, and S.B. Simon in 1966.

Value clarification is used for problematic situations, with conflicting alternatives or equally competing values.

  • It aims at helping students look closely at their ideas, behavior, attitudes thereby clarifying themselves what they really value.
  • This strategy allows one to choose one out of the two, reflect on what is chosen and what is valued by the person.
  • Imposing one's own ideas or moralizing what the teacher thinks is right or wrong is deliberately avoided.

Value Clarification Strategies

Value Clarification Strategies Commonly Used In Teaching

  • Values Clarification Strategies aim to let the learners clarify their positions, thoughts, and feelings about certain situations by going through the valuing processes of choosing, prizing, and acting.

Learning activities for the valuing experiences may be in the form of

  • Group dynamics,
  • Co-operative learning,
  • Discussions,
  • Guided imagery,
  • Role-playing, and many more.

Group dynamics and cooperative learning has been found to be very effective in encouraging students to learn

  • Openness,
  • Self-expression,
  • Conflict management,
  • Sharing,
  • Collaboration,
  • Communication skills,
  • Team building,
  • Leadership/followership,
  • Collective decision making,
  • Brainstorming skills,
  • Group evaluation,
  • Group reporting, and group synthesizing, among others.
These values are enhanced on top of the content of the lesson being developed.

The Kothari Commission has rightly observed,

“The expanding knowledge and the growing power which it places at the disposal of modern society must, therefore be combined with the strengthening and deepening of the sense of social responsibility and a keener appreciation of moral and spiritual values”.

  • Inculcation of desirable values in the pupils is felt essential for meeting out the crisis of character.
  • In a situation that is rapidly developing, it is equally important for us to give a proper value orientation to our educational system.

How To Foster Values Through Curricular Activities?

The task of the teacher is to contribute to the process of fostering genuine values. Every subject can be means of building good character and values.

Some examples are given below:

  1. Language
  2. Science
  3. Social Sciences
  4. Geography
  5. Civics
  6. Economics
  7. Mathematics

1) Language:

In language through conversation and discussion, the teacher educator can enable students to embody higher and noble ideas.

2) Science:

Everything in nature has a lesson to teach. For example,

  • We can say while blowing up a balloon, if a person blows too much air into it, it will burst.
  • Similarly, if we are too greedy and acquire more material wealth sooner or later, we will have problems.

3) Social Sciences:

Through social science in general we can develop values like

  • Secularism,
  • Socialism,
  • Hard work and democracy etc.

4) Geography:

Through geography, we can develop values of

  • Conservation,
  • Preservation, adventure, etc.

5) Civics:

Through civics, we can develop values of

  • Cooperation,
  • Obedience of law,
  • Sense of mutual welfare,
  • Concern for the environment etc.

6) Economics:

Through economics, a teacher can lay emphasis on the value of thrift and saving, which lead to the prosperity of a person.

7) Mathematics:

In mathematics, there is a wide scope of imparting values like

  • Neatness,
  • Accuracy,
  • Proper planning etc.

Thus, we can say that education and values go hand in hand and values are inherent in every module of learning; even co-curricular activities can serve as a sound base for the inculcation of values among students.

How To Develop Values Through Co-Curricular Activities?

Dr.Radha Krishnan said,We must realize the talents of the children and help them to become what they are to the full potential. It is the machine that constructs; it is the living spirit that creates. Song, dance and literature are creative activities”.

As the students spend a lot of their time at school, it demands that we should set fresh goals for attainment in the personal, emotional, social, moral, and spiritual fields of human development.

The co-curricular activities naturally help in the smooth running of the school and make the children

  • Strong,
  • Steady,
  • Healthy and creative.

Active participation in co-curricular activities arouses

  • Curiosity,
  • Creates interest, and
  • Inculcates values.

Values that can be generated in the co-curricular activities are

  1. Psychological Values
  2. Physical Values
  3. Social Values
  4. Aesthetic & Recreational values
  5. Moral Values
  6. Civic Values
  7. Disciplinary Values
  8. Academic Values
  9. Vocational Values
  10. Culture Values
  11. Value of Oneness

1) Psychological Values

The co-curricular activities provide the child psychological compensation.

  • They play a significant role in the training of emotions.
  • The pent-up emotions find an effective outlet through activities.
  • When the mind is free of the emotional load, the alternate, precision, determination, self-control, courage, etc, come into focus.

2) Physical Values

Physical activities help the normal growth and muscular development of the body along with some values like

  • Games
  • NCC,
  • NSS,
  • NGC,
  • Swimming,
  • Yogic Exercises,
  • Mass Drill,
  • Boating,
  • Gardening Etc.

3) Social Values

Co-curricular activities are carried out in a social environment, developing

  • Team sprits,
  • Fellow feeling,
  • Social unity,
  • Cooperation,
  • Tolerance,
  • Brotherhood, goodwill, etc.

Activities like scouting, first aid, Red Cross, Sharmadan develop social inclination and compassion for the needy.

4) Aesthetic & Recreational values

  • Sports, culture programs, dances, dramas, etc give relaxation from the normal routine.
  • Drawing, painting, fancy dress, fine arts, preparation of models, and flow shows, etc develop aesthetic sensitivity.

5) Moral Values

Through sports, students develop

  • Integrity,
  • Impartiality,
  • Uprightness,
  • Honesty, And Also Fair Play.

6) Civic Values

Experiences like

  • Self-government,
  • Student council,
  • Organizations of various activity clubs like sanitation club, red ribbon club, membership of various committees, etc, provide for responsible behavior persistence in efforts and fulfillment of the tasks.

7) Disciplinary Values

Students get a number of opportunities to frame and follow certain rules and regulations concerning activities thus they develop self-discipline and a sense of responsibility.

8) Academic Values

  • Co-curricular activities like debates, discussions etc. supplement class work and widen the bookish knowledge.
  • Literary activities like symposia, recitations, and publication of magazines, etc enrich the knowledge of various aspects and language skills.

9) Vocational Values

Introduction of leisure time activities or hobbies like

  • Photography,
  • Album making,
  • Weaving,
  • Coin and stamp collection,
  • Gardening,
  • Clay modeling,
  • Tailoring,
  • Knitting and some such handicrafts facilitates the children to have them as the feature vocation and develop creativity too.

10) Culture Values

  • Dramatics,
  • Folk dance,
  • Music, pageants,
  • Celebration of social and religious functions, etc. provide glimpses of our culture which can preserve, transmit and develop our cultural heritage.

11) Value of Oneness

  • It is developed through the celebration of birthdays of great men and women belonging to different countries and religions.
  • Celebration of international days like UNO day, world education day, etc can considerably promote the oneness of humanity and cultivate the ideas and feelings of international understanding in the students.

Co-Curricular Activities For Value Development

Co-curricular activities can prove to be an effective tool for inculcation of values and nurturing creative talents if they are planned meticulously and executed properly.

For this purpose, various clubs and associations may also be formed e.g.

  • Atheistic Club,
  • Literary Association,
  • Cultural Club,
  • Magazine Committee
  • Science Club,
  • Bulletin and Board etc.

A teacher should be made incharge of each committee.

  • Students should also be placed as a member in each committee in order to ensure their active participation in planning and implementation of various programmes.
  • The teacher incharge should not impose their own ideas and values upon the students they only counsel and guide the students properly.

Following Activities May Be Organized For Value Development:

  1. Morning assembly should include
    • Prayer,
    • Thought of the day,
    • 'Prerak prasang' by teachers and students,
    • Patriotic songs of different languages.
  2. Yoga is very helpful in cultivating moral and spiritual values.
    • It has multidimensional potentials for the growth of personality.
    • The yoga co-ordinates body mind and spirit.
    • It is basically the science of mind and therefore, through it student should learn 'how to concentrate' and 'how to learn fruitfully'.
    • 'Yam' and 'Niyam' have good potential for character building.
    • It will also strengthen the mutual relationship between school and society.
  3. Participation in cultural activities with folk dance, music and lore of different regions depicting 'Unity in Diversity' should be made compulsory.
  4. Visits and excursion to the relevant places, experience in inter regional living, national integration camps must be organized once in a year for every student.
  5. Social service should be promoted in the school.
    • Service is itself a great value.
    • Vivekanand said, "To serve human being is to serve God."
    • It makes people more productive and humane.
    • Programmes like: cleaning colonies, hospitals, tanks distribution for food materials, medicine, clothing, curing the victims of natural calamities should be organized.
    • Through these programmes institution may be made responsive to the society.
  6. A large number of person and groups work selflessly for deprived and down trodden. Interaction with them could really create perceptible impacts.
  7. Games, sports meet at school, district, state and national level may be organized by rotation in different schools.
    • The effort should made that each student participates in games activity.
  8. Scout/Guide movement may be popularized and maximum number of students be encouraged to participate in scout/guide activities.
  9. Visits to institutions, establishments, centers of creative arts, zoos, museums and to homes for the aged and handicapped not only enhance knowledge, understanding but also generate appreciation and empathy;
  10. NCC/NSS should be made compulsory.
  11. Exhibition on environment pollution, population, terrorism, and other historical, social, political and economic issues may be organized.
  12. Active participation of community and use of their resources should be promoted in order to make them feel that institution belong to them.
    • Such an impression alone could lead to several value related participatory activities.
  13. Institution must provide interaction opportunities to students with the persons of high character sacrifice, creative abilities, literary tastes, scholarly attitude whose mere presence could motivate them.
  14. Mock parliament student self-government must organize in order to train them in democratic system.
  15. Students may be encouraged to learn more and more international and regional languages by providing facilities and incentive for the same.
  16. Lastly, the above strategies can be implemented effectively only through right kind of teachers.
    • Thus, the role of teacher is too much important in this regard.

According to the UNESCO (1972) report the teacher's duty is less and less to inculcate and more and more to encourage thinking, his formal functions apart, he will have to become more and more an adviser, a partner to talk to someone who helps seek out conflicting arguments rather than handing our readymade truths.

He/She will have to devote more time and energy to

  • Productive and creative activities;
  • Discussion,
  • Stimulation,
  • Interaction,
  • Understanding and encouragement.

Value Development Through Various Subjects

The different subjects at school stage - Social Sciences, Science, Languages, Mathematics etc. seek to provide knowledge, attitudes and values intrinsic to the particular discipline.

For example,

Science teaching aims at the development of understanding of the concepts, facts, principles, theories and laws that describe the physical and natural world.

It is intended to strengthen the
  • Commitment to inquiry,
  • Curiosity,
  • Objectivity,
  • Scientific outlook,
  • Open mindedness, search for truth etc.
Language, besides encouraging communication and listening skills, is intended to inculcate
  • Imagination,
  • Sensitivity,
  • Creativity,
  • Appreciation and emotional development.
Mathematics is associated with
  • Logical thinking,
  • Decision making,
  • Order,
  • Neatness,
  • Accuracy and perseverance.
The Social Sciences at school stage intend to broaden children's vision of society as good citizens.

History portrays the values of
  • Patriotism,
  • Compassion,
  • Bravery,
  • Co-operation,
  • Loyalty,
  • Justice,
  • Perseverance as evidenced from the lives of great people.
Geography communicates
  • Interdependence of countries,
  • Unity in diversity,
  • Environmental conservation etc.

It is for this reason that objectives of teaching different school subjects also include development of attitudes, appreciations, values, skills, which are appropriate to that subject.

Good teaching of a subject implies teaching the subject in such a way that the students gain insight into the nature of the subject, its logical structure, its methods and also imbibe the attitudes and values associated with that particular subject.

  • Presenting the lesson from a humanistic and positive perspective is important.
  • The lesson which would inspire, awaken positive feelings and experiences, help in
    • Understanding self,
    • Encourage openness and spirit of inquiry in raising questions,
    • Exploring, discovering and constructing their understanding of values and
    • Providing opportunity to put their knowledge of values into practice are meaningful.
  • Strategies like questions, stories, anecdotes, games, experiments discussions, dialogues, value clarification, examples, analogies, metaphors, role play, simulation are helpful in promoting values during teaching-learning.
  • Some values may be more adequately inculcated while teaching a particular subject at a particular stage or grade, others may be more appropriately integrated with the other subjects at a particular grade.
  • Thus subject - appropriate and /grade –appropriate strategies vis-a-vis values need to be delineated.

Science And Value Development

  • Science deals with material world and highlight the fact underlying in this phenomenon.
  • It has least concern for the world of values.
In the classroom of science, the teacher can reduce the gap between these two worlds by focusing on both the aspects.

For Example: Suppose while he is teaching 'rainbow' in the classroom he explains the facts related to rainbow but at the same time he should also emphasize on the aesthetic qualities of rainbow.

  • The various discoveries of science he/she is teaching must give the example of their use and disuse.
  • The implication of science for better life and for the welfare of human being should be brought into light.
  • The history of great scientists and their qualities which helped them towards greatness should also be taught in the classroom.


  • Biological interpretation of facts of life be made not only in terms of struggle for existence, but also in reference to the emergence of values.
  • Inter dependence of man, animal and plants should be emphasized in the classroom.

But the teacher should not try to search values in each and every aspect of subject matter; otherwise, this will spoil the romance of teaching and there will be possibility of losing interest by the pupils.

Value Inculcation Through Drawing And Painting

Drawing and painting has also vital role to play in fostering aesthetic values to our students.

  • It also helps to stimulate the creative attitude of the students with the use of various forms, patterns and colors.
  • To prepare a new color by mixing two or more colors give a joy of creativeness to the youngsters.
  • Hence, the opportunity to develop creative ability must be provided in school curriculum.

According to Read, (1948) "The only habit that is ennobling, penetrating to the frame and physique as well as the soul of man, is the creative activity in all its rituals, exercises, festivals and practical services".

Development of Values Through Music

Music is also a very important source of inculcating values.

  • Besides aesthetic values various moral and social values like national integration, kindness, devotion, respect for other faiths and religions can be inculcated.
  • Therefore, Gandhiji had also included it in his Basic Education Scheme.

Music should be taught as a subject in school.

  • In most of the city school’s music is being taught as a hobby subject.
  • Singing of 'bhajan' devotional and patriotic songs, folk songs and folk dances selected from various regions should be practiced.

Humanity And Values

a) History

History is one of the important subjects of humanities.

There is no denying the fact that humanity subjects have great scope for inculcation of values. Of course, in these subjects there are great opportunities for the imaginative considerations of human condition.

  • A history teacher has much more opportunity to inculcate values through his teaching.
  • Indian culture is the rich source of human values.
  • Value embedded life story of great men and women should be highlighted in the classroom.
  • Values like unity, integrity, patriotism, peace, tolerance, non-violence, secularism etc. can be imparted through history of freedom struggle and life history of philosophers, saints and patriots of the world and India.

b) Geography

Unity in diversity, curiosity, sensitivity, awareness towards environment, interdependence etc. can be developed through Geography.

c) Economics

  • Economic teacher should emphasize
    • Dignity of labor,
    • Equitable distribution for resources,
    • Trusteeship,
    • Respect for public property in the classroom.
  • Through survey, field trip and exhibition, teacher may develop sympathetic attitude toward social evils and exploitation.

d) Civics

Civic sense, democratic values, international understanding, sense of belongingness, protecting public property and respect for rules and regulations can be developed through civics teaching.


The Value Education Plays A Vital Role In Shaping The Next Generation Of Scientifically Literate Individuals. By Understanding The Principles And Strategies Discussed In This Blog Post, You Will Be Well-Prepared To Create Meaningful And Impactful Value Education Learning Experiences For Your Students.


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