Pedagogy Of Science: (B.Ed Notes In English)


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Meaning and Origin of Science

Science has been derived from the Latin word “Scientia” which means “knowledge”.

Science is a systematized body of knowledge that may pertain to any subject or field of life:

  • ‘Science is organized common sense'.
  • ‘Science is an interpretation of the natural phenomenon’ etc.

Science is a cumulative and endless series of empirical observations which result in the formation of concepts and theories with both concepts and theories being subject to modifications in the light of further empirical.

Science is simultaneously a body of knowledge and a continuous, self-evaluative process of inquiry.

  • Science and technology have become a fundamental part of our social and cultural life and of our living. Now, we cannot think of a world without science.
  • Modern civilization is a scientific civilization.
  • The countless activities are controlled and governed by science.
  • Science has revealed from nature almost all the hidden treasures.
Science restores eyes to the blind, hearing to the deaf, legs to the lame, even life to the dead.

In simple words, science is the investigation and interpretation of natural phenomena which occur in our daily life.

Science can never belong to a country or region. It belongs to the whole of mankind.

Definition Of Science

Science Is Nothing But Perception-Plato

Science Is A Multidimensional Activity And It Is Very Difficult To Search A Universal Acceptable Definition Of Science Nonetheless There Are Numerous Definitions That Convey An Idea About What Is Meant By Science:

  • Science Is Organized And Systematized Knowledge Relating To Our Physical World.
  • Science Is Classified Knowledge Gained From A Systematic Study Of Behaviour Of Nature.
  • Science Is Nothing But Gaining Of Knowledge On The Basis Of Experience.
“Science Is Universal And So Can Be Its Benefits. Its Material Benefits Are Immense And Far-Reaching Industrialization Of Agriculture And Release Of Nuclear Energy, To Mention Two Examples-But Even More Profound Is Its Contribution To Culture” - Kothari Commission.

Science Is Cumulative And Endless Series Of Empirical Observation Which Results In The Formation Of Concepts And Theories With Both Concepts And Theories Being Subject To Modification In The Light Of Further Empirical Observation.

Genius Persons By Their Persistent Efforts, Careful Experimentation And Exact Reasoning Have Collected Mass Of Tested Information Which We Call Science.

Science Is The Investigation And Interpretation Of Natural Phenomena Which Occur In Our Daily Life.

“Science Is An Interconnected Series Of Concepts And Conceptual Schemes That Have Developed As A Result Of Experimentation And Observation And Are Fruitful Of Further Experimentation And Observation” - James B. Conant.

Relationship Between Science as a Process and Science as a Product (Approaches in Science)

Science has two important approaches:

  1. Science as a Product.
  2. Science as a Process.

1. Science as a Product

The category of Science as a Product includes:

  • Laws,
  • Theories,
  • Principles,
  • Concepts,
  • Facts etc.

2. Science as a Process

The category of Science as a Process includes:

  • Scientific attitude,
  • Scientific observation,
  • Scientific experimentation,
  • Scientific method etc.

The process of searching scientific knowledge can be explained as follows:

Science is a continuous search for new knowledge through continuous inquiry.

What is the relationship between science as a process and science as a product | product vs process | approaches in science teaching - Pupils Tutor

The diagram shows that products (concepts, facts, etc.,) are derived from process (observation and experimentation) and that these products lead to further process.

Thus, we can summarize the above correlations by saying that

“Science is both a body of knowledge (Product) and method of inquiry (Process)”.

Though both aspects are important in their own way to attain the aims of science education in schools more emphasis should be placed on the process approach.

Nature Of Science

Science has certain characteristics which distinguish it from other spheres of human endeavor. These characteristics define the nature of science.

The nature of science can very well be described with the support of the following attributes:

  1. Systematic and understandable
  2. Accuracy
  3. A mixture of logic and imagination
  4. Science is a Way of Knowing
  5. Science is a Human Endeavor
  6. Knowledge itself is good—it is good to acquire knowledge
  7. Validity
  8. Subject to change
  9. Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods
  10. Durability
  11. Reproducibility
  12. Not all questions can be answered by science
  13. Scientific Knowledge is based on Empirical Evidence
  14. Curiosity is good and should be encouraged

1. Systematic And Understandable:

Scientific knowledge is based on the assumption that natural laws operate today as they did in the past and they will continue to do so in the future.

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems.

Science is not arbitrary, it follows rules, principles, and a system.

From the earliest times one kind of response science still following is:

  • To observe the physical and biological environment carefully.
  • Consequentially, look for any meaningful patterns and relations.
  • From this knowledge make and use new tools to interact with nature, technology, system, etc., and then
  • Build conceptual models to understand the world and universe more.

Science assumes that objects and events in natural systems occur in consistent patterns that are understandable through measurement and observation.

2. Accuracy:

Every new observation or a new theory, theoretical calculation in science is received with a lot of skepticism.

Scientists wish for accuracy and don’t settle even an inch underneath it.

Scientist carefully considers and evaluates anomalies in data and evidence. With a healthy dose of skepticism and lots of debate scientists accept:

  • A new observation only when experimental observations have been checked by independent individuals or groups at various places with identical results.
  • A new theory is accepted only when theoretical calculations have been repeated by other scientists autonomously with identical results.

Scientists look at everything with suspicion which directly leads to science being accurate.

3. Mixture Of Logic And Imagination:

Humans have always been curious about the world around them.

Scientists use all sorts of imagination and thought in approaching theories, experiment, and comes up with hypotheses which they sooner or later verify and test their validity.

The inquiring and imaginative human mind has responded to the wonder and awe of nature in different ways.

Scientific concepts do not emerge automatically from data or from any amount of analysis alone but rigorous use of logic and imagination is its soul. Scientists imagine hypotheses, theories in their real-life application.

Imagination and logic in science is as useful and creative as

  • Writing poetry,
  • Designing skyscrapers,
  • Composing music etc.
Logic and imagination are usually required to recognize the meaning of the unexpected in science.

4. Science Is A Way Of Knowing:

Science is both a body of knowledge that represents a current understanding of natural systems and the processes and practices used to:

  • Refine,
  • Elaborate,
  • Revise and
  • Add to that body of knowledge.

Science is a way of knowing used by many people, not just scientists. Science knowledge helps us know about the world. 

Science knowledge has a history that includes the refinement of, and changes to,

  • Theories,
  • Ideas, and
  • Beliefs over time.
Science knowledge is cumulative and many people, from many generations and nations, have contributed to scientific knowledge.

5. Science Is A Human Endeavor:

An important trait of humans is to wonder, observe and interact with the surroundings and look for meaningful patterns and relations by making and using new tools and build conceptual models to understand this universe.

Human exploratory actions have triggered the accumulation of vast sources of knowledge in science.

Human endeavor has led to modern science which took thousands of years to get crystallized.
Human’s inquisitiveness and usefulness of the knowledge of science are the two main factors that have led human

  • To continuously endeavor to grasp the behavior of nature and
  • Use the knowledge of science to make their life more comfortable.

In doing so humans systematized science knowledge by

  • Classifying it into numerous fields of their activities,
  • Built concepts to figure out the behavior of nature and
  • Found various ways to exploit it.
In short, the endeavors of humankind resulted in a new discipline known as science.

6. Knowledge Itself Is Good - It Is Good To Acquire Knowledge:

Science is knowledge and knowledge is power and with power come wisdom and liberation.

Knowledge is good, not because it may be useful in some pragmatic manner, but purely since it increases and enriches our store of understanding about the universe in which we live.

Science is a particular way of looking at nature, which may also be called a scientific attitude.

In science, experimentation and theory building complements each other.

  • In a progressive forward-looking society, knowledge especially science knowledge plays a truly liberating role. It’s easy to falsify or fabricate the data but scientific knowledge can foil it.
  • Scientific knowledge helps people to come out of the vicious circle of poverty, ignorance, and superstition
  • Staying open-minded and skeptical is certainly a value and goal for all scientists, provided that one's open-mindedness is reserved for objective evidence, as opposed to subjective.
Science, tempered with wisdom and is the surest and the only way to human welfare.

7. Validity:

Validity refers to the degree to which a theory or study accurately reflects or assesses the specific concept that the scientist is attempting to measure.

Science leads to the generation of ideas helping to make sense of observed facts that get accepted if they fit observations but may be refuted until tested through evidence.

These ideas represent a broad view and are generalized as the scientific principles that are true universally.

Science results, theories are valid as they came into existence after a rigorous and lengthy process of

  1. Finding,
  2. Checking,
  3. Rechecking,
  4. Re-experiment and so on.

8. Subject To Change:

Science is about asking questions and finding answers to them through scientific methods and inquiry.

One of the key nature of science is that even the most established theories can be

  • Modified, or
  • Even abandoned, if new experimental results do not fit into the existing theories.

From time to time a new experiment in science throws up finding which force modification in an existing theory or demand the development of an altogether new theory.

  1. Scientific explanations are subject to revision and improvement in light of new evidence.
  2. Theoretical expansion in a theory predicts new facts, phenomena that require further experiment and leads to vast changes. 
Science values an open mind (to be willing to examine and consider new evidence and arguments), tempered by a vigilant level of skepticism.

9. Scientific Investigations Use A Variety Of Methods:

The interplay between theory and experiment is a fascinating facet of the scientific process.

Science investigations begin with a question. Most investigations in science include some form of the scientific method and are guided by a set of values to ensure the accuracy of

  • Observations
  • Measurements, and
  • The objectivity of findings.

Scientists use different ways approaches to study the world. Science investigations use diverse methods and do not always use the same set of procedures to obtain data. For Example:

  • The approach used by the scientists in the study of astronomy and ecology is ‘observation’ and ‘prediction’.
  • In micro science scientists rely on ‘laboratory experiment’ and focused on ‘ cause and effect relationship’.

Scientists, in their exploration, employ inquiry and scientific methods which in daily life promotes scientific temper and rationality.

It has been emphasized that students should imbibe the spirit of scientific inquiry in their personal lives.

10. Durability:

Continuity and stability are as characteristic of science as change is, and confidence is as widespread as apprehension.

Most scientific knowledge is quite durable but is, in principle, subject to change based on

  • New evidence or
  • Reinterpretation of existing evidence.

Scientific argumentation is a mode of logical discourse used to clarify the strength of relationships between ideas and evidence that may result in the revision of an explanation but still, the certainty and durability of science findings vary.

  • For example: In formulating the theory of relativity, Albert Einstein did not discard the Newtonian laws of motion but rather showed them to be only an approximation of limited application within a more general concept.

Scientific explanations can be probabilistic and although scientists reject the notion of attaining absolute truth and accept some uncertainty as part of nature, most scientific knowledge is durable.

11.  Reproducibility

Reproducibility is one of the important criteria for a scientific result to be acceptable. Reproducibility is defined as obtaining consistent results using the same data and code as the original study.

12.  Not All Questions Can Be Answered By Science

Science knowledge indicates what can happen in natural systems - not what should happen.

Scientists study the natural and material world. Science offers answers to the problems but scientific knowledge is constrained by

  • Human capacity,
  • Technology, and
  • Materials.

Science findings are limited to what can be answered with empirical evidence. Many decisions are not made using science alone, but

  • Involves human Ethics, Moral Values, and Professionalism about the use of scientific knowledge.
  • Heavily rely on Social and Cultural contexts to resolve issues.

Science knowledge can describe the consequences of actions, may raise ethical issues but is not responsible for society’s decisions, and does not provide answers and solutions. 

13.  Scientific Knowledge Is Based On Empirical Evidence:

Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations.

Science findings are based on:

  • Looking and recognizing patterns and orders.
  • Coordinating patterns of evidence with current theory.

Scientists use tools and technologies to make accurate measurements and observations.

  • Science disciplines share common rules of obtaining and evaluating empirical evidence.
  • Science arguments are strengthened by multiple lines of evidence supporting a single explanation.

14.  Curiosity Is Good And Should Be Encouraged:

Curiosity leads to a search for knowledge for its own sake, which is the driving force behind the great majority of scientific discoveries ever made.

Curiosity is surely the most essential trait a scientist can possess.

  • Curiosity can be a hard sell because, sadly, many of today's students seem to lack curiosity about the world and universe outside their personal spheres of relevance.

Nature of Science In Technical Terms

Based on the notion of the structure of Disciplines or structure of knowledge Joseph J. Schwab (1964) and Bruner (1962) have explained the nature of science in technical terms.

According to them, the nature of science comprises:

  1. Substantive Structure of Science
  2. Syntactical Structure of Science

1. The Substantiate Structure of Science

  • The substantive structure of science epitomizes the major conceptual schemes which constitute the basic knowledge used in science.
  • The substantive structure of science contains different classes of statements, such as
    • Definitions,
    • Statements,
    • Knowledge etc., we may call them ‘key concepts’ or ‘major ideas’.

2. The Syntactical Structure of Science

  • The syntactical structure of science is concerned with the so-called processes of scientific inquiry, the means by which scientific knowledge is acquired and verified.
  • These processes can be further divided into simple skills so that pupils can practice them without any difficulty.
  • Some of the processes of science are as follows.
    • Observation
    • Formulating hypothesis
    • Classification
    • Measurement
    • Experimenting etc.,

At this stage it is easy to infer that the nature of science has two aspects:

  • Concepts of science that build the substantiate structure of science.
  • The processes of science build the syntactical structure of science.

Both are equally important but in recent times a new technical aspect of science has also emerged i.e the social aspect.

3. The Social Aspect of Science

The applications of science to society and its impact on human lives are first as important as learning content and skills. In fact, the new emphasis on science teaching that includes social, moral-ethical aspects of science is up till now is strongly recommended.

Science has been taken as a human activity that influences society and is being influenced by society.

Science technology to be more fiercely based on social issues that have moral, ethical, and social relevance

Some examples are as follows.

  • Nuclear energy
  • Pollution
  • CO2 emission
  • Bio-engineering
  • Waste management etc.

Characteristics Of Science

The 7 most important characteristics of science are:

  1. Science is Empirical
  2. Science is Unique
  3. Science is Holistic
  4. Science is Humanistic
  5. Science is Tentative in Nature
  6. Science is Replicable
  7. Science grows through Processes of Science

1. Science is Empirical:

Scientific knowledge is derived by observations or experimentation which is further extended on the continuity of observations.

Observations ----> Processes ----> Concepts

2. Science is Unique:

Science is distinguished from other realms by virtue of the nature of knowledge and its procedure in generating new knowledge.

3. Science is Holistic:

The knowledge produced by different branches of science contributes to an overall conceptual scheme that is internally consistent.

4. Science is Humanistic:

  • Science is a product of a human effort to find out the unknown things of nature.
  • All the knowledge of science is related to human beings like:
    • Scientific concepts are the products of culture.

5. Science is Tentative in nature:

“If science is knowledge, it is dynamic knowledge”.

Science is uncertain and its knowledge is consistently changing in the light of new evidence. We can say that science is subject to change.

6. Science is Replicable:

Science is based on evidence that can be investigated or researched in a different place and at a different time given similar conditions.

7. Science grows through processes of science

  • Scientific knowledge grows through processes of science or inquiry approach or methodologies of science.
  • The processes of science grow from simple to complex.
    • For example, Inquiry approaches grow from simple (i.e., stable inquiry) to difficult (i.e., fluid inquiry).

What is The Scope of Science?

When we try to assess the importance of science in the school curriculum, we look at it from some angles like:

  1. The utility of the subject of science.
  2. The cultural values of the subject science.

1. The Utility of the Subject Science

The utility of science subject includes:

  1. Intellectual Value
  2. Utilitarian Value
  3. Scientific Value
  4. Vocational Value
  5. Aesthetic value
  6. Moral Values

Intellectual Value:

  • The study of science subject develops not only high regard for truth but also for the search for truth.
  • The “Intellectual Value” or “Knowledge Value” of science is necessary for almost every individual in the scientific world of today. 
  • Science fosters intellectual ways of thinking and reasoning.

Utilitarian Value:

Right from the cradle to the grave, all our activities are controlled and fashioned by science.

The “Utilitarian Value” of science is henceforth quite obvious.

Scientific Value:

  • Science created self-confidence in life by providing a “Scientific Method” for solving problems.
  • The various steps in the scientific method can be listed as
    1. Sensing the problems.
    2. Collection of data.
    3. Forming hypothesis.
    4. Verifying the hypothesis.
    5. Drawing conclusions.

Vocational Value:

  • Science has great “Vocational Value", for example:
    1. Agriculture,
    2. Engineering etc., are science-based.
  • Fully realizing the vocational value of science, certain applied sciences courses are offered in the vocational stream.

Aesthetic value:

  • Science is concerned with the truth of all existence and it provides a chance for application.
  • For this reason, scientific discoveries to solve the mysteries of nature are concerned with “aesthetic value”.

Moral Values:

  • The moral integrity caused by the pursuit of science is mainly due to the nature of science.
  • The “Moral Values” of scientists could be maintained only when they express the truths without any fear or bias.

2. Cultural values of the science subject.

Science has a cultural value also

The methods of science inspire the students to do things in a reasonable and logical manner.

By the study of the lives of great scientists, we not only know about their great works but also draw inspiration for the study of science.

Correlation of Science With Other School Subjects

  1. Correlation of science subjects with one another.
  2. Correlation of science with other school subjects.
  3. Correlation of science with life and environment.

1. Relationship Of Science Subjects With One Another

Each science subject is inter-reliant with each other. An interdisciplinary approach is vital for a better understanding.

For example:

  1. A biology teacher while teaching digestion needs to use the knowledge of chemistry.
  2. The atomic structure and the electronic configuration of atoms, elements, radioactive isotopes are areas common to physics and chemistry.
  3. Photosynthesis in Botany is taught by an interdisciplinary approach between Botany and chemistry.

2. Relationship Of Science With Other School Subjects

The relationship of science with other subjects can be discussed as:

(i) Relationship Of Science With Social Studies:

Science has changed our way of thinking and the standard of living.

  • Transportation facilities,
  • mass media,
  • films,
  • cinema theatres,
  • magic shows, etc., are all scientific inventions that make our lives different.

Many superstitious beliefs are vividly explained on the basis of scientific principles. Every day, science has its play from dawn to night. 

(ii) Relationship Of Science With Languages:

Children can’t express themselves until they develop a good language (both written and spoken) skill.

(iii) Relationship Of Science With Painting and Drawing:

Diagrams in science have an important place without diagrams, we cannot grapple the theoretical descriptions effectively without drawing. Preparations of

  • Charts,
  • Models,
  • Diagrams etc., require skill in drawing.

Without proper diagrams, the teacher cannot teach some complex concepts such as the structure of atoms, etc.,Drawing is of immense significance in every branch of science.

(iv) Relationship Of Science With History:

The life of a nation is greatly influenced by the application of scientific discovery to national trade, industry, diet, and standards of living and by the imparting of current scientific thought on the general idea of the age.

(v) Relationship Of Science With Geography:

  1. To understand concepts like:
    • conventional currents in the air and in the sea;
    • variation of the density of water with temperature;
    • Thermometers, barometer, rain gauge, hygrometer, etc. science and geography both are required.
  2. Simple problems connected with the composition, pressure, temperature, and moisture of the air are usually dealt with in science and geography courses.

(vi) Relationship Of Science With Economics:

Science has a profound effect on the economy of a particular country. For instance:

    1. The health of a nation is, dependent upon the knowledge of science in terms of a balanced diet, food preservation, canning, medicine, etc.,
    2. The industrial economy is also dependent upon the chemical know-how of metals, their ores, etc.,

(vii) Relationship Of Science With Mathematics:

  1. The early introduction of the ratio of trigonometry is a great help in the science course and their use in mechanics, magnetism and light give reality to their meaning.
  2. Many problems of mathematics like
    • proportion,
    • inverse ratio,
    • equations, and
    • graphs are constantly in use in science courses.

(viii) Relationship Of Science With Music:

Several sections, topics of science enhances when they got connects with fine arts.For example:

  • The topic of sound in science can be easily and interestingly taught when the topic is compared with musical instruments.
  • Pitch and length of the string, the vibration of air columns and flutes, etc., can be demonstrated easily for improved learning.

(ix) Relationship Of Science With Craft:

Correlation between science and craft is possible to a great extent.We learn more when we do it with our own hands.

Besides making students self-sufficient, craft also cultivates in the students of science the habit of manual work.

3. Relationship Of Science With Life And Environment

All our daily routine is controlled by science and its products. For basic needs of life such as food, clothing, shelter, we have to depend upon science.

Science has gone deep into the veins of modern society.
  1. Science helps in
    • Communication
    • Transportation
    • Industry
    • In food production
    • Insecticides etc.
  2. Applications of science topics in daily life affect the thought and actions of learners.


Science occupies an important place in our life, and must also be given an important place in the school curriculum.
Some of the general Aims and Objectives of Teaching Science are:
  1. To promote the power of reasoning among learners as science is studied through observation and practical training.
  2. The objectives of Science are guided by the content materials of the curriculum, lessons, and topics.
  3. Science has its own values of objectivity, rationality, neutrality, humanity and it caters to individual needs by means of bringing more flexibility.
  4. To help the students to prepare themselves for the time ahead with its own
    • Conceptual structure,
    • Methodologies,
    • Skills,
    • Social bearing etc.
  5. To bring freedom, liberation, happiness, speculation & imagination since science is one of the approaches which truly based on
    • Philosophical,
    • Sociological,
    • Psychological and
    • Moral Dimensions.

General Aim and Objectives of teaching science at primary level:

Generally, children of the age group of five to ten years come under the Primary level of Education.

  • Normally, children of this age group are “thirsty to know about all the things they come in contact with”. Students at this stage are also very
    • Active,
    • Energetic,
    • Sensitive,
    • Keen Observers,
    • Curious etc.

Students of this ‘delicate age’ are very vulnerable it is obligatory for everyone to keep in mind the ‘Capacity of these learners’ and how will they ‘adapt themselves to their environment’.

For constructing aims and objectives at the elementary stage of education, psychological requirements of children of this age group is one of the chief aspect.

Following are generally accepted as the major aims and objectives for teaching science:

  1. Development and Training of the Power of Observation.
  2. Importance of Science in Life.
  3. Development of Practical Outlook.
  4. Knowledge of the Relationship between Physical and Social Environment.
  5. To develop the habits of Personal, Family, and Community Cleanliness.
  6. Knowledge of Casual Relationships.
  7. Objectives with regard to Character and Behavior.

1.  Development and training of the power of observation:

It is necessary to develop and train student's power of observation, for this "teacher should train and encourage them for overall active participation like":

  • Teacher can encourage them to collect plants, different kinds of flowers, etc.
  • Teacher should also train them to know about various things about these collected things.

2.  Importance of science in life

  • Students should be guided to know about the usefulness of science in life.
  • Students should know about plentiful contributions made by science for the improvement of human life.

3.  Development of practical outlook

Practical outlook help students to make proper use of their theoretical knowledge.
  • Students of this stage of education are tremendously active, they are full of life, and merely giving knowledge of facts is not sufficient.
  • Children's activities should be, designed to channelize their energy in developing a practical outlook.

4.  Knowledge of the relationship between physical and social environment

Children continually come in contact with the natural as well as social environment.
  • Students must be trained to know about the correlation that exists between the community and nature.
  • Students should be taught about the various benefits, assistance that community or society derives from nature.

5.  To develop the habits of personal, family, and community cleanliness

Children of this sensitive age must be taught about the habits of personal and social hygieneStudents should be taught to keep themselves and their environment clean.

6.  Knowledge of the casual relationship

Young students are inquisitive by nature they observe sharply have more and more follow-up questions. Every so often their curiosity is explained and it dies down.
  • The teaching of science must develop in the students the consciousness of the relationship of cause and effect.
  • Students should be encouraged to know about the causes of the several events that they observe around them. This will ultimately help them in the development of the scientific outlook.

7.  Objectives with regard to character and behavior

It is essential to bring about changes in the behavioral pattern of the young learners such as:

  • They may be taught to have respect for the agencies of nature.
  • They may be taught the lesson of conservation of national wealth etc.
These qualities will, later on, pass on to their other fields of life.

General Aim And Objectives Of Teaching Science At Junior High School:

Students of classes VI, VII, and VIII comprise this stage of education. These students are less impulsive and more balanced than students at the primary level. Children of this stage of education are more developed, they are no more children only.

The Aims and Objectives of the teaching of science for this stage of education are:

  1. Development of knowledge and skill for social life
  2. Development of the quantitative sense
  3. Economic efficiency
  4. Practical use
  5. Development of the power of reasoning
  6. Numerical Sense

1.   Development Of Knowledge And Skill For Social Life

Building of the background for vocational and social lives help to develop:

  • Knowledge in the students,
  • Skills in the students,
  • Positive outlook and Interest in the students.

2.   Development Of The Quantitative Sense

The students of this stage have the quantitative sense developed in them.

  • Students need motivation and options to further acquire skills to solve real problems.
  • Students should be given the opportunity to get to the bottom of problems for further development.

3.   Economic Efficiency

It is crucial to make students efficient to earn their livelihood.

  • This can be acquired precisely when they have apt knowledge about their social and natural environment.
  • For inclusive progress of students, they need economic efficiency skills.

4.   Practical Use

In this stage of education, students are able to apply the acquired knowledge.

They have developed a sense of practical use and to make their learning more effective they should be given options for practical use of their attained knowledge.

5.   Development Of The Power Of Reasoning

At this level, students have developed the power of reasoning, should be adequately offers opportunities for expansion of their power of reasoning.

6.   Numerical Sense

The students at this stage should be given numerical problems to solve.

"Solving the numerical problems would give them an opportunity to develop a sense of the application of theoretical knowledge to numerical aspects of things". 

Objectives Of Teaching Science At Senior Secondary Stage:

The students of this stage of education are more developed than the students of the Junior High School Classes. In this level of education, students should be taught science with a view to achieve the following three things.

  1. Development of the psychological aptitude and
  2. To prepare and equip students for higher education
  3. To develop economic efficiency and capacity to earn a livelihood, and to prepare them for future life.

In order to achieve them, certain aims and objectives must be kept in view.

Objectives that govern the teaching of science in the higher secondary stage for education are:

  1. Understanding
  2. Skills
  3. Application
  4. Attitude
  5. Interest
  6. Appreciation
  7. Knowledge
  8. Personality Traits

1.  Understanding

Understanding includes translation from one form to another and interpretation.

For understanding, the students must be skilled to

  • Generalize the facts and events which are having shared characteristics.
  • Constantly seek out generalizations to formulate things more clear and understandable.

Generalizations are very essential to understand science in everyday life they form a strong base for higher education. Generalizations are frequently referred to as:

  • Concepts,
  • Principles and
  • Law.

2.  Skills

Knowledge of content alone is not enough for enriching a student.

Possession of the skills is very essential in solving practical problems. The various skills which can be developed through science teaching are:

  • Experimental Skill,
  • Problem Solving Skill
  • Constructional Skill,
  • Observational Skill, and
  • Drawing

3.   Application

The third aim and objective of teaching science in higher secondary schools are to make students‘ alert citizens’ and ‘better equipped to improve the community life'.

  • In order to achieve this, the student should be able to apply the generalizations to their daily life.
  • Application in science will serve as a bridge to fill the gap between classroom work and real-life activities.

4.   Attitude

“Attitude is a condition of readiness for a certain type of activity”

Some of the initial manifestations of scientific attitude are finding answers to problems through

  • Direct observation,
  • Experimentation,
  • Verification and
  • Testing of knowledge.

Science teachers, on the other hand, should make special efforts to develop them by employing democratic procedures in classroom activities.

5.   Interest

The teaching of science should aim at developing some interest in

  • Scientific hobbies
  • Activities of the science club
  • Reading scientific literature etc.

Interest should not be superimposed; on the other hand, everybody should be free to select the activity according to one’s own inner appeal.

6.   Appreciation

The basic idea of this aim is to develop a real feel of science.

  • Appreciation develops from understanding and attitudes it cannot be taught.
  • The students of science should be able to appreciate the contributions of science in the progress of civilizations.

7.   Knowledge

The student studying science should acquire the knowledge of:

  • Scientific facts to understand scientific
  • Methodology and Scientific
  • Trends and Ways and means of dealing
  • Conventions and General rules of health and human
  • The natural phenomenon, Theories, and Structure
  • Correlation and interdependence of different branches of science etc.

The students should be able to relate this knowledge in their everyday life.

8.   Personality Traits

Science teaching should aim to draw out the best in the student body, mind, and soul.

The teaching of science must help acquire personality traits also.

For example: The students should report their results and observations faithfully.

"Science teaching should provide equality and equity for every individual".

Importance Of Teaching Science

The knowledge gained through science is much more useful in guiding our life style than gained through other sources- Herbart Spencer

Science and technology have become a fundamental part of our social and cultural life and of our living. Now, we cannot think of a world without science.

The Importance of science can very well be described with the support of the following points:

  1. Utilitarian importance
  2. Intellectual importance
  3. Disciplinary importance
  4. Cultural importance
  5. Moral importance
  6. Aesthetic importance
  7. Social importance
  8. Vocational importance
  9. Psychological importance
  10. Develops problem-solving skills
  11. Awareness about technology
  12. How to conserve natural resources
  13. Instils survival skills

1.  Utilitarian Importance

The modern age is the science age. We are living in an age of science and technology. Science has revolutionized our way of living. It has entered our life and daily activities. All our activities are controlled and fashioned by it.

Present-day lives hinge on scientifically designed appliances so much that we cannot do without them.

  • There is a vast storehouse of natural power such as Wind, Waterfall, Heat of the sun, etc. science shows man how it is useful for them.
  • We see a network of scientific gadgets constructed on the most up-to-date scientific inventions all the time and everywhere around us.

Now its turns to more obligation than just mere interest for one and all to not only to understand science but to master it from all angles.

2.  Intellectual Importance

Science grants us the insight which permits individual to chase the truth and the reality of nature around him.

Science sharpens our intellect and led us to critical observation and reasoning. The study of science provides us with the opportunity to bud our mental faculties of

  • Analysis and Assessment,
  • Imagination and Originality,
  • Memory and Concentration,
  • Systematic thinking etc.

Science helps pupils to think of problems, and follow the method of inquiry. Science removes room for uncertainty as it accepts the one which can be proved by

  • Experimentation,
  • Logic,
  • Actual observation and
  • Reasoning.
The queries of all problems and phenomena can be satisfactorily answered and countered only by the wisdom of science.

3.  Disciplinary Importance

Science brings about total transformation of one’s viewpoint and makes thought process more organized. Science is the one subject which promotes

  • Interest and Seriousness in the study,
  • Systematic thinking,
  • Concentration,
  • Habit of hard work,
  • Spirit of enquiry and Systematic working.

Science develops one’s personality as a whole and helps to lead one’s daily life successfully in a well-thought-out and orderly way.

Science helps students to review all the good and bad points, together with the gain and loss likely to be incurred in the plan of action contemplated. Science makes students equip with

  • The habit of viewing a problem impartially with an alert mind.
  • To observe the real nature of the problem.
  • To think seriously and effectively.

4.  Cultural Importance

The development of culture is the history of science.

Science has aided the growth of consciousness by making us more aware of the universe we live in. We can judge the progress of civilization and the culture of inhabitants by the progress in science.

  1. Man has been rediscovering his life with the passage of time and the advancement of science.
  2. From long times age-old man has been attempting to maintain and preserve their way of life and standard through the use of science.
  3. Change in our lifestyle as it should be is due to the inventions of science.
  4. Scientists take an active part in the vital issues of the country so as to bring about consideration and integration of scientific development and our cultural heritage.
Science not only enlarge culture but also helps in preserving it.

5.  Moral Importance

The search for truth or reality of nature and search of God are identical aims.

Some folks believe that Science is responsible for

  • Destroying religious belief.
  • Planting foulest seeds in young minds,
  • Lack of faith in God etc. but in reality the status quo is reverse.

Pursuit of knowledge of nature or study of science cannot be called opposing to religion and faithlessness. Science on the other hand

  • Does not succumb to blind faith,
  • Does not admit faith in idol worship and
  • Does not follow loads of inept customs and rituals harmful to humanity.
Science and its pursuit not only include all the traits of morality but also develop them. Man who follows the path of the scientific method in his pursuit of knowledge automatically develops so many qualities.

Science teaches the student quality like:

  • Honesty and Tolerance,
  • Justice and Punctuality,
  • Self-confidence,
  • Determination and Patience etc.

Every conclusion of science depends upon the rationality of tests and actual observations and not by cheat and deceit.

Science has more moral importance as scientific theory includes religious, philosophic, and many other kinds of human interest, but it does not disintegrate passion for the truth.

Science is the search for truth in a faithful manner.

6.  Aesthetic Importance

The study of science is a cradle of great gratification when one gets answers to his questions about the mysteries of nature.

Aesthetic sense is the most important thought with all scientific men for it meets one of the deepest needs of human nature which manifests itself as the desire for beauty.

Science is

  • Art,
  • Beauty and
  • A source of entertainment.

Science helps us to utilize our leisure purposefully. It helps in attaining physical comforts successfully. To a man of science, practical application is just a by-product of his autonomous activity.

The search for universal laws and comprehensive theories undoubtedly reflect the aesthetic motive which seems to be indistinguishable from those of an artist.

7.  Social Importance

From the very start of our civilization science has played an important role in its improvement. Science is of great importance to society. It provides

  • Momentum to the progress of society by its new thoughts and inventions.
  • Influence all social activities of man.
  • Make man social life happy and comfortable

By studying science students can lead a healthy robust life and equally gain from public welfare activities based on science.

Science is vital for the evolvement of society and nation by transforming young children into precious future global citizens. In fact, the world has become a small social group.

It won’t be false if we say,

Today’s society stands on pillars of scientific techniques and knowledge.

8.  Vocational Importance

Knowledge of science is now extensively used in all the traditional and new professions like:

  • Medicine,
  • Engineering,
  • Agriculture,
  • Dairy farming etc.
Scientific principles and inventions have become universal and omnipresent in our daily life.

Science has also revolutionized modern vocations like Telephone, Television broadcasting, Internet, etc. and opened vast vistas of vocations from traditional to contemporary forms the basis for many hobbies such as:

  • Bee keeping,
  • Radio servicing,
  • Photography etc.

9.  Psychological Importance

Study of science fulfils the psychological needs of man and helps in evolution of natural curiosity.

The study of science has its special importance whether we consider from the personal or social point of view. It helps in finding and developing hidden abilities and gifts of a child. Science learning amplify instincts among learner like

  • Compilation,
  • Individuality,
  • Originality,
  • Self-expression etc.

The joy and bliss obtained from the successful investigation of scientific problems are unmatched. The study of science gives children security and insight for solving any life problem facing them.

The instincts of curiosity are responsible for the urge of

  • Investigation,
  • Experimentation and
  • Research.

In concise words,

The study of science gives self-confidence and teaches how to lead a successful and meaningful life.

10.  Develops Problem-Solving Skills

Knowledge in science subject also enables to absorb and improve knowledge of other subjects better. With the knowledge of science, students learn to ponder logically.

The problem-solving skill, which is learned in the early years enables students to solve problems. Almost everything we see around is mainly present because individuals have used their knowledge of science to create real-life applications.

Now, it is very essential to have some elementary knowledge of science for becoming a full member of society.

11.   Awareness About Technology

Science has the potential to be beneficial or harmful, emancipative or oppressive.

Learning the basics of how a range of devices work can help develop and fortify ideas of your own among students and helps in inventing new technology.

  1. Fixing minor problems in electronic objects in the home is feasible only when students have the fundamental knowledge in the region of technology.
  2. In laboratory knowledge of how to use basic devices like
    • Microscopes,
    • Telescopes etc. create a big difference in learning.

12.  How To Conserve Natural Resources

Science promotes a greener environment it teaches about 3 R’s

  1. Reduce
  2. Recycle and
  3. Reuse.

All aspects of the environment have a deep impact on our lives and awareness and concern about such aspects can benefit in contributing towards preserving wildlife and natural resources. Science teaches about

  • Conservation of wildlife,
  • Learn about the many species that are already extinct,
  • Shortage or absence of certain resources and
  • Environmental changes.

Science teaches about the knowledge which is essential to help save our planet for the future like:

  • How does the earth function?
  • How you can conserve natural resources?
  • How to make use of natural resources?
  • How the lack of these resources affects living things etc.

13.   Instils Survival Skills

Almost everything that a person does contains a basic knowledge of science, and logical reasoning.

It is undoubtedly significant to learn science from the early days of school. Science helps to study the various phenomena that occur in nature.

  • For Example: Science knowledge helps predict weather conditions and patterns, with this knowledge, a person can stay alert and be in a better position to survive the disaster.

Objectives Of Teaching Science

Science Is The Investigation And Interpretation Of Natural Phenomena Which Occur In Our Daily Life.

Some Goals and Objectives of teaching science are:

  1. Acquisition of knowledge and understanding
  2. Development of scientific attitude/outlook
  3. Nurturing creativity
  4. Development of skills
  5. Development of Problem-solving skills
  6. Nurturing curiosity
  7. Development of thinking abilities
  8. Nurturing aesthetic sense

1.  Acquisition Of Knowledge And Understanding

Science knowledge provides a sound base

  • To explore the unknown, and
  • To build further knowledge.

Therefore, it is significant for children to acquire knowledge of science content, its concepts, and underlying principles.

Previous experiences attained by students are central to knowledge creation, as previous experiences lead students to develop new ideas.

  • Teachers need to collect such experiences of children to build further knowledge on their previous knowledge.
  • Trustworthy tools to procure previous information are Drawings, Maps, and Charts, etc. Created by students.
  • Teacher may engage the children in meaningful discussions through Questioning and Listening for gathering previous student knowledge.

Science knowledge cannot be passed to children directly. In addition, science understanding cannot be developed by rote learning.

Science knowledge can be aroused by

  1. Providing children relevant and age-appropriate learning opportunities.
  2. Permitting students to undergo experiential learning through exploration and interaction with their environment.
  3. Help in constructing their own knowledge.

2.  Development Of Scientific Attitude

Scientific attitude is an amalgamation of a number of mental processes or tendencies to react consistently in definite ways to a novel or problematic situation.

Scientific Outlook include

  • Accuracy and Intellectual honesty,
    • To be accurate and truthful in doing experiments, making observations, recording, and reporting.
  • Open-mindedness,
    • To be open-minded and hear anything from anybody.
  • Respect for evidence,
    • To receive information and come to a conclusion or judgment only based on facts.
  • Skepticism,
    • Science promotes skepticism; scientists are vastly skeptical people.
  • Suspended judgment,
    • Always ready to test and verify own judgments. To believe that nothing is final in Science.
  • Critical thinking,
    • To be constantly critical and curious and continually seek knowledge by inquiring.
    • Scientists, because of their thirst for knowledge become perpetual learners.
  • Looking at true cause and effect relationship.
    • To have faith in cause-and-effect relationships.

Science attitude can be nurtured over a period of time through the process of providing relevant learning situations like:

  • Creating an open classroom environment.
  • To let students freely interact with their surroundings.
  • Encouraging children to perform activities and experiments.
  • Encouraging children to read scientific literature.
  • Prompting students by asking questions.

A science teacher needs to provide children experiences of a number of scientific activities, develop a scientific attitude and temper, and create a strong base for a thorough understanding of science.

3.  Nurturing Creativity

Creativity has been defined in a number of ways:

  • Creativity is doing or seeing things differently.
  • Creativity is the production of relevant and novel products and processes.

Creative thinking empowers a learner to explore existing alternatives and consequences of actions or non-actions and contributes to decision-making and problem-solving. A creative child thinks differently, possess thinking abilities which are:

  • Intuitive,
  • Original,
  • Independent,
  • Divergent, and
  • Fearless.
Creative thinking is a novel or innovative way of seeing or doing things.

Creativity cannot be taught, but developed in students by using planned strategies and techniques. A creative child wonders what makes things work, they

  • Likes to ask thought-provoking questions rather than fact-seeking or memory-type questions.
  • They are a keen observer who ponders over the outcome of an event of phenomena and seeks information.
  • Expresses unending curiosity, and
  • Welcomes new ideas.

From the pedagogical perspective of science, inquiry, and activity-oriented, process-based teaching-learning can facilitate nurturing creativity.

The teacher plays an important role in nurturing creativity in learners. The teacher should identify the traits and provide a variety of learning experiences of inquiry and discovery of science to nurture creativity. The role of the teacher should be to:

  1. Assist students in developing models of inquiry and express to the students that their ideas have value.
  2. Encourage students to frame questions and browse a variety of reading materials.
  3. Recognize and appreciate the creative ideas and products of students.
  4. Provide a rich variety of learning experiences to students and Guide students in the use of a multidisciplinary approach.

4.  Development Of Skills

Science is important to all young people not only to obtain the knowledge related to it but also to imbibe its inquiry and process skills. These skills involve the use of all the sense organs providing hands-on experiences for enjoyable and effective learning.

For instance:

  • Laboratory skills are required during performing experiments. In order to do experiments, students have to
    • Handle apparatus carefully,
    • Set up the apparatus to perform the experiment and
    • Make correct observations.
Science is about asking questions and finding answers to them through scientific method and inquiry.

Skills are necessary for the students to develop knowledge of science. All the basic skills are important individually as well as when they are integrated. These skills are long-lasting; thus, tend to be useful throughout each area of our lives.

For instance:
  • When students do experiments in the laboratory they have to work with other students cooperatively, they need to share the responsibilities, need to listen to one another to be understanding. This skill is called a general skill.

Some of the skills students need to develop are:

  • Drawing skills,
  • General skills,
  • Laboratory skills etc.

Skills enable students to develop into adults who are able to make informed and responsible actions while engaging and reflecting upon different ideas, opinions, beliefs, or values.

5.  Development Of Problem Solving Skill

Problem-solving means that an individual has learned the skills and acquired relevant information necessary to solve problems that are not only curricular but also related to everyday life.

Simply acquiring knowledge of science is not sufficient to solve problems in science, students must assimilate what cognitive psychologists call

  • Declarative knowledge and
  • Procedural knowledge

Declarative knowledge: It consists of the body of knowledge and facts needed to work in science.

Procedural knowledge: It consists of procedures and heuristics that can be applied to solve problems also known as ‘knowledge of processes’.

Organize the knowledge in such a way that can be retrieved easily to solve problems is very crucial to problem-solving. At the same time, with acquiring and organizing declarative knowledge, one must also obtain procedural knowledge.

Several skills essential for problem-solving can be deepened by providing opportunities to students like:

  • To ask questions,
  • Look for alternative explanations and procedures,
  • Apply reasoning and analogy,
  • Keep record,
  • Think aloud,
  • Isolate and control variables,
  • Make models, and
  • Apply process skills in teaching-learning of science.

Students feel a sense of achievement while working on the problem, exploring different possibilities. Students realize potential during problem-solving and on getting success they develop self-confidence.

In order to provide opportunities for problem-solving teachers need to inculcate the following abilities among the learners:

  • Flexible and divergent thinking;
  • Searching for innovative practices;
  • Decision making and generating self-confidence;
  • Correlating between various quantities/phenomena;
  • Accepting/rejecting hypothesis;
  • Checking the validity of results;
  • Expressing the task in terms of goals;
  • Developing positive and cooperative attitude; and
  • Creating new challenges for life.

6.  Nurturing Curiosity

Students come across many questions out of curiosity like

  • Why?,
  • What?,
  • How?,
  • When? etc.
Curiosity leads to inculcation of learning to learn aspect of education.

Curiosity gets aroused as a result of

  • Contradiction,
  • Cognitive conflict,
  • Doubt,
  • Ambiguity,
  • Perplexity,
  • Lack of clarity, etc.
Science is nothing but all that happens around us.

Teacher needs to create fitting learning situations for nurturing curiosity among students like : When students ask such questions, the teacher should not discourage them. Also, Curiosity can be generated in the students by

  1. Encouraging them to participate in Science exhibitions, Science quizzes, etc.
  2. Taking them to science centers.
  3. Facilitating interaction with persons having a scientific attitude.
  4. Providing opportunities to work on science projects and Read scientific literature.
  5. Assisting them to find answers using scientific principles.
  6. Designing science activities to incorporate several factors making up curiosity.

7.  Development Of Thinking Abilities

Critical thinking is the ability to analyses information and experiences in an objective manner.

Critical thinking needs a deliberate review of the course like:

  • How activities are carried out,
  • The procedure of how ideas emerge and
  • The way all these can be improved.

The process of linkage of the past experiences in terms of cause and effect relationship on a model of set rules, i.e. thinking with reasoning is known as logical thinking. Scientific temper is refined logical thinking.

In science, thinking abilities proliferates science learning potentials.

Reflecting on the method of thinking does not come readily to students as it comprises abstract thinking as well. Science teachers can facilitate and smooth the progress by

  1. Engaging the students in discussions through activities.
  2. Help students to reason out consistently before arriving at conclusion.

8.  Nurturing Aesthetic Sense

Aesthetics deals with the creation and appreciation of beauty that gives us happiness. Some of the criteria which define beauty are:

  • Harmony,
  • Order,
  • Pattern etc.

A learner of science is also concerned with beauty.

  • For example: Observing the flowers while walking in the garden one can appreciate their color and wonder why the flower is of that particular color, the type of flower, its conventional and unconventional uses, etc.

Students values creation and derives joy when discovers that a specific toy or a gadget works on the same scientific principle that he/she has already studied. Students feel enthusiastic to see patterns in the properties of substances and other things in their surroundings.

For nurturing aesthetic sense through science teaching-learning, the teacher may encourage students to consider the following points:

  1. Observe keenly while doing any work.
  2. Learn to be Generous and Conscious of one’s inner being.
  3. Observe, analyze and reject what is not scientific.
  4. Develop the sense of Sacrifice and Self- righteousness.


Meaning of Objectives

Aims are sovereign in nature they are broken into specified objectives to provide definite learning experiences for bringing about desirable behavioral changes.

Objectives help in generating behavioral modifications in the learners for the ultimate realization of the aims of teaching.

The objectives are achieved within the specified classroom situation, and they

  • Have swift purposes and are short-term.
  • And they also Aid in accomplishing immediate goals.

Definition of Educational Objectives

Objectives related to education as a whole, are known as 'Educational Objectives '.

 “By educational objectives, we mean explicit formulations of the ways in which students are expected to be changed by the educative process, that is, the ways in which they will change in their actions”. - B.S.Bloom

Need of Educational Objectives

Reasons for needing educational objectives are:

  1. Educational objectives indicate the nature of the education system.
  2. They serve as guides for teaching and learning.
  3. Educational objectives provide guidelines in selecting teaching-learning activities.
  4. It shows the direction in which education will act.
  5. For teaching which aims at worthwhile behavior changes, a clear understanding of educational objectives is essential.
  6. Educational objectives develop awareness among the teachers about the importance of their work.

How to Form Educational Objectives

The formulation of educational objectives is a matter of careful choice on the part of the teachers and administrators.
  1. In forming educational objectives following factors are involved:
    • The needs and capabilities of the pupils.
    • The specific demands of his social environment.
    • The nature of the subject matter.
  2. In order to save time and effort, it is very important that the objectives of a subject be clearly identified and defined.

Criteria For Good Educational Objectives

The criteria of a good educational objective is that

  1. The educational objectives should be ‘Unambiguous’.
  2. The educational objectives should be ‘Useful’.
  3. The educational objectives should be ‘Specific’.
  4. The educational objectives should be ‘Feasible’.
  5. The educational objectives should be 'In Accordance With General Aims of Education '.

Objectives of Classifying Educational Objectives

Classification is a valuable system to group similar things under one heading based on common characteristics or common relationship that exists between groups and individuals.

The main objectives of classifying educational objectives are as follows:

  1. Educational objectives are helpful in defining, translating, and exchanging educational thoughts in a uniform way.
  2. These are vital in comparing curricular goals with wider educational objectives.
  3. Educational objectives assist in preparing evaluation or testing materials.
  4. They are highly valued in planning, teaching, and learning activities.
  5. Educational objectives are significant in identifying desired behavioral outcomes among the learners.
  6. It is crucial in the search for the relationships that exist among groups and individuals.
Educational objectives are fundamental in planning a curriculum.


The Pedagogy Of Science Plays A Vital Role In Shaping The Next Generation Of Scientifically Literate Individuals. By Understanding The Principles And Strategies Discussed In This Blog Post, You Will Be Well-Prepared To Create Meaningful And Impactful Science Learning Experiences For Your Students.

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