Pedagogy Of History: (B.Ed Notes In English)


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What Is History?

History is the present thought about the past, history is thought and nothing else”. - Croce

History is time and again said to be the “mother” or “queen” of social studies.

History is credited as a mandatory discipline in the complete education of man. The word history is derived from ‘Historia’ (Greek word) meaning

  • ‘An inquiry conducted to find the truth’, or
  • ‘Information’, or
  • ‘What has actually happened or passed’.

History outdates the other social sciences, having emerged in schools long before the others with the possible exception of geography.

  • History lies in the root of the study of disciplines like;
    • Philosophy,
    • Economics,
    • Politics and
    • Even art and religion.
  • History is the basis of all subjects of study which fall under the category of Humanities and Social sciences.
History is not simply information regarding the affairs of the kings who have passed away but a science which explains the intellect and furnishes the wise with examples”. -  Tarikh-i-Daudi

Nature Of History

History is the story of the growth of human consciousness, both in its individual and collective aspects.

  • History is the study of humans.
  • History explains the present and forges a path linking the events & actions of the past with the emerging future.
  • Coherence & Continuity are the essential rudiments of history.
  • History is involved with a man in time and also involved with a man in space.


  1. The scope of history is, as vast and wide as humanity itself.
  2. History is a storehouse of wisdom.
  3. The scope of history range from
    • Local history to National history and
    • From National history to international history.
History is a veritable mine of life experience and the youth of today studies history that may be profit by the experiences of the race” -Jones.
  • In history, the knowledge of the students should be comprehensive.
    • For instance: Students should be taught about the history and events of their own country as well as other countries too.
    • The knowledge of the child should not be restricted, as events and the problem of a particular country are sure to affect the whole world.

The evolutionary characteristic of the history of man needs careful expression. History should be so presented as to link progress with peace.

The aim of history is not to please nor to give practical maxims of conduct, nor to fire one with patriotic fervor, nor to afford mental training nor to arouse the emotions but to equip the readers with knowledge: pure, simple and truthful.”

Aims Of Teaching History

Some of the general aims of teaching history are:

  1. To promote attention and curiosity in the subject and to keep it.
  2. To push self-understanding.
  3. To trains the mental faculties such as
    • Critical thinking,
    • Memory,
    • Reasoning and
    • Imagination power.
  4. To inculcates intellectual discipline and equip students intellectually to the fullest.
  5. To help in making students able statesmen, intelligent and useful citizens.
  6. To quickens and deepens understanding, gives an insight into the working of
    • Social,
    • Economic,
    • Political and
    • Technological forces.
    • To teach tolerance.
  7. To enable the students to judge the values and accomplishments of their own age.
  8. To give an appropriate and correct conception of
    • Time,
    • Space and
    • Society.
  9. To feed the education of intellect and leave the rest to history.

Objectives Of Teaching History

The 5 most important instructional objectives of teaching history at the primary and secondary levels are:

1. Knowledge

The student should procure knowledge related to the study of history like:

  • Concepts,
  • Ideas,
  • Terms,
  • Facts,
  • Problems,
  • Events,
  • Personalities,
  • Trends,
  • Chronology,
  • Symbols,
  • Conventions and
  • Generalizations etc.

The student should be skilled to:

  • Read,
  • Recall,
  • Show and
  • Recognize.

2. Understanding

The student should achieve an understanding of

  • Principal events,
  • Terms,
  • Facts,
  • Problems, etc., related to the study of history.

The student should be capable to:

  • Compare and contrast events,
  • Classify facts,
  • Detect errors,
  • Illustrate events,
  • Explain events,
  • Discriminate,
  • Identify,
  • Arrange facts,
  • Interpret and
  • Extract.

3. Critical Thinking

The subject should support the students to form and develop critical thinking. The student should be able to:

  • Select,
  • Identify,
  • Analyze,
  • Collect,
  • Verify and
  • Draw.

4. Practical Skills

The subject should make it possible for the students to build practical skills beneficial in the study and understanding of historical data and figures.

The student should be able to draw and prepare:

  • Diagrams,
  • Maps,
  • Charts, and
  • Models etc.

5. Interests

The subject should enable the students to develop an interest in the study of history.

The student should be able:

  • To participate in mock sessions of historical events.
  • To take part actively in historical dramas.
  • To read historical
    • Maps,
    • Documents, and
    • Charts.
  • To gather historical materials like coins and others.
  • To visit places of historical interest like:
    • Museums,
    • Archaeological sites,
    • Archives etc.
  • To write down articles on historical & other related topics.

Importance Of Teaching History

People live in the present, they plan for and worry about the future. History, however, is the study of the past.

All topics of education need justification and reason: its supporters must justify why it is valuable and worth giving attention to.

Historians do not

  • Arrest criminals,
  • Design highway,
  • Do heart transplants,
  • Or construct tall buildings etc.

In this social order that demands and expects education to provide useful aims and purposes, this scenario makes history extra difficult to describe & define as compare to medicine or engineering.

Therefore, many questions, doubts about learning and teaching history come instinctively like:

Why Does One Need To Take The Trouble And Study History?

The Reason why history still holds its position in present-day education can be traced back to leaders of the past who considered

  • Historical facts knowledge aid in differentiating educated from the uneducated and
  • Used historical facts as the screening tool.

For Instance: The individual who can

  • Name the person who came up with the Theory Of Evolution at about the same time that Darwin did (Wallace), or
  • Know the date of the Norman Conquest Of England (1066), was viewed as superior and exceptional - a better applicant for business promotion or even in law school.

Unfortunately, this practice can encourage rote learning—a real however not very likable feature of the subject.

  • Though this justification and reasoning is no use in learning and teaching history and is no longer accepted, but regrettably, this habit and practice are still carry on.

There is a lot to talk about the actual functions, needs, and importance of the history subject. Some of them are:

History Helps Us Understand People And Societies

"Although, many subjects made attempts to understand the functioning of societies and people none came closer to answer than history".

History presents the storehouse of data and all-embracing evidential base about

  • Analysis and contemplation of how civilizations, societies function and
  • HOW and WHY societies and people behave.

The Reason Why humans cannot stop or stay away from history is that:

  • Major features of a humanity's operation, such as
    • Elections,
    • Treaties,
    • Military alliances,
    • Religious activities etc., need historical data.

How can we evaluate war if the nation is at peace—unless we use historical materials?

  • To get familiar with the effect of technological modernization.
  • To know what role do beliefs perform in modeling family life, if we don't know and use what we know about experiences in the past?

Consequently, in the unescapable hunt to figure out complex societal settings:

  • The subject of history serve as mankind laboratory, though imperfectly, and
  • Data and Information from the past serve as mankind's most critical evidence.

History Helps Us Understand Change

With the study of history, man understands how incidents and situations change humans.

The past causes the present, and so the future.

Any time anybody tries to see why this present-day event happen we look for causes that took shape in past like:

  • Changes in political party and system in different nations,
  • War in the Middle East or in the Balkans.
  • Changes in the suicide, death rate, etc. all require facts and knowledge of the past.

History is undisputable. It is a discipline of serious and important study.

  • History knowledge makes one know, which elements of a society or an institution have withstood change.
  • Only in the course of history, one can begin to understand the factors and reasons causing change.

Occasionally, even recent history is sufficient to give explanations for major development, nevertheless time and again one needs to further go backward to know and identify the reasons for change.

Importance of History in Our Own Lives

Why study history?

History is a laboratory of human experience. History study in human life brings about specific & relatively diverse uses like:

  1. History Provides Identity
  2. Studying History Is Essential for Good Citizenship
  3. History Contributes to Aesthetic and Human Understanding
  4. History Contributes to Moral Understanding
  5. History Is Useful in the World of Work

1. History Provides Identity

All modern countries encourage history teaching in one form or other as

  1. History helps in providing identity.
  2. Historical statistics consist of evidence regarding how
    • Institutions,
    • Groups,
    • Families, and
    • Eventually how entire nations were formed.
  3. History tells how all countries have progressed while maintaining cohesion.
  4. History steers an awareness of national beliefs and values & promises towards national loyalty.
  5. Histories emphasize distinct characteristics of the general and national experience.
History is used by many social units, such as ethnic groups, who use their rich past to inform their present-day identity. History confirmed and established family identity.

The clearest usage of history is in studying the history of one's own family.

  • History gives a basis of understanding on how people interacted and families have split or mingled with respect to larger historical change.
  • History offers details about genealogy.
History tells mankind's story. All nations, civilizations extensively utilize identity history and many times abuse it.

2. Studying History Is Essential for Good Citizenship

The most widespread defense for the position of history in the school curriculum is,

  • History study is a precondition for useful citizenship and
  • lays the groundwork for sincere citizenship.

However, the importance and significance of history for citizenship progress is well ahead of this limited and narrow goal & even challenges it.

Studying history improves understanding of current, recent, & prospective changes, which affect the human’s life & what reasons are involved.

History offers data and evidence about 

  • Rise of Institutions, Nations their values with the problems.
  • History presents rational perspectives, important for responsible and sensible citizenship.

Study of history nurtures habits of mind, essential for rational public behavior and conduct, whether as a

  • Informed voter,
  • Community or National leader,
  • A petitioner, else as
  • Simple observer.

Every so often, sponsors of citizenship history, hope simply to encourage and promote national loyalty and identity by using history spiced with rich and vivid lessons and stories of individual success & morality but history is way beyond these limited objectives.

3. History Contributes to Aesthetic and Human Understanding

History well told is beautiful. Humanistic and Aesthetic goals inspire individuals to submerge themselves in labor and pains to reconstruct relatively remote past, far-flung from the contemporary, immediate utility.

Discovering what historians from time to time call the "pastness of the past"- the manners with which persons in distant ages constructed their lives include a feeling of

  • Excitement,
  • Beauty, &
  • Eventually provide alternate and fresh perspectives about human society and life.
A number of historians who appeal maximum to the general reading public recognize the effects and significance of Skillful and Dramatic writing in history books.

For instance: Military history and Biography appeal & fascinate in part for the exactness of tales and stories they contain.

Stories well done are those which

  • Uncover how societies and people have functioned, &
  • Prompt feelings & thoughts regarding human experience and incidents in other places and times.

History performs an actual purpose, on aesthetic grounds as well as on the level of human understanding.

4. History Contributes to Moral Understanding

History is not just about certifiable heroes, wars, the great women and men who successfully labored morally difficult positions, but also about more ordinary persons who gave lessons in

  • Diligence,
  • Courage, and
  • Constructive protest.
  • Historical situations provide encouragement and inspiration.
  • History teaches of humans who have survived adversity and hardship not in some work of fiction, but in reality.
  • The past stories and tales of individuals & conditions permit a history student to test and refine their own moral intelligence against various real-world complexities.
"History teaching by example" is one saying which correctly summarizes why we study the past.

5. History Is Useful in the World of Work

History is valuable for work, the study of history helps to create good

  • Professionals,
  • Political leaders,
  • Business people, etc.

By studying diverse events of the past, reading about distinct societies of the past, a history student develops comprehensive perspective, flexibility, and range which aids during work situations.

For instance:

  1. History is clearly relevant in many analytical situations in both the private and public sectors.
  2. History enhances basic speaking and writing skills.
  3. Professional historians work in several fields, they
    • Do historical exploration and research for public agencies or businesses,
    • Work in media centers and museums, or
    • Take part in the historical consultancies.
History primarily prepares learners for the long haul in their jobs and careers, qualities of history help in advancement and adaptation way beyond entry-level jobs.

Learners of history attain:

  • Research skills,
  • Ability to evaluate and find information sources, and
  • The ways to evaluate and identify diverse interpretations.
  • However, there is no refusing and denying that learners of history worry about their future.
  • The amount of specific professional employments for history students is significant, but most students who study history do not become professional historians.
  • Even though history study for many students, does not, lead as directly to a job, as some of the technical subjects but the training of history broader the professional purposes like
      • opens the door in careers such as public administration and law.

Companies often consciously search for people with the kinds of aptitudes historical education promotes.

History is extremely relevant in fields where the ability to

  • Assess,
  • Identify, &
  • Explain is essential.

In our fluctuating economy  and financial system, there is distress regarding employment futures in so many fields, in spite of this, history study is unquestionably a strength, an asset in numerous professional and work situations.

What Skills Does Student Of History Develop?

The important skills that history students develop can be studied under the following headings:

  1. Skill In Assessing Past Examples Of Change
  2. The Skill To Assess Evidence
  3. Skill To Assess Conflicting Interpretations

1. Skill In Assessing Past Examples Of Change

The skill to recognize possible reasons for change and to identify the connections & continuities that repeatedly accompany even the most extraordinary alterations comes with the study of history.

History provides basic essential factual info about the backdrop of

  • Political institutions,
  • problems,
  • values,
  • lifestyle modification,
  • Socio-economic conditions etc. , which directly affects human life.
In this "ever-changing world", the ability to evaluating past instances of change is crucial in understanding and realizing change in present society.

History study helps learners to analyze and figure out the background of change.

  • Assessment of change means building some capacity to determine the significance and magnitude of change, as several changes are much more fundamental and significant than others.
  • Comparing some specific changes by taking suitable examples and cases from history helps history students to acquire the capacity of analyzing change.

The historical study enhances student capacity to

  • Read sign and suggestions,
  • Assess interpretations,
  • Use evidence,
  • Analyze continuities and change.

Studying history is critical in the advancement of human society, and transferring from ordinary to well-informed citizens.

2. The Skill To Assess Evidence

The study of history builds experience in dealing with & assessing several kinds of evidence.

The student develops the skill to read and assess evidence, combine different kinds of evidence like:

  • Public statements,
  • Numerical data,
  • Private records,
  • Visual materials.
To determining the most perfect pictures of the past one uses the pieces of evidence provided by historical data.

The ability to assess evidence is also useful with the info and news encountered in normal everyday life.

For Instance: Interpreting the statements and records of past political leaders (one type of evidence ) - helps in forming the capabilities to differentiate between the purpose, objective & self-serving amidst statements and speeches made by current political leaders

3. Skill To Assess Conflicting Interpretations

Studying history means developing several skills during sorting through distinct, diverse, and oftentimes conflicting interpretations.

History can be dubbed as a laboratory of mankind experience, as it provides valuable citizenship skills such as:

  • To learn how to recognize &
  • Assess conflicting interpretations.
Education of history in no way undermines commitment or loyalty or demoralize rather it enriches student abilities.

For Instance: Experience in exploring and analyzing past circumstances bestows constructively critical sense which one can apply to find truth among the partisan and one-sided claims regarding the glories, triumphs of the group, or national identity.

History study teaches the necessity of assessing arguments, & it offers opportunities to involve in debate & achieve perspective.

To be aware of how civilizations, societies work - the central aim of history education – is fundamentally imprecise, & the same undeniably holds true in understanding what is going on in the present day.

Real Purpose Of History Teaching

  1. Well, enough Knowledge of history, helps students become familiar with
    • Basic data concerning the forces which influence human lives.
    • The main course of humankind history in aspects of
      • Unity and diversity,
      • Transformation and
      • Evolution.
    • The student develops a lot of usable habits of mind with important skills like Critical thinking.
  2. Students know about many civilizations, their fall, and their rise with their distinct contributions to the culture of man.
  3. To make students aware of the causes of war and destructions they bought, with some critical insight and to recognize how wars and other international conflicts are fully avoidable.
  4. To educate students on how human greed has precisely sowed the seed of present and past disputes, conflicts, and war.
Struggle of man is to reach beyond himself to approximate to the ideal of freedom and a human awakening.
5. The benefits of studying history are diverse. While examining the historical events and facts, students get to distinguish and understand
    • Unique features of social history,
    • Diverse cultural patterns of different nations, societies all around the globe.
    • How races and nations had never thrived and survived in total isolation, but were influenced by each other always.
6. History rests on individuality, where one
    • Feel attraction and thrill of discovery,
    • Finds Intellectual challenges, and
    • See beauty as per personal taste.
7. A simplified bird’s eye view of world, history aid students to develop international understanding.

Recommendations For Effective History Teaching

History books should be written with a view to eliminating national animosities and prejudices. Facts quoted out of context have changed the nature and color of historical events.

1. Along with the political history
  • The cultural history,
  • The social history and
  • The history of sciences must get adequate attention in the textbooks.
2. The history books of the different countries need rewriting, as many times:
  • Historical facts have been given with certain bias and prejudice
  • Significant accounts have been omitted, distorted, and destroyed.
  • Inaccurate interpretation of historical data, facts, figures, details & descriptions.
    • For instance: Asian History Presented from the European point of view has neither been history nor Asian.
3. The glorification of the past rulers of our own country and the presentation of the rulers of other countries as villains indicates a false sense of nationalism.
"The history book should carefully abstain from glorification of any one member at the expense of any other. They should make past wars between nations appear as foolish " - Lord Russell.
4. History should not be presented to students just filled with
  • Treacheries,
  • Hostilities,
  • Devastations,
  • Loots and
  • Conquests etc.
5. History book’s sole purpose should not be rote learning and learn by heart:
  • Study of kings, rulers, oppressors, and dictators.
  • Deeds and misdeeds of emperors.
  • Remember their life and their statement.
  • Memorize dates of their birth and deaths their triumphs and defeats.

It is absolutely necessary that historical facts be presented in clear and objective perspectives in history books.

Educational objectives

Meaning of Objectives

Aims are sovereign in nature they are broken into specified objectives to provide definite learning experiences for bringing about desirable behavioral changes.

Objectives help in generating behavioral modifications in the learners for the ultimate realization of the aims of teaching.

The objectives are achieved within the specified classroom situation, and they

  • Have swift purposes and are short-term.
  • And they also Aid in accomplishing immediate goals.

Definition of Educational Objectives

Objectives related to education as a whole, are known as 'Educational Objectives '.

 “By educational objectives, we mean explicit formulations of the ways in which students are expected to be changed by the educative process, that is, the ways in which they will change in their actions”. - B.S.Bloom

Need of Educational Objectives

Reasons for needing educational objectives are:

  1. Educational objectives indicate the nature of the education system.
  2. They serve as guides for teaching and learning.
  3. Educational objectives provide guidelines in selecting teaching-learning activities.
  4. It shows the direction in which education will act.
  5. For teaching which aims at worthwhile behavior changes, a clear understanding of educational objectives is essential.
  6. Educational objectives develop awareness among the teachers about the importance of their work.

How to Form Educational Objectives

The formulation of educational objectives is a matter of careful choice on the part of the teachers and administrators.
  1. In forming educational objectives following factors are involved:
    • The needs and capabilities of the pupils.
    • The specific demands of his social environment.
    • The nature of the subject matter.
  2. In order to save time and effort, it is very important that the objectives of a subject be clearly identified and defined.

Criteria For Good Educational Objectives

The criteria of a good educational objective is that

  1. The educational objectives should be ‘Unambiguous’.
  2. The educational objectives should be ‘Useful’.
  3. The educational objectives should be ‘Specific’.
  4. The educational objectives should be ‘Feasible’.
  5. The educational objectives should be 'In Accordance With General Aims of Education '.

Objectives of Classifying Educational Objectives

Classification is a valuable system to group similar things under one heading based on common characteristics or common relationship that exists between groups and individuals.

The main objectives of classifying educational objectives are as follows:

  1. Educational objectives are helpful in defining, translating, and exchanging educational thoughts in a uniform way.
  2. These are vital in comparing curricular goals with wider educational objectives.
  3. Educational objectives assist in preparing evaluation or testing materials.
  4. They are highly valued in planning, teaching, and learning activities.
  5. Educational objectives are significant in identifying desired behavioral outcomes among the learners.
  6. It is crucial in the search for the relationships that exist among groups and individuals.
Educational objectives are fundamental in planning a curriculum.


The Pedagogy Of History Plays A Vital Role In Shaping The Next Generation Of Scientifically Literate Individuals. By Understanding The Principles And Strategies Discussed In This Blog Post, You Will Be Well-Prepared To Create Meaningful And Impactful History Learning Experiences For Your Students.


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