Pedagogy Of Social Science: (B.Ed Notes In English)


Pedagogy Of Social Science | Pedagogy Of Social Studies b.ed notes pdf | Pedagogy Of Social Science And SST b.ed notes | Pedagogy Of Social Study bed notes in english | Pedagogy Of Social Science notes

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What Is Social Science?

Social science is the scientific study of man in the social context. In general, social science is a branch of study that deals with the social life of man and employs scientific methods.

Social science helps to alleviate and develop an insight into

  1. Human relationships
  2. Attitudes
  3. Rich cultural heritage
  4. Social values
  5. Human history
  6. Appreciating diversity etc.

Social studies comprises a wide diversity of branches of knowledge from History and Philosophy to Law and Education but in the true sense, it is not merely a combination of the contents of these subjects, but much more.

Definition Of Social Science

Various academics have defined social science by taking into consideration its unique as well as common features.

Social sciences are a body of knowledge and thought pertaining to human affairs” - Charles Beard’s

Social sciences are a body of learning and study which recognize the simultaneous and mutual action of physical and non-physical stimuli which produce social reaction” - James High

Bining & Bining defines Social Science as “the subject that relates to the origin, organization, and development of human society, especially to man in his association with other men”.

General Aims And Objectives Of Teaching Social Science

Man is a social being and as such all education meant for his all-around development is social education.

Some important social science aims of teaching in the schools are:

  1. To Develop A Social Competence
  2. To Have Contemporary Awareness
  3. To Encourage Knowledgeable Democratic Citizenship
  4. To Assist Using Leisure Time Resourcefully
  5. To Have Soul And Mind
  6. All-Inclusive Development
  7. To Resolve Present-Day Problems
  8. To Give A Sense Of Belonging

1. To Develop A Social Competence

To help the learner in his communication with physical & social environment, by assisting him to pick up the right

  • Knowledge,
  • Attitudes,
  • Competence and
  • Understanding what he needs.

2. To have contemporary awareness

To make the child familiar with his present and past social & geographical environment. To give an experience of a study which will serve as a foundation for attaining expertise later on.

3. To Encourage Knowledgeable Democratic Citizenship

To help children be conscious of precious cultural heritage. To promote not just a national feeling but also an international understanding, a must in the contemporary world.

To recognize and get rid of what is undesirable and obsolete especially in the context of social change.

4. To Assist in Using Leisure Time Resourcefully

To offer the opportunity to young people to develop interests that will result in the creative use of their leisure time.

5. To Have Soul And Mind

A rare aim of teaching social science is to create a desire in the students, to preserve and keep alive those principles of justice and humanity that successfully develop the life of a nation.

To advocate accepting all historical experiences of humans as a process of development & change.

6. All-inclusive development

To develop a desirable attitude in the student meaningful for the present and future, concerning

  • Life,
  • Knowledge and
  • Learning

To shape the vision of students in

  • Economic,
  • Political and
  • Spiritual values.

To nurture qualities for an all-inclusive development of their rich personality without loss of individuality.

7. To resolve present-day problems

The substantial aim of social studies is to put a permanent end to our present-day social and individual problems.

To improve and correct judgments on steaming social issues, trends, and beliefs in the fields of

  • Regional politics,
  • Commerce & Industries,
  • National, International affairs, etc.

8. To give a sense of belonging.

To give the learner a sense of belongingness, SST aims

To give people a belonging

  • To a place
  • To a society
  • To a country and
  • To the world.

Aims Of Teaching Social Science At Primary Level

Some of the general aims of teaching social studies at the Primary level are:

  1. To assist the child to explore and be aware of his social and cultural environment.
  2. To develop a sense of belonging in the child, by gradually widening his mental horizon from his home and school to the wider world.
  3. To prepare the child to know there are no superior or inferior people and that we all should cooperate and organize ourselves to solve our problems.
  4. To help the child to understand that we are all equal irrespective of
    • Sex,
    • Race,
    • Creed,
    • Language, etc.
  5. To acquaint the child with the world of work and to foster in him, esteem for human labor.
  6. To help children develop respect for all religions with their customs & places of worship.
  7. To impress on the child’s mind that the formation of our rich and composite culture is the valuable contribution of people of
    • Different faiths,
    • Regions and
    • Linguistic.
  8. To know the worth of promoting peace, understanding, and cooperation among the people of the world and between nations.
  9. To encourage the child to realize that we are determined to shape a better life for all.

Aims Of Teaching Social Studies In Secondary School

Aims and objectives of teaching Social Science (Geography, History And Civics) in the Middle and Secondary Classes:

1. Aims Of Teaching Geography

  1. To make students aware of diversities in the economic and physical phenomena, throughout the earth's surface that is associated with each other and gives a distinctive character to particular parts of the earth’s surface.
  2. To help students analyse the
    • Inter-reliance on numerous geographical areas.
    • Ways, habits, customs of the people all around the globe.
    • Stages of economic development of people because of varied geographical location.
    • Problems in the light of the varying environments.
    • Stages of technological development as per the topographical condition.
  3. To help students make generalizations with the help of geographical concepts.
  4. To make geographical knowledge utilization in understanding, evaluating, and reaching decisions about world problems.

2. Aims Of Teaching History

  1. To conserve and encourage understanding of the common roots of human civilization.
  2. To make possible the study of the history of specific countries in relation to and a part of the general history of mankind.
  3. To promote empathy for the
    • Evolutions of changes, improvement, growth in human societies from past to their present stage.
    • How mutual interaction of various cultures has been an important factor in the progress of mankind.
    • To acknowledge and be grateful for the basic unity of mankind.
    • To appreciate contributions and influences made by different cultures to the total heritage of mankind.

3. Aims Of Teaching Civics

  1. To accelerate an intelligent understanding of the working and structure of the political and civic institutions of the nations.
  2. To appreciate, unique but related political & civic system, all over the world catering to their diverse population.
  3. To promote active and intelligent citizens who have the necessary civic competence to participate in community affairs effectively.
  4. To aid the students to be grateful for the role of the contributions of world agencies towards the maintenance of world peace.

Objectives Of Teaching Social Science In Primary Schools

The following may be outlined as the instructional objectives of social studies at the primary stage of education:

A. Understanding

  1. Man for all time seeks the help of others in meeting his needs. The basic needs of man all over the world are the same:
    • Food
    • Clothes and
    • Shelter.
  2. Man’s life on earth is intimately connected with his physical environment. An essential prerequisite for a smooth and peaceful life in society are:
    • A sense of responsibility
    • Mutual cooperation
    • Trust
    • Goodwill and so on.
  3. Life is made possible by the usage of physical resources (example: water, minerals, soil, forest, etc.) and to put them to the best possible use and conserve them is the utmost duty of mankind.
  4. To make the world interdependent on one another and to
    • Show the same respect to the people of each country.
    • Honor the difference in their religious beliefs and faith.
  5. To acknowledge the shared contribution for the betterment of humans and the world by every nation.

Life is impossible without mutual aid as we breathe in a society where we have to rest on each other for our needs. There is a great diversity in different nations but all are a part of one world.

Objectives Of Teaching Social Studies To Understand About India:

India has its own unique challenges and has a culture of its own.

  1. In the Democratic Republic of India, all citizens have equal rights and duties. There is a great diversity among the people in the different parts of the country with respect to:
    • Languages,
    • Religious beliefs
    • Food habits,
    • Dresses,
    • Customs. etc.
  2. To cherish certain values in order to preserve and modify our culture and values.
  3. In spite of all the differences, we all are Indians and make one nation, we should understand these fully.

B. Attitudes

  1. Respect for people of distinct
    • Religions,
    • Communities,
    • Languages and
    • Occupations.
  2. Trust in international laws, understanding, and cooperation.
  3. Respect and pride for national
    • Objectives,
    • Law,
    • Values and
    • Symbols.
  4. Empathy for the poor, migrants, and the vulnerable.
  5. Keen desire to preserve country’s independence and faith in country’s unity.
  6. Appreciations of natural beauty.
  7. Willingness to share the responsibility to preserve personal or government property and the nature of the country.
  8. Respect for teachers and elders.
  9. Self-reliance and awareness towards change.

C. Information

  1. Important facts about the lives and contributions of great men such as:

    • Mahatma Gandhi,
    • Socrates,
    • Lincoln,
    • Lenin etc.
  2. Important facts about the discoverers and Scientists Like

    • Newton,
    • Aryabhata,
    • Columbus,
    • Galileo,
    • Einstein etc.
  3. The globe and map of the world.

  4. Ways of living in the different parts of the globe.

  5. Important facts about the world agencies like:

    • United Nations,
    • UNICEF,
    • WHO,
    • UNESCO etc.
  6. Important fact about Indian

    • Heritage
    • Religions,
    • Monuments,
    • Handicrafts,
    • Music and Dances,
    • Festivals,
    • Scripts,
    • Languages etc.
  7. To know about various Indian:

    • Rulers,
    • Reformers,
    • Saints,
    • Poet,
    • Writers,
    • Scientists etc.
  8. To know about India

    • Physical divisions,
    • Resources,
    • Transport etc.
  9. Important facts about the people of India

    • National symbols,
    • Festivals etc.
  10. How we govern ourselves:

    • Fundamental rights,
    • Directive principles and
    • Duties of a citizen.

D. Skills

  1. While taking part in meetings and working in group children should be made to:

    1. Express themselves clearly and logically through speech or writing.
    2. Take part in meetings, debates, dramas, and other activities actively and work systematically.
    3. Listen to others with due respect and attention.
    4. Gather information from unique sources
      • To present it,
      • To use it and
      • To write a brief report.
    5. Use respectful language during conversation and speak in one’s turn.
    6. To be able to:
      • Ensure assigned responsibilities.
      • Cooperate with others.
      • To be able to lead others.
  2. While using maps, charts graphs and globes children should be able to:

    1. Read easy and simple charts and graphs.
    2. Know and understand the meaning of colors and symbols used in maps.
    3. Understand the difference between a globe and a map.
    4. Locate different places on the map.
    5. Read directions on the map.
    6. Make simple charts and models.
    7. Measure the distance between two places on the map.
    8. Arranging the album, flowers, pictures, leaves, and newspaper clippings.
  3. While visiting important places in the neighborhood children should:

    1. Be courteous and respectful towards others.
    2. Willingly participate in tours and getaways.
    3. Understand the basic rules like following traffic signs and traffic rules.
    4. Cooperate and share things with others.

Objectives Of Teaching Social Science At Secondary Level

The following may be outlined as the instructional objectives of social studies at the secondary stage:

A. Understanding

Societies develop through internal processes influenced by ideas from other societies.

  1. Scientific and technological advancements in the world today are amending ties and effectively developing people's close communications with one another.
  2. The cultures of separate societies of the past and of today are integrated.
  3. All over the world development inclines towards greater democracy with establishing human rights.
  4. The present-day world can work out successfully only through a study of inter-related parts of the culture.

The necessity of the contemporary period is renovating ideas of nationalism and sovereignty in terms of loyalty to world ideas and institutions among the future population.

B. Skills

  1. Skill in using numerous sources to keep well-versed on new advances in their own country and all around the world.
  2. Skill of where to find needed information.
  3. Skill in recognizing and resisting propaganda.
  4. Skill for critical thinking.
  5. Skill for unrecognizing bias in evaluating information sources.
  6. Skill to succeed in reaching independent and honest judgments.

C. Information

  1. Important facts about the different continents and regions of the world like:

    • Ecosystem
    • Lithosphere
    • Wildlife
    • Atmosphere
    • Forest
    • Climate
    • Rainfall etc.
  2. Significant facts regarding:

    • Mankind history,
    • Contemporary world and India.
  3. Important facts about

    • Ancient,
    • Medieval and
    • Modern India.
  4. To know about India

    • Constitution
    • Civic life
    • Political system
    • International relation.
  5. India and general geographical features like

    • Climate,
    • Agriculture,
    • Landforms,
    • Natural resources,
    • Major occupations,
    • Minerals etc.
  6. Know about Indian

    • Transport and communication,
    • International Trade,
    • Indian diversity etc.

D. Attitude

  1. Recognition and regard for the

    • Freedom of belief
    • Individual personality
    • Equality of opportunity
    • Individual right to freedom and liberty
    • Religious expression etc.
  2. Obey rights, principles, duties, and liberties normally correlated with democratic ideals.
  3. Respect for the accomplishments of man throughout history in solving problems and in gradually taking civilization to greater heights.
  4. Acceptance of one’s responsibility towards a peaceful society.
  5. Show consideration for democratic processes of decision-making.
  6. Appreciation of leaders and prominent personalities which in past and in present working for world welfare.
  7. To be able to compromise personal desires with the common will for the greater good.

E. Abilities

  1. Ability to apply the simple tools of the sst effectively. Tools such as:
    • Statistical data,
    • Maps,
    • Graphs,
    • Globe,
    • Reports,
    • Charts etc.
  2. Ability to release lessons from history to the problems of the day.

  3. Ability to relate new developments to

    • Local,
    • State and
    • National level.
  4. Ability to contribute constructively as a member or leader in

    • Group discussion,
    • Debates,
    • Making model,
    • Presentation etc.
  5. Ability to contribute in guiding group activity en route for a desired accomplishment.

Scope Of Social Science

By scope, we mean the extent, variety, and comprehensiveness of the learning experience possible through its curriculum transaction.

Scope of Social Science is the range of content and experiences that are to be provided to the learner through its teaching.

Scholars like ‘Michaels’ are of the opinion that

  • The breadth of the Social Science program should provide for a variety of experiences so that the child's learning will be well-rounded and well-balanced.
  • A narrow compartmentalized program limits the scope of social learning.

The scope of Social Studies as a subject of study are:

  1. Vast and wide as the world
  2. Inter disciplinary approach
  3. A study leading to international understanding
  4. A functional study of natural and physical sciences and fine arts
  5. Practical study of various Resources
  6. A study of current affairs

1. Vast and wide as the world

The scope of social science is as wide as the world and as long as the history of man.

Renowned historian Johnson’s said:

History is everything that ever happened. It is the study of human relationships in areas such as:

  • People and Earth (Place of Living).
  • People of one’s own nation and people across the world.
  • People and Time (Chronology).
  • People and various kinds of institutions.
  • People and Resources (Goods and Services).

The scope of social science is very vast. Everything that happened to date has got some kind of denotations or connotations with some branch of social sciences.

2. Inter disciplinary approach

Subjects when synthesized into a compact whole by blending them together, then the comparatively limited scope of each subject becomes broader and deeper.

  • Integration is essential for a meaningful understanding.
  • For example: Social Science, Natural science, and Physical science are different areas, but they are interdependent and interrelated.

3. A study leading to international understanding

Universal Brotherhood of man is essential in an age of crisis.

The study of two world wars convinced us the fact that the best policy for any nation is “Live and Let Live” as quoted by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.

Social science expands the vision of man beyond his society and nation to the world as a whole. Social science possesses the required potential to lead children towards the goal of more

  • Awareness,
  • Cooperation and
  • International understanding.

4. A functional study of natural and physical sciences and fine arts

The term functional study indicates that whatever be the factual materials obtained from various areas of study must have a direct and immediate relationship to the needs and interests of children.

In Social Science, we have to deal with how advances in the field of

  • Physiology,
  • Botany,
  • Physics,
  • Chemistry and
  • Zoology has helped the health, progress, and welfare of people’s life at large.

The developments in the field of science and technology have thoroughly changed the social life of man all over the world.

To have a better understating of people all over the world a functional study of fine arts such as

5. Practical study of various Resources

Social Studies as a subject of study is rich enough to give a good exposure not only to natural resources but also to human resources of different cultures and civilizations.

Students obtain practical knowledge by going on field trips to places of importance such as:

  • Historical places,
  • Cultural places,
  • Geographical places,
  • Economic places and
  • Scientific places.

Field trips give learners rich practical experiences which enhance their social efficiency.

6. A study of current affairs

The scientific study of contemporary issues is of great value in Social Science education.

Social science focuses on a more equipped future. When dealing with our current problems and issues, a meaningful analysis of the past also becomes essential which is also supported by social science.

Nature Of Teaching Social Studies

Social science is way beyond merely subject study, its true nature can be appreciated only by further analyzing the discipline.

Nature of the social science is:

  1. A Unique Combination Of Various Disciplines
  2. A Realistic Course Of Study
  3. A Study Of Human Relationships
  4. Forms Important Part Of The Core Curriculum
  5. Includes Commitment To Action
  6. Study Of Man’s Growth Across Ages
  7. Prepares For Practical Social Living

1. A Unique Combination Of Various Disciplines

Social science draws interrelated information from various disciplines or subjects of study and integrates them meaningfully. This sheds insight into the exact nature of social life in its totality.

Though social science can be treated as a separate subject it is also a harmonious blending of various subjects, such as,

  • Political Science & History,
  • Anthropology,
  • Law & Economics,
  • Geography,
  • Art Education,
  • Sociology & Psychology,
  • Literature etc.

2. A Realistic Course Of Study

Social Science makes real-life settings available to the learner. Situations related to social problems, processes, and phenomena are fundamental to social science.

Effective interpretation of any situation would compel intense study and generate more solutions and helps learners to grasp many merits like:

  • Cooperation,
  • Precision,
  • Commitment,
  • Interdependence,
  • Loyalty etc.

3. A Study Of Human Relationships

Social science is the study of man and his relationship with other human beings and his environment.

Social science deals with plentiful issues of man and its solutions. Social science studies the web of relationships between and among people's

  • Traditions,
  • Institution,
  • Classes,
  • Organizations,
  • Groups etc.

4. Forms Important Part Of The Core Curriculum

Social science is studied as an irreducible minimum program.

Social studies forms a significant part of the core–curriculum even for a learner who likes to go for some other specialization like

  • Mathematics,
  • Science,
  • Engineering,
  • IT etc. They too need social science awareness and knowledge for success in those fields.

Essentially, social studies wants to equip man with the skills and understandings which enable him to lead a prosperous and positive life.

5. Includes Commitment To Action

Social science through the socially significant nature of its content empower every learner:

  • To be an informed individual.
  • To learn the process of individual and social action required for an informed citizen in the world.
  • To uses his knowledge by participating actively and constructively in the affiants of society.

6. Study Of Man’s Growth Across Ages

Social science offers a far-reaching study of man’s progress.

Social science reacts to questions like:

  • What is the unique contribution of a man who lived at various ages of human history for human development?
  • How humans succeeded in evolving in each period?
  • Why man failed in his attempts and when? etc.

7. Prepares For Practical Social Living

Social skills help to lead a purposeful and successful adult life. Social science enriches learners intellectually and helps in overall inclusive development.

When a learner understands the subjects matter he/she explores it intensely and attempts to embrace this essential knowledge into their own social environment.

Classification Of Social Science Subject

Scholars have opposing views concerning the inclusion of subjects in the family of social sciences. Several academics support a threefold classification of social sciences, others support the different classifications of social science.

Some of the classifications of social science are:

  1. Threefold Classification
  2. Classification By James High
  3. Classification By International Encyclopedia

1. Threefold Classification

The Threefold classification includes:

  1. Pure Social Science
  2. Semi Social Science
  3. Sciences with Social Implications

2. Classification By James High

James High presents a precise portrayal of social science concepts. It includes:

  1. Political Science (Man’s order)
  2. History (Man’s story)
  3. Economics (Man’s subsistence)
  4. Geography (Man’s abode)
  5. Anthropology (Man’s ethos)
  6. Psychology (Man’s behavior)
  7. Sociology (Man’s Association)

3. Classification By International Encyclopedia

International Encyclopedia of Social science includes the following  12 disciplines under Social sciences.

  1. Philosophy,
  2. Statistics,
  3. Sociology,
  4. Management commerce,
  5. Political science,
  6. Law,
  7. Psychology,
  8. Geography,
  9. Anthropology,
  10. Civics,
  11. Economics,
  12. History.

Values Of Teaching Social Science

Social Science is valuable as a study in many ways. Many values of social studies are key results of various significant activities.

Values of teaching social science are:

  1. Information Values
  2. Disciplinary Values
  3. Political Values
  4. Ethical Values
  5. Educational Values
  6. Cultural Values
  7. Vocational Values
  8. Nationalistic Values
  9. Internationalist Value

1. Information Values

Social Science banishes prejudices and conservatism.

Social Science is a magnificent treasure-house of knowledge & information, offers direction for:

  • Art
  • Philosophy
  • Language
  • Economic development
  • Literature
  • Politics
  • Social life etc.

2. Disciplinary Values

Social science provides great mental training. The mental training that child receives from a study of social science help in

  1. Examining the data,
  2. Connecting the cause and effect,
  3. Comparison and contrast,
  4. Weighting evidence,
  5. Arriving at conclusion, and
  6. Shifting truth from conflicting explanations.

3. Political Values

Social science is the best teacher which demands no fees for its lessons.

Social studies are extremely necessary for the implementation of the:

  • Political rights
  • Social rights
  • Responsibilities of the people.

4. Ethical Values

Social Science teaches righteousness.
  1. Social Science provides a kind of knowledge that is valuable to man on a daily basis.
  2. Social studies teach the moral laws of right and wrong.
  3. Sst teaches us by example it offers the man past wisdom to guide his present desires and actions.

5. Educational Values

Social Science helps to set scientific discoveries and the invention of contemporary world techniques in a historical perspective.

For example:

The stories of transport and communication, tools and machines, food and medicine in social science, make it possible for the child to have deep acknowledgment for improvements in discoveries.

Social Science gives a more secure understanding of science and mathematics as well as a wider sense of the meaning of history.

6. Cultural Values

Social Science is an effective instrument to civilize the human mind. Social Science prepares us to understand:

  1. How societies have often been transformed?
  2. Variation because of change of habits among people.
  3. Adaptions and re-adaptions in human history.
  4. Innovations and differences bought in society.

7. Vocational Values

Social science equips the student with vast and wide knowledge. There are several opportunities for persons who are well qualified in the subject.

For example: Students can go for the jobs of teachers in schools, colleges, and universities, librarians, etc.

8. Nationalistic Values

Social studies teaching renders an effective service. Social science coach a child’s mind for the love of his country but not blind love.

Social studies and its use is unchallengeable in engrossing young minds with a sense of patriotism.

9. Internationalist Value

Social science if taught rightly, prompts the idea of world residency and showcases the true dependence and interdependence of countries, a core of internationalism.

Correlation Of Social Science With Other Subjects

Social Science Is A Very Broad Subject. In This Post We Will Dig Into How Social Science Is Correlated With Other Subjects?

  1. Social Science With Languages
  2. Social Science With History
  3. Social Science With Mathematics
  4. Social Science With Geography
  5. Social Science With General Sciences
  6. Social Science With Economics
  7. Social Science With Biology
  8. Social Science With Fine Arts
  9. Social Science With Physics

1. Social Science With Languages

Languages and social studies are supplementary and complementary to one another. With language as its medium, Literature reflects the social and cultural heritage of a country plus humanity as a showcase in numerous literary forms like

  • Stories and Poems,
  • Travelogues,
  • Dramas,
  • Essays and Novels,
  • Biography etc.

On the other hand, to grasp the actual meaning of social science topics and to meaningfully present them, require appropriate language proficiencies.

2. Social Science With History

History plays a significant role in understanding and identification of the man in society, therefore, also in structuring social studies subjects.

History shares a close connection with social studies and is taught often as a part of the social science syllabus at school.

For example:

  • History is concerned primarily either with periods of time in the past or with themes running through centuries. Most study materials in social science include the concept of the significance of time, which is used to bring awareness about the need to see phenomena in the terms of their place of chronological scale.

History and social science are interdependent, history provides a perspective and basis to the topics of social science like:

  • Population and planning,
  • Education,
  • Customs,
  • Movements,
  • War and Social moves etc.

History as a study of the origins of the present is an essential feature of any sound scheme of social science.

3. Social Science With Mathematics

No aspect of present-day life exists which does not require mathematics. Mathematics is useful in various socially relevant programs like

  • Accounting,
  • Banking,
  • Trade,
  • Budgeting etc.

Social Science can be useful in its aim of making students a valuable part of society, only with a successful correlation of mathematics.

4. Social Science With Geography

Geography and social sciences are inseparably attached.

Social science topics are highly affected by geography, the geographical situations of countries have a tremendous effect on the social life of their residents.

For Example: 

England built a powerful navy and created a great empire mostly because of its geographical location and conditions.

Social studies and Geography are intimately connected in the study of topics such as:

  • Mode of living of people,
  • living conditions,
  • Food habits,
  • Standard of living etc.

5. Social Science With General Sciences

Sciences have reimagined all parts of human life, the application of science in the day-to-day life of human society needs no explanation.

For instance:

All branches of sciences-physics, chemistry, biology, etc. are making rapid strides both in theory and practice.

Sciences can be appreciated only if it will be linked with the history of human life and civilization.

The process involved in science can brought its desire implication in the learner when they allied with their social life. The study of

  • Facts
  • Principles
  • Laws
  • Experiments all require social studies and general science.

6. Social Science With Economics

Social sciences seek to develop a competent individual into a good, independent, and patriotic citizen. This is not possible without some knowledge of economics, which constitutes an integrated part of social studies.

Social science is incomplete without Economics. Social science draws from Economics much of its knowledge related to basic requirements of the human being such as

  • Shelter,
  • Food,
  • Clothing etc.

7. Social Science With Biology

Principles of biology are of great use for social scientists.

For example:

  • Using biological principles, social scientists put forward a cohesive representation of population dynamics.

Biological theories and concepts interlaced into social sciences provide important support in the understanding of many existing problems.

8. Social Science With Fine Arts

Be it Social sciences or Fine arts both have similar goals like:

  • Re-route the capabilities of children more meaningfully and socially useful.
  • Desires and tendencies of children to have more purpose and thought.
  • Make children good citizens.

The study of social studies & fine art is goal-oriented and meaningful only by adopting apt instructional approaches and strategies.

9. Social Science With Physics

Innovations in science & technology transformed social life around the planet like:

  • Speedy means of communication and transport have brought nations and humans closer with one another.

Social science and Physical science are tightly related in dealing with

  • Transport and Food,
  • Weather,
  • Clothing and Shelter,
  • Communication etc.

Why Is It Important To Study Social Science?

Social science is the scientific study of man in society. Social science studies man in the context of not only the past but also the present.

It is a Myth that Social Science is all about the past only.

Top 7 Reasons To Study Social Science In Schools

Some of the reasons to include social science core subject up to the secondary level of education in schools are:

1. Social Science not simply provides the children insight into the socio-economic condition that existed in the past but it makes them conscious of the prevailing
      • Social,
      • Economic and
      • Political conditions as well as their problems and challenges.
2. Social Science set up the next generation for democratic living and to cultivate international understanding. Social studies develops character traits like:
      • Co-operationFree thinking,
      • Secular points of view,
      • Liberalism,
      • Goodwill Tolerance,
      • Consciousness about one’s rights and duties,
      • Self-discipline,
      • Equality etc.,
3. Social science teaching enables students to make significant contributions towards the solution of global problems.
Democracy is the order of the day. More and more nations are adopting democratic ways of living and forms of government.
4. Social science teaching groomed children in democratic ways of life by
      • Developing a democratic attitude and outlook.
      • Aid them in becoming good democratic citizens.
5. Social science teaching, if handle rightly, makes rational citizens who will lead in promoting greater interaction between different nations.

6. Social science education in school help students to

    • Evaluate problems more accurately.
    • Keenly study challenges and achievements brought about by science and technology.
7. A worthwhile Social science program enables the students to
    • Gain a certain basic understanding,
    • Acquire necessary skills and abilities and
    • Develop attitudes that are needed for effective citizenship in a democratic society.

Scope Of Social Studies Education In Present Day Indian Educational System

A nation is great by the character of its people not by its number.

Every citizen plays a decisive role in the upliftment of their nation. For the progress of any country, the basic necessity is its residents must be educated in a way that they acquire desirable attitudes, skills, and values to enrich not just themselves but their country too.

A meaningful realization of the objectives of teaching social science results in the ‘life-skill education’.

In a democratic & developing nation like India, with its vast challenges, social science is quite important.

Sst offers an organized and efficient study of human beings in relation to society. Social science prepares learners, how to deal with future and immediate burning difficulties and troubles in society like cultural change, social controversies, etc.

Social Science at present learned at the secondary stage in schools of India, comprises of

  • History,
  • Civics,
  • Geography,
  • Economics,
  • Some parts of sociology and all
  • Pertinent issues confronted by contemporary society.

Social science assists in the attainment of this coveted aim of education, especially helpful in successfully tackling challenges in countries like India. Social science helps the nation to mold a better future because of its unending dialogue between past and present.

Syllabus Of Social Science At Secondary Level ( As Prescribed by NCF)

One of the principal purpose of education is preparation for life. The process of education should enable each child to live as a self-sufficient individual to be useful for himself and for society.

The National Curriculum for Education has incorporated the curriculum of Social Science at all levels as a core element. Some of its features are:

  1. The basic content of Social Science has been drawn from different subjects such as
    1. History
    2. Geography
    3. Political science
    4. Civics
    5. Environment study
    6. Economics etc.
  2. Social science course is imparted as a compulsory subject up to the secondary stage for grooming the students to make better adjustment together with society.
  3. A syllabus designed for social studies creates desirable patterns of
    • Interests,
    • Attitudes and
    • Values among the pupils.
  4. Important hidden core components of social science are fairly interwoven in the syllabus and textbooks which encourage:
    • Positive attitude
    • Scientific temper
    • National unity
    • Secularism
    • Appreciation of one’s cultural heritage
    • Religious tolerance etc., among students.
  5. The educators are to be equipped enough to transmit the objectives of social science teaching to students.

Sadly, for the majority of children in a country like India, secondary school might be their final stage of education, which makes teaching social science at this level much more urgent and treasured.

What Are The Key Roles Of Social Science Teacher In Students Life?

Teaching Social studies is a herculean task, but social science educators, one of the most important agents of education can create and promote necessary skills, understanding, attitudes among students.

1. The student mind should be educated for reasoning & critical thinking. A social studies teacher is supposed to teach the pupil how to think objectively, he should
  • Enable the pupils to recognize the existence of propaganda around him.
  • Point out the misleading notion in specific terms.
  • Importantly refuse to sponsor false propaganda.

In order to produce world-minded citizens,  the teacher must be world-minded himself. To enable students to grow up free from prejudice, the social science teacher needs to break down prejudices within himself.

2. Social science educator must himself
  • Extend his horizon and background of information,
  • Develop accurate, factual national and International outlook among himself and within his students.
3. Social studies teachers should enlarge students the knowledge, not just the national level but international too:
  • It is he who can expand and preach an international outlook.
  • It is he who can foster peace and harmony in the rising generation.
  • It is he who can help in promoting a better understanding of the world.
  • It is he who can develop social skills necessary in dealing with misunderstandings that arise between different cultures, religions, nations, etc.

4. To promote international understanding it is vital that the teacher emphasizes that man remains man first and then he can be called an Indian, American, Russian, Englishman, and Chinese, and so on.

5. Social science teachers should first teach the history of humans to children and then move towards teaching world histories like the history of French, America, and Russia, etc.

Wars begin in the mind of men. It is therefore important that defense of peace are constructed in the minds of men.
6. Social skills go a long way in a student’s life. The teacher should impart:
  • Correct knowledge and emphasize correct facts.
  • Worth of friendly personal relationship.
  • Ability to evaluate with no preconception.
  • How to take the difference of opinion constructively.
  • Ability to arrive at a consensus on a controversial matter.
7. To make students enable to meaningfully grasp and evaluate the plans and policies of countries. It is he who can become a force for good in the world community.

8. Social sciences teachers should regularly

  • Conduct debates and discussions,
  • Give example,
  • Show slides related to topics,
  • Use questioning,
  • Utilize audiovisual,
  • Provide anecdotes etc.
9. Social sciences teachers should introduce amongst students the right values of life such as:
  • Love of justice,
  • Cooperation,
  • Harmony,
  • Love of truth and
  • Appreciating the contributions of others etc.
Teachers of social science are in a position to influence thousands of young minds. If they succeed in making every child world minded, peace will take care of itself.

How Present Concept Of Social Science Teaching Create National Understanding?

Social science plays crucial role in nation and society building by creating understanding and integration.

National integration means a recognition and realization of the fact, that there can be unity in diversity.

Social science has the responsibility to infuse:

  • Knowledge of one’s country,
  • Pride and Respect for
    • National environment
    • Rules and Laws
    • Aspirations
    • Heritage
    • Traditions etc.

Social studies teaching brings

  • Economic,
  • Cultural and
  • Social differences, existing amidst people within a tolerable range.
National unity aims at fostering, strengthening respect and affection for folks belonging to another cultural and ethnic groups.

Social science curriculum helps in improving country by:

  • Protecting people from sectional discriminations and pre-possessions.
  • Fueling feeling of overall oneness of the nation results in fostering national understanding.
  • Creates and strengthens attributes of patriotism and national pride.
  • Doing away with inter-state prejudices constructed on linguistic and cultural differences.

With national unity basic loyalties are liberalized and existing antagonisms are minimized.

How Present Concept Of Social Science Teaching Create International Understanding?

There are 2 definite facts in the contemporary world:

  1. Inevitability of worldwide contact.
  2. Rising supremacy of destruction available to all the nations.

Equally there are 2 hopeful prospects:

  1. Possibility of larger mutual understanding through the multiplication of contact.
  2. Immense possibility for constructive work thorough mutual cooperation of the citizens of all nations.

We are living today in a shrinking world. The future of mankind as a whole depends on peaceful coexistence.

Peace and harmony is the unanimous demand, right from birth to the old age universally.

Social science education can accomplish a lot in building up a peaceful world by teaching the future citizens

  • A right international outlook,
  • Faith in the human spirit,
  • Healthy attitudes,
  • Moral values,
  • World loyalties etc.

The biggest commitment of social science education is to aid the students to

  • Comprehend the momentous changes going on in the world around them.
  • Appreciate the necessity for cooperation with societies of other
    • Nationalities,
    • Regions,
    • races,
    • Creeds etc.

Social science promote international peace and security. Social science is a treasure for

  • Prosperity,
  • Peace,
  • Ethos, and
  • Civilization.

Social science make efforts to cut the root of misunderstanding which spearheads dissensions and further led to war causing destruction of the things.

The world of sorrow, cold war and competition, needs to be converted into a world of smiles, co –existence and cooperation.

The speed of modern transportation and communication and the range of destructiveness of modern weapons have erased the margin of distance and time. A conflict in any part of the earth create misery in the life of man at the street.

Social studies teaching craft right attitudes that may lead to better

  • International understanding and
  • Cooperation.

Wars originate in the brains of men, a safeguards must be built for peace. Here, social studies teaching helps man and instills the

  • Right opinions,
  • Sentiments, and
  • infuse correct feelings in the minds of the young during their vulnerable period of life.

Education on international lines can make the citizens of tomorrow, the torch bearers of peace and enlightenment.

Role Of Social Science In Promoting International Understanding

For the promotion of international understanding, it is crucial to:

  1. Recognize the shared humanity which lies beneath all differences in culture.
  2. Respect the dignity and value of human beings.
  3. Providing equality of rights and opportunities irrespective of nationality.
  4. Appreciate the contribution of all people to world citizenship and that there is a human culture.
  5. Comprehend and be familiar with how people in other lands live.
  6. See the world as an interdependent community of the nation and take the world as one unit and work for fair play for all people.
  7. Understand the economic and cultural factors which establish the distinctiveness among groups of people.
  8. Sustain interest in world affairs.
  9. Have faith in collective values and goals for the world community.
  10. Diagnose and aid to unravel world difficulties as per practices of democracy.

To understand that victories of peace are greater than victories of the war.

Ways of Promoting International Understanding:

  1. Organizing Model session of world bodies
  2. Meeting of children
  3. Celebrating the days of International significance
  4. Study tours
  5. Graphic representations of the horrors of modern warfare
  6. International study camps
  7. International book fairs
  8. Use of multimedia
  9. Biographies
  10. Organization of debates
  11. Use of news items broadcasts or telecasts
  12. Exhibitions of paintings and other works of art
  13. Pen friendship
  14. Exchange of gifts
  15. Children’s interviews with the foreigners
  16. Maintaining scrapbooks
  17. International camp
  18. Building of  the museum

1. Organizing Model session of world bodies

Mock sessions of world bodies create international awareness.

  1. Students can recreate:
    1. Working of U.N.O
    2. Dramatization of historical events etc.
  2. A number of projects may be organized on different topics such as model U.N. Security Council sessions and so on.

Discussion of international disputes, terrorism, and chief topics can prove immensely helpful. Topics can be:

    1. Total Ban on armaments nuclear.
    2. Human Rights.
    3. Limitation of weapons etc.

2. Meeting of children

Meeting children of different nationalities is the most valuable experience in children's life. Meeting will help them to realize the true essence of unity in diversity.

3. Celebrating the days of International significance

Celebrating the days of International significance develops international understanding. To acquire a feeling of oneness we should

  1. Celebrate the birthday of great men and women of all lands and nations.
  2. Celebrate international days such as
    1. U.N. Day,
    2. Human right Day
    3. Children’s Day etc.
  3. Celebrate International Week.
  4. Remember heroes of peace on special days.

4. Study tours

With change of place we not only change our ideas but also opinions and feelings.

Study tours of short duration enlarge human humanity. Study tours offer

  • First-hand observation.
  • Personal contacts.
  • Group discussions and thus help in making the world a better version of itself.

5. Graphic representations of the horrors of modern warfare

To make the pupil be aware of the dangers of war and the advantages of peace nothing better than to show graphic and dramatic representations of all shades of war.

To promote international cooperation among future stakeholders best is to show WAR for what it really is:

  • Meaningless,
  • Ineffective,
  • Sadistic and
  • Essentially inhuman business.

6. International study camps

International study camps help in shattering cultural barriers. Excellent opportunities for experience in international living and learning are provided in these camps.

International study camps make it easier for initiating respect for the cultures and people of different nations.

These short-term seminars provide an exceptional occasion of studying together with students of a widely divergent world from each other and study together various aspects of education for the world society.

7. International book fairs

International books give glimpse of those world a student can’t go and see and feel.

International book fairs are another way of creating International awareness and understanding.

8. Use of multimedia

Multimedia sharpen children mind, students learn more when they see.

Multimedia offers a great teaching and learning experience to the children about other countries by showing

  • Books,
  • Pictures,
  • Films and
  • Documentary about those countries.

9. Biographies

Knowledge about great men and women who fought to establish peace in the world can be a great inspiration to the children.

Biographies foster ideas about reach of individual outside their nation border.

10. Organization of debates

Debate on numerous international issues like water conservation, human rights, etc. facilitates casting more light on the burning issues.

  1. Debates on the role of W.H.O, U.N, World Bank, I.M.F, etc., and the rest can be of much use to students in knowing the world more and more.
  2. When students debate they will realize the necessity of creating a world community.
  3. In debates, a student sees the problem with the viewing angle of 360 degrees, and often the solution of the problem is found not within the problem, but outside of it.

Most problem root cause is neglect, corruption, and discrimination only successful dialogue is way forward which can be effectively facilitated by the organization of the world community.

11. Use of news items broadcasts or telecasts

A news item broadcast or telecast about another country can stimulate a child's mind into a pleasant experience for learning about a different world and keep them up to date with what's happening all over the globe.

12. Exhibitions of paintings and other works of art

Exhibitions of the art of one country, when shown in another country, is a key to enable individuals and groups to be informed of those countries which they know little or nothing.

Art exhibitions strengthen and help to revive unity. They speak dialects of this universal language.

International exhibitions encourage a world outlook in the best possible manner. In the words of S. Radhakrishnan

 “Art Exhibitions where we have the world with each other’s eyes. Art speaks a universal language and the different artistic traditions foster friendship by enabling us to see the world with each other’s eyes”.

13. Pen friendship

Pen friendship can establish international contact and harmony among children.

  • Children of one country may send their good wishes, may share experiences good or bad to those of the other.
  • Children can send greetings on occasions of national importance.

14. Exchange of gifts

To make children of the world closer

  • Photographs,
  • Pictures and
  • Small gifts help immensely.

15. Children’s interviews with the foreigners

Interview with persons of different lands will widen the student's mental horizon and provide one of the cherished experiences of his/her life.

Children will get opportunities of asking all sorts of questions about their

  • Country,
  • Experience,
  • Values
  • Culture and traditions etc.

16. Maintaining scrapbooks

To understand the world better maintaining scrapbooks of different countries help is irreplaceable. This personal approach will develop an international understanding in proper perspective.

17. International camp

When students and teachers from different nationalities gather jointly for collective living and do common work in international camps, automatically prepares the students for international understanding.

International camps provide life transforming experiences to learners.

18. Building of the museum

Children should be encouraged to collect souvenirs from different countries. These souvenirs may be kept in the school museum with the required information.


Meaning of Objectives

Aims are sovereign in nature they are broken into specified objectives to provide definite learning experiences for bringing about desirable behavioral changes.

Objectives help in generating behavioral modifications in the learners for the ultimate realization of the aims of teaching.

The objectives are achieved within the specified classroom situation, and they

  • Have swift purposes and are short-term.
  • And they also Aid in accomplishing immediate goals.

Definition of Educational Objectives

Objectives related to education as a whole, are known as 'Educational Objectives '.

 “By educational objectives, we mean explicit formulations of the ways in which students are expected to be changed by the educative process, that is, the ways in which they will change in their actions”. - B.S.Bloom

Need of Educational Objectives

Reasons for needing educational objectives are:

  1. Educational objectives indicate the nature of the education system.
  2. They serve as guides for teaching and learning.
  3. Educational objectives provide guidelines in selecting teaching-learning activities.
  4. It shows the direction in which education will act.
  5. For teaching which aims at worthwhile behavior changes, a clear understanding of educational objectives is essential.
  6. Educational objectives develop awareness among the teachers about the importance of their work.

How to Form Educational Objectives

The formulation of educational objectives is a matter of careful choice on the part of the teachers and administrators.
  1. In forming educational objectives following factors are involved:
    • The needs and capabilities of the pupils.
    • The specific demands of his social environment.
    • The nature of the subject matter.
  2. In order to save time and effort, it is very important that the objectives of a subject be clearly identified and defined.

Criteria For Good Educational Objectives

The criteria of a good educational objective is that

  1. The educational objectives should be ‘Unambiguous’.
  2. The educational objectives should be ‘Useful’.
  3. The educational objectives should be ‘Specific’.
  4. The educational objectives should be ‘Feasible’.
  5. The educational objectives should be 'In Accordance With General Aims of Education '.

Objectives of Classifying Educational Objectives

Classification is a valuable system to group similar things under one heading based on common characteristics or common relationship that exists between groups and individuals.

The main objectives of classifying educational objectives are as follows:

  1. Educational objectives are helpful in defining, translating, and exchanging educational thoughts in a uniform way.
  2. These are vital in comparing curricular goals with wider educational objectives.
  3. Educational objectives assist in preparing evaluation or testing materials.
  4. They are highly valued in planning, teaching, and learning activities.
  5. Educational objectives are significant in identifying desired behavioral outcomes among the learners.
  6. It is crucial in the search for the relationships that exist among groups and individuals.
Educational objectives are fundamental in planning a curriculum.


The Pedagogy Of Social Science Plays A Vital Role In Shaping The Next Generation Of Scientifically Literate Individuals. By Understanding The Principles And Strategies Discussed In This Blog Post, You Will Be Well-Prepared To Create Meaningful And Impactful Social StudiesLearning Experiences For Your Students.


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