Peace Education: (B.Ed Notes In English)


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What Is Peace Education?

"Peace is possible for life at all stages and it is up to man to choose his destiny or to suffer from the horrors of war. Today mankind is at the crossroad where he has to choose with courage, determination, and imagination." - Federico Mayor

Concept Of Peace Education

In the contemporary world of education, seeing modern-day problems and dilemmas, there is a growing realization that children should be educated in the art of peaceful living.

Peace education empowers learners with the

  • Skills,
  • Knowledge,
  • Values and
  • Attitudes, compulsory to end injustice, violence and to promote a culture of peace.

Therefore, more & more concepts of peace education are being integrated into school curricula in so many countries.

The ultimate objective of any education should be inculcating peace.

  • Every individual acquires his first peace education in his family with his father & mother as the first teacher.
  • The peace education is nurtured at home then gets enhanced at school.

Ian Harris and John Synott have described peace education as a series of "TEACHING ENCOUNTERS" that draw from people:

  • Their desire for peace,
  • Nonviolent alternatives for managing conflict, and
  • Skills for critical analysis of structural arrangements that legitimize and produce inequality and injustice.

Peace is an essential value that needs to be cherished and treasured by every human.

“Peace is what you think it is (or wants it to be)”.

Meaning Of Peace Education

Peace education is the process of acquiring

  • Correct knowledge and values,
  • Developing skills, behaviors, & attitudes, to live in harmony with oneself & with others.

Peace is a wide-ranging concept, with spiritual and practical connotations. Peace can indicate a state of serenity (inner calm) or the end of the conflict.

Peace has been understood by many as,

  • Absence of violence or conflict & conversely
  • As the presence of states of mind and societies which like
    • Harmony,
    • Understanding,
    • Accord and Security.

Peace education provide apt learning & teaching tactics which

  • Guide and transform the children to become responsible future global citizens and
  • Helps in reducing the violence and conflicts caused by
    • Prejudice and Inequality,
    • Violations of Human rights,
    • Injustice, etc.
  • Encourages the student to take care of themselves and for others, and to love the world, and imagine a peaceful future.
Peace education is ultimately a goal of education and a strong pillar to spread and attain peace on the planet.

Definition Of Peace Education

There is no one universally accepted Peace Education definition, although as per different approaches and perceptions, many definitions are available.

Some of the definitions given by eminent educationists are given below:

Peace is a state of quiet or tranquility, freedom from disturbance or agitation, calm repose.” - Webster

This definition, established that in the absence of elements like

  • Empathy,
  • Understanding,
  • Cooperation,
  • Tolerance, and
  • Respect for the difference in others, there cannot be peace.

Peace Education is an attempt to respond to problems of conflict and violence of scale ranging from the global and national to the local and personal. It is about exploring ways of creating more just and sustainable futures”- Ronald David Laing (1978)

Peace is not merely the absence of war but the presence of justice, of law, of order – in short, of government.” - Albert Einstein

Peace Education is the attempt to promote the development of an authentic planetary consciousness that will enable us to function as global citizens and to transform the present human condition by changing the social structures and patterns of thought that have created it”. - Betty Reardon

Peace education is a mechanism for the transformation from a culture of violence to a culture of peace through a process of conscientization”- Freire (2006)

John Dewey said -

Peace education is grounded in active citizenship, preparing learners for assiduous participation in a democracy, through problem – posing and problem – solving education and a commitment to transformative action in our societies.”

This definition established that peace education teaches higher-order human values among individuals.

Moreover, it reveals that peace education

  • Aims at the complete development of humankind &
  • Helps to improve eternal values among the human mind.

Scope Of Peace Education

Peace education helps students to develop and extend their awareness about the skills and processes that are essential for achieving

  • Tolerance,
  • Goodwill,
  • Empathy,
  • Respect for the difference,
  • Understanding and Cooperation, in the present-day world.

To achieve complete human advancement, peace education with its learning links together multiple

  • Education theories,
  • Pedagogy Traditions, and
  • International initiatives.

Peace education is concerned with promoting

  • Holistic well-being of students,
  • Rightful treatment of students and
  • Promote social and individual responsibility for both learners as well as educators.

Betty Reardon Concept Of Peace Education

Betty Reardon's peace education concept consists of two types of peace.

  1. POSITIVE PEACE: It refers to the presence of fair conditions or relationships in economic and social justice.
  2. NEGATIVE PEACE: It refers to the absence of physical violence or war or any direct violence.

According to Reardon, peace education includes diverse issues and problems, the learner should not limit themselves in acquiring just understanding of violence & conflict.

Reardon recognizes that for peace educator’s problems are plentiful, in many diverse areas like

  • Economic Deprivation,
  • Environment,
  • Development and Resources
  • Social Justice, and
  • Human Rights etc.

Aims of Peace Education

No civilization is truly progressive without education and no education system is truly civilizing unless it is based on the universal principles of peace.

Peace & education are inseparable aspects of civilization. Peace education aims at a wide variety of subjects, some of them are:

  1. To educate individuals & develop the competence to accept & recognize the values and morals which live among the human race.
  2. To nurture a sense of global value in each person.
  3. To educate people in
    • Protecting the environment, and
    • Maintain Social harmony.
  4. To cultivate the capability of non-violent struggle and conflict.
  5. To respect and conserve traditions and cultural heritages.
  6. To cope up with uncertain and difficult situations.
  7. To create solidarity feeling among diverse peoples.
  8. To promote among humans a feeling of equity and uniformity at the national & international levels with the perspective of a long-term and balanced development.
  9. To strengthen friendship, peace & solidarity between people and individuals.
  10. To nurture the expertise of making informed choices among humans.
  11. To prepare individuals to take actions and make judgments not solely based upon the present circumstances but with the vision of a future.

Peace education aim is perhaps best summarized in The Hague ‘Appeal for peace’ which said,

A culture of peace will be achieved when citizens of the world have the skills

  1. To resolve conflict constructively,
  2. To understand global problems,
  3. To respect earth integrity,
  4. To appreciate the cultural diversity, and
  5. To know and live by international standards of human rights, gender, and racial equality.

Objectives of Peace Education

Objectives that govern the teaching of Peace education in formal & informal school settings are:

  1. To develop constructive behavior among learners for handling problems effectively so as to minimize & eliminate conflict.
  2. To foster skills and values to assist students in striving for the fullness of life.
  3. To create modifications in the world order, and make the planet a better & more humane place.
  4. To assist students in developing a rich vision of world peace, and to work for a visible global society.
  5. To apply peace education at every single stage in the education system and to the contents of all curricula.
  6. To explore peace both as a state of being and as an active process for the promotion of positive human relations.

Peace education in reality is a call for an inclusive approach from a holistic way of living to mutual coexistence.

With the objective of promoting equal opportunities through education, peace education must be provided to all, which includes

  • Migrant and Refugee children,
  • Disabled children, and
  • Children belong to every social sector.

Modern World Miseries And Search For Peace

Humankind has achieved a level of material progress that barely a century ago would not even have dreamt of. The marvels of modern-day technologies have provided humans with enormous power over the forces of nature.

Human beings have conquered many disasters and achieved so many triumphs, but the ultimate question is:


The answer is ‘No’.

The abuse of children, women, & the underprivileged; caste distinction, and religious and racial discrimination still continue strongly.

Never before in the history of the world, has the human race been in such great need to be free from

  • Ill-feeling,
  • Conflict,
  • selfishness,
  • Deterioration and trouble.

The anxiety, fear, and tension arising and evolving from the different conflicts of the world are not just disruptive but continue to an extent a constant drain on human's wellbeing, physically and mentally.

In spite of all the advances made by science & technology, the world is far from being safe & peaceful. The fundamental problem humans are facing today is misused intelligence and moral degeneration.

Necessity of peace is the greatest single emergency of present-day humankind.

Gandhian Concept Of Peace

Gandhian principles, concepts & through them promotion and campaign of peace education, are studied in many educational Initiatives, not only in India but all around the globe, as a part of their fundamental architecture.

It is true that Gandhi did not write on peace education in any specific way, but his whole philosophy and life have been, of course, important in peace studies and peace education not only for India but for other nations of the world as well - Prasad (1998).

Gandhi’s concept and the idea of non-violence & peace are intrinsically linked to his own world view and Gandhiji's world view was evolved from a concept of “human nature” and “self”.

  1. By nonviolent action, Gandhiji meant peaceful, constructive mass action.
  2. Acknowledging the inherent goodness of human beings, Gandhiji gave emphasis to the capability of all humans to develop and nurture their full potential of non-violence.
  3. Gandhiji’s concept of peace is very broad, according to him peace arises from the way and conduct of life. He considered that peace is closely interrelated with
    • Justice,
    • Environment and
    • Development.
  4. Gandhiji believed that mankind is a part of the divine & they are interrelated and interdependent.

Approaches Of Peace

Different prominent peoples have suggested several different approaches, means, and ways for attaining peace.

Most approaches of peace professed by different educationists and researchers spin around 5 unique approaches, which are:


Power Politics

Peace Through Coercive Power


Conflict Resolution

Peace Through The Power Of Communication



Peace Through The Power Of Live



Peace Through Will Power


World Order

Peace Through The Power Of Law

1. Power Politics: Peace Through Coercive Power

In the subject of international relations, the 1st first approach of peace i.e. power politics is traditionally the most dominant framework.

  • Advocates of this approach, refer to it as “Political Realism”, and claim that no ‘Universal Values’ exist which can be maintained by all players in the international system.

2. Conflict Resolution: Peace Through The Power Of Communication

The 2nd approach, conflict resolution, provides a highly favorable pragmatic approach for peace.

  • According to this approach, conflict is natural at all levels of human interaction and organization, from the interpersonal to the interethnic and international.
  • This approach talks about analyzing conflicts with the development and refinement of skills, & responding to conflicts with effective strategies of proper communication & negotiation.
  • To resolve and manage conflicts successfully, one must be aware of his
    • Own attitudes regarding conflict and
    • Own habitual conflict management styles (collaborative, competitive, submissive, avoidant, etc.)

3. Transformation: Peace Through The Power Of Love:

The 3rd approach to peace focuses on the genuine attempts and struggles to make peace a reality in daily life.

The transformation approach emphasizes subject-matter like:

  • Cultural Change,
  • Spirituality, and
  • Centrality of Education.

The point of view of the transformation approach is that peacemaking is not just 

  • An effort to end the war,
  • Establish the presence of external value conditions, or
  • Remove structural violence.

But, it is, in addition, a deeply internal process, within which the transformation of a person develops into a symbol of an instrument of broader change.

4. Non-Violence: Peace Through Will Power

The most widespread false belief about the 4th approach to non-violence and peace is that it is an approach that enjoins passivity.

As Mahatma Gandhi, Martin L. King, and several others have highlighted that, nonviolence is an action spirited by the principles and learn by the proposition, that means & ends are inseparable.

According to the Non-violence approach,

Genuine power comes from human solidarity and willpower, rather than violence, as violence undermines community & sows the seeds of its own destruction.

5. World Order: Peace Through The Power Of Law

The 5th and final approach views the “Order” shaped and designed by practices that sustained cooperation among various states & other significant players, like Intergovernmental organizations or N.G.O (Non-governmental organizations).

This approach to peace explores the classification and arrangement in which the concept of world order rest.

Peace can be achieved through sincere efforts and policies, which

  • Build consensus,
  • Create opportunity,
  • Reduce injustice, and
  • Make multilateral frameworks available for responding actively to universal common challenges.

Taken together, these five approaches suggest that the path to peace is many and that can be traveled not only by diplomats and statesmen but also by individuals and ordinary citizens from all walks of life.

What Are The Organizations That Work For Peace?

There are many organizations that are involved in promoting peace around the world.

Some significant organizations/institutions that are working for peace are:

  1. United Nations
  2. Peace Corps
  3. Amnesty International
  4. Nobel Peace Prize
  5. The Lion And The Lamb Peace Arts Center
  6. The Carter Centre
  7. International Peace Bureau (IPB)
  8. Pathways To Peace (PTP)
  9. Hague Appeal For Peace
  10. National Peace Foundation (NPF)

1. United Nations

The UN (United Nations) was established on October 24, 1945, when 51 nations all around the globe agreed to make peace.

United Nations supports and provides ways

  • To solve international conflict &
  • To create policies about subjects that affect the entire planet.
Currently, almost every country is an important member of the UN.

Purpose of UN (United Nations)

Under UN Charter - Article 1, the following purposes of the UN are defined.

  1. To develop friendly relations among countries on the basis of equality.
  2. To maintain international peace & security and to take adequate steps to avert wars.
  3. To achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an
    • Cultural,
    • Social,
    • Economic, or
    • Humanitarian character.
  4. To be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.

Principles of UN (United Nations)

Under UN Charter - Article 2, the following principles are mentioned as a means to achieve the objectives and purpose of the UN.

  1. All the member states are equal.
  2. The member states shall fulfill their obligations to the UN honestly.
  3. The member states shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means.
  4. The member states shall give to the UN every assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the UN Charter.
  5. The member states shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against any other state.
  6. No member state shall interfere in the internal affairs of any other state.
  7. The states which are not members of the UN should also act in accordance with these principles for the maintenance of international peace and security.

2. Peace Corps

The peace corps is an independent agency filled with men & women who live and work in various nations for a period of 2 years.

  • The peace corps is run by the USA government and was an idea of John. F. Kennedy (34th President) of USA.
  • As the prominent international service organization of the UN, the Peace Corps sends citizens of America to different land for tackling the most urgent needs of communities and people all around the globe.
  • The people serving in the Peace Corps are volunteers who help in solving several problems and challenges, communities all around the world face.

Peace Corps work in many different areas such as

  • Agriculture,
  • Education,
  • Community Development,
  • Business,
  • Environment, and
  • Nutrition and Health.

The Peace Corps’ Principles And Mission

To promote world friendship and peace by fulfilling 3 goals:

  1. To help people of interested nations in meeting their need for trained women and men.
  2. To help promote a better understanding of Americans on the part of the people served.
  3. To help promote a better understanding of other peoples on the part of Americans.

Peace volunteers work at the grassroots level towards sustainable change that lives on long after their service – at the same time becoming global citizens and serving their country.

3. Amnesty International

Peter Benenson a British lawyer founded Amnesty International in 1961. Amnesty International focuses on human rights abuses and campaigns for the protection of Human rights with international laws and standards.

Some of the Aims and Objectives of Amnesty International are:

  1. To stop violence against women.
  2. To abolish the death penalty.
  3. To regulate the global arm and weapon trade.
  4. To protect the rights of migrants and refugees.
  5. To voice for the rights of people living in poverty.
  6. To oppose terror and torture with human rights.
  7. To help free prisoners of conscience.

4. Nobel Peace Prize

The Nobel peace prize is an award given to people for their peaceful actions for the betterment of society.

  • The Nobel peace prize was instituted by a famous man named ‘Alfred Bernhard Nobel’.
  • The first Nobel Peace Prize was awarded in 1901 and shared between Jean Henry Dunant (Swiss) and Frédéric Passy (French).
  • In India, Mahatma Gandhi and Mother Teresa have won the Nobel peace award.

5. The Lion And The Lamb Peace Arts Center

Dr. Elizabeth "Libby" Hostetler, established it in 1987.

It was originated with the prime objective of promoting peace education among children through literature and art.

6. The Carter Centre

All over the world every single day many peoples in many nations live in life-threatening conditions because of

  • Poverty,
  • War,
  • Disease, and
  • Starvation.

The Carter center is formed with the aim to try to solve this suffering and pain by promoting health and peace in countries all over the planet.

Additionally, the carter center looks after

7. International Peace Bureau (IPB)

The IPB (International Peace Bureau) is founded, with One Vision


70 countries and individual members from different international networks, came together with their expertise, experience for campaigning this common cause.

8. Pathways To Peace (PTP)

‘Pathways To Peace' is a global Educational, Peacebuilding, & Consulting organization.

PTP is an Official ‘Peace Messenger’ of the UN (United Nations).

Some of the principle aims & objectives of the organization PTP are:

  • To build cooperation and expand communication among existing groups and organizations.
  • To make peace a ‘Practical Reality' through local & global projects.

9. Hague Appeal For Peace

The Hague Appeal for Peace is a global network of individuals and organizations, dedicated to abolishing war & to making peace a human right.

The main objective of this institution is to develop capacities in learners and teachers, on how to face

Challenges of the unprecedented amount of armed conflicts among ethnic groups and states,
  • Environment degradation, and Spread of
    • Gender inequality,
    • Community violence,
    • Racism, and
    • Massive Human rights violation.

10. National Peace Foundation (NPF)

National Peace Foundation came into existence in 1975.

Throughout the Middle East, Africa, and, Eurasia NPF has spread its efforts of making peace and constantly continuing its focus and efforts upon empowering citizens on a grass root and community level.

At the core of the National Peace Foundation is a commitment to, help citizens to build the institutions and foundations of civil society.

Pacifism and Education

Pacifism is a doctrine or belief that it is possible and desirable to settle international disputes by peaceful means.

Pacifism is the broad commitment to making ‘Peace’ and ‘Opposition to war’.

The term 'pacifism' derives from the Latin word “pacific” meaning ‘peace making’

  • Paci (from ‘pax’), means “peace” and
  • Fic (from ‘fieus’) means “making”.

Pacifism is frequently interpreted as a general nonviolent outlook, both

  • Inwardly (Inner peace), and
  • Outwardly (Towards world and its inhabitants).

A pacifist is a person who is opposed to violence and war. He believes that killing or harming other people is absolutely wrong and one should not do them.

A pacifist considers war wrong and immoral – because ULTIMATELY WHAT WAR MEANS: being prepared to kill other people & inflict suffering on them; basically a matter of killing.

The curriculum and education should integrate the aspects of pacifism,

  • To influence and improve society for a better future and
  • To permanently remove the causes of war and conflict, like:
    • Exploitation,
    • Injustice, and
    • Repression of human rights etc.

Hence, pacifism & the ideas of pacifists are much more urgent and necessary to be incorporated into the educational curriculum at all levels.

History Of Peace Education

World War I (1914 - 1918) and World War II (1939- 1945) ended with countless innocent victims and with the terrifying use of nuclear weapons against Japan (Hiroshima & Nagasaki).

Witnessing the horrors of the 1st and 2nd World Wars there was a call and reawakening for the need of developing the humanistic side of education.

The rampant carnage of World Wars brought

Creation of Various Institutions And Organizations for Peace Development

  1. UN (United Nations)
  2. UNICEF (United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund)
  3. AI (Amnesty International)
  4. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization)
  5. ICRC (International Committee of Red Cross)
  6. UNDP (United Nation Development Program)
  7. UNHRC (United Nation Human Rights Council)
  8. UNEP (United Nations Environment Program)

1. UN (United Nations)

Franklin Roosevelt, president of the United States of America, created the name ‘UNITED NATIONS’ & it was announced on 1 January 1942.
  • On 24 October 1945, the UN came into existence when 51 countries decided and agreed for making peace.
  • UN is not a world government & does not make laws.
  • UN headquarter is situated in New York.
UN has 6 main parts out of which 5 are based at UN headquarter. They are
  1. Security Council,
  2. General Assembly,
  3. Secretariat,
  4. Trusteeship Council, and
  5. Economic & Social Council.

The 6th part - “International Court of JUSTICE”, is situated at The Hague(Netherlands).

Purpose Of United Nation
  1. To solve international conflicts.
  2. To maintain international security and peace.
  3. To develop friendly relationships between nations.
  4. To become a center for harmonizing actions of nations.

2. UNICEF (United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund)

In the aftermath of the Second World War, the UN General Assembly voted to create the UNICEF, an organization to assist in providing support and relief to children living in nations devastated by the war.

  • After the food & medical crisis and emergency of the late 1940s passed, UNICEF still continued its role as a relief organization for the children of troubled countries.
  • During the 1970s UNICEF expanded as a vocal advocate for the rights of children.
  • UNICEF has repetitively proven itself to be one of the highly influential & most effective organisation working for protecting Children’s rights all around the globe.

3. AI (Amnesty International)

AI was established in 1961 by Peter Berenson (British lawyer). It highlights issues like international protection of Human Rights.

  • The AI center is International Secretariat in London.
  • Amnesty International, today has more than 1, 00,000 members & regular donors in more than 160 territories and countries.
  • AI groups are registered in more than 90 territories and countries all around the world.
Some of the things Amnesty International does to help includes:
  1. Campaign for Human Rights and its education,
  2. Exposing Human Rights violations,
  3. Working for Victims of Human Rights violations.

Compare to other international Human Rights organizations and groups, Amnesty has the longest history & broadest recognized name and is believed by many to set standards for the movement as a whole.

4. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization)

UNESCO was founded as an Umbrella institution of the UN.

  • 37 countries signed the Constitution of UNESCO on November 16, 1945, in London, and with 20th rectification, UNESCO came into existence on November 4, 1946.

UNESCO was charged with developing, planning, & implementing general modifications in education in line with the principle of international politics of security and peace. It works as a laboratory of ideas & set criteria and standards to build Universal agreements about rising ethical issues.

Purpose Of UNESCO

a. To contribute to peace & security by promoting collaboration among nations through

  • Science,
  • Culture, and
  • Education.

b. To promote universal respect for

  • Human rights,
  • Justice,
  • Rule of law &
  • Fundaments freedoms, which are affirmed for the peoples of the world, by the charter of the United Nations.

5. ICRC (International Committee of Red Cross)

ICRC was established on February 17, 1863, in Geneva (Switzerland) and is three times recipient of Nobel Peace Prize (1917, 1944 & 1963)

  • ICRC is a humanitarian institution.
  • Originally ICRC was a 5 member committee, consisted of influential Geneva families called the Geneva society of public welfare.
They all came together for a conference & made numerous proposals including
  1. Protection and Neutrality for injured soldiers,
  2. Foundation of ‘National Relief Societies’ for injured soldiers, and
  3. Utilization of volunteer forces for relief assistance on the battlefield.

6. UNDP (United Nation Development Program)

UNDP was founded in the year 1965 & headquarter is in New York City.

  1. UNDP promotes change and advocates to connect countries by
    • Knowledge,
    • Resources and
    • Experience to help people build a better life.
  2. It is a UN global development network and provides
    • Training,
    • Expert advice and
    • Grant support to developing nations, with increasing emphasis upon giving assistance to the least developed nations.
UNDP is sponsored and funded only by voluntary assistance from member nations.
  • UNDP operates in 177 countries, where it works with local governments to develop local capacity and meet development challenges.
  • In addition, UNDP also works internationally to assist countries to achieveMillennium’ Development goals.

UNDP also works
  • To promote early recovery after a crisis happened
  • To reduce the risk of disasters or armed conflicts.

7. UNHRC (United Nation Human Rights Council)

UNHRC was founded on March 15, 2006, by passing a resolution at the UN general assembly. It comprises of 47 member states.

  • It was established as a replacement of the previous CHR, which was criticized heavily for allowing nations with poor human rights records to be members.
  • UNHRC is a UN system inter-governmental body whose members are responsible for protecting promoting and human rights all around the earth.
Some of the conflicts addressed by UNHRC includes,
  • Israeli-Palestinian conflict,
  • Human rights situations in nations such as
    • North Korea,
    • Burma,
    • Syria,
    • Iran, Kyrgyzstan,
    • Libya,
    • Sri Lanka, and
    • Guinea.

8. UNEP (United Nations Environment Program)

UNEP was founded by Maurice Strong, on June 5, 1972, as a result of the UN Conference about Human Environment.

  • The headquarters of UNEP is in Nairobi (Kenya).
  • IT has numerous country offices and 6 regional offices

1. ROE

Regional Office for Europe

2. ROA

Regional Office for Africa


Regional Office for North America


Regional Office for Latin America & the Caribbean


Regional Office for West Asia


Regional Office for Asia & the Pacific

UNEP cover a large range of topics concerning
  • Atmosphere and Climate change,
  • Environmental governance,
  • Resource efficiency,
  • Marine & terrestrial ecosystems,
  • Green economy, and
  • Management of disasters & conflicts eco-system.

UNEP also plays a major role in developing and promoting international conventions regarding environmental issues. It publishes many articles, newsletters, and reports.

For instance: The 5th Global Environment Outlook or in short GEO-5 is a comprehensive report about development, environment, & human wellbeing.

UNEP is an organization that helps in coordinating environmental activities and assist developing and under-develop countries in implementing environmentally sound practices and policies.

Brief History Of Peace Education In India

India has a long history of promoting international understanding, peace, self-restraint, and tolerance which are clearly evident from Indian ancient texts, like

  • Vedas,
  • Puranas &
  • Upanishads.

The ancient Indian Rishis Visualized the Earth as a Global village. They visualized it as ‘Vasudaiva Kudumbakam' – The whole word is a family.

The Life Mission of Swami Vivekananda’s was

  • To advocate and preach to humankind its divinity & how to make it manifest in every movement of life.
  • He preached
    • Religious tolerance,
    • Inclusive Education
    • Universal Brotherhood of man, all essential for heading to peace.

The ultimate aim of education is to establish internal peace and security, by strengthening the spiritual foundations of different countries. - Swami Vivekananda

The actions and thoughts for promoting peace by great personalities like

  • Mahatma Gandhi,
  • Bishnu Prasad Rava,
  • Iqbal, and
  • Rabindra Nath Tagore captivated the world’s attention,.

According to them

  • Most conflicts between individuals and societies had been solved without violence.
  • If we are to move away from violence as a way of solving disputes at home and abroad, we must work together to help young people learn how to deal with conflict creatively.

Gandhi’s Philosophy Of Peace

Mahatma Gandhi was an advocate of interstate fellowship and goodwill. Gandhiji’s view on peace emphasizes positive concepts of peace, like

  • Empathy,
  • Nonviolence,
  • Community,
  • Forgiveness,
  • Proactive peacemaking and
  • Discovery of one’s own and other’s truths.

The most fundamental philosophy and the principle of peace according to Gandhiji is “Ahinasa” (Nonviolence) which is essentially Law of life, love & creation as opposed to hatred, violence, destruction, and Death.

Nonviolence, as practiced by Gandhi, is a weapon not of the weak, but of the strong and fearless.

One of the important beliefs of Gandhiji is in the ‘Dharmic Law’ which imposes a moral obligation on states as well as individuals.

According to Mahatama Gandhi,

The Universal Human values of Ahimsa ought to be cultivated not merely at a personal level, but at social, national and international levels for avoiding personal, social, national, and international conflicts.

Gandhiji desire

  • To settle disputes at the level of the parties concerned, and
  • Assent to the idea of ‘One World’ provided it incorporates his concept of ‘Nonviolence’ and ‘Truth’.

 Mahatma Gandhi worked, lived, fought & died for

  • Peace, Respect, and Equality for all humans,
  • Respect and Tolerance for all ethnic groups and religious faith.
  • Meaningful settlement of difference.

Gandhi observed “Fasting unto death” is the last step to oppose injustice. Gandhi’s approach is ethical, as he believes that moral degeneration is the root cause of all evils including conflicts.

What Is Education For Peace?

Education for peace is a conceptual framework out of which schools formulate a program that includes

  • Transmission of all-inclusive universal values & enduring attitudes,
  • Development of those skills which will help students in becoming an active global citizen.

It is a condition and process which enters in all aspects of school life, with suggestions and implications for teachers, learners, & administrators & it also extends beyond the school to society as a whole.

It recognizes and values the practice and system of having peaceful relations and associations at all stages -

  • Personal,
  • Communal,
  • Familial,
  • Inter-Cultural &
  • Global.

Education for peace gives rise to a process of

  • Skill-building and knowledge acquisition, which positively affects the behavior of groups and individuals &
  • Provides and prepares a model for - formal & informal school curriculum.

The overall objective of ‘Education for peace is

  • To nurture in the learner a commitment & understanding to peace instead of violence.
  • To provide students with the relevant
    • Knowledge,
    • Skills,
    • Behavior and
    • Personal values.
  • To successfully apply this behavior and commitment in every aspect of his/her life.

Curriculum Development Of Education For Peace

The term “Curriculum” most commonly, refers to the formal documents which an education organization or system develops & publishes, to describe what students should learn at school.

Occasionally, these documents sometimes contain

  • Why
  • When &
  • How content would be taught & learned.

In several situations, the term “Curriculum” is very broad and acknowledges the fact that, in school, students learn much more than what is given in the formal documents.

  • This comprehensive and broader definition of curriculum is especially significant in subjects of learning, like Education for peace, which deeply focuses on developing behaviors and values.
  • The major part of students’ awareness and learning in these subject areas occurs outside the boundaries of classrooms & textbooks.

Children learn most from the

  • Ethos and philosophy of the school, and
  • Manner in which they are treated, intentionally or unintentionally, by their peers and teachers.

This learning is often denoted as the “Hidden Curriculum”.

Since learning in Conflict Prevention  &  Education For Peace can be perceived as a part of both ‘Formal’ & ‘hidden’ curricula, it would be most fitting to define Education for peace “curriculum” in a broader way.

How To Develop Peace Education At Different Stages Of Education?

Educators at all stages commonly agree that students should be taught about peace (especially crucial seeing present world situations).

Peace Education is essential for each & every person at different levels and stages. The approach to peace education, in different stages, differs in many aspects.

The ideal time to lay the foundation of a peace-oriented personality is at, the primary stage of education. These years are considered foundational periods in the lives of the children.

  • At this level, children are comparatively less burdened, and
  • The number of children who can be exposed to education for peace is highest in this phase. After that, students start to drop out.

Thus, this is the best stage in which focused attention must be paid to laying the foundation for a culture of peace using education as a tool.

As the saying goes,

It is easier to build a child than It is to repair an adult.

Education For Peace Approach At Different Stages

  1. Early Childhood
  2. Elementary Stage
  3. Secondary Stage
  4. Higher Education Stage
  5. Adult Education Stage

1. Peace Education In Early Childhood

The top-most priority in this stage is to start Peace-building Education because at this age a child’s

  1. Habits are formed,
  2. Development of brain architecture happen rapidly,
  3. Ability to recognize differences starts, &
  4. Emotional ties are built via social relationships & day-to-day in homes & neighborhoods.

Environment and Parental practice are the 2 most proximal to children and are key determining factors in their

  • Social,
  • Emotional and
  • Physical development.

Proximity to family, home, and early learning programs, all play a significant part in the

  • Children’s ability to Reduce & manage conflicts and violence.
  • Shape fundamental characteristics of the children’s personalities and in their moral behavior.

Hence, from the early childhood level, family members and relatives must create a good conclusive environment to develop and boost the above-said behavior within children.

2. Peace Education At Elementary Stage of Education

As children start growing old & reach Primary school level, they start to develop and grasp abstract thoughts.

  • They start developing (in a limited way), capacity to act and think rationally about the numerous actions and events in their environment.
  • At this stage, a critical challenge for children is that of, relating to other children & their environment.

Since the school brings together children from diverse environmental backgrounds, stress should be given to equipping children with abilities, such as

  1. Honesty,
  2. Respect for others & for elders,
  3. Love and Tolerance,
  4. To understand hygiene importance, both of the self & of the surroundings,
  5. Sharing & cooperation,
  6. Punctuality,
  7. Recognition of the dignity of labor,,
  8. Regularity and responsibility etc.

Thus, for elementary school children, education for peace is about helping them celebrate and enjoy

  1. Harmony,
  2. Diversity, and
  3. Beauty in nature.

Students must be assisted and encouraged to develop the skills it takes to be at home with others, specifically

  1. The art of listening &
  2. A sense of responsibility.

3. Peace Education In Secondary And Senior Secondary Stage

In the secondary & senior secondary levels, students gradually become aware of their identity.

Students are on the doorstep of becoming independent individuals, though still lacking maturity.

As a result, this confusion leads them to disagreement and conflict with

  • Parents
  • Peers, &
  • Teachers.

This period, test the student’s skills of

  • Self-discipline,
  • Rational thinking, and
  • Communication.

To ease their burden, students need

  1. Training to solve conflicts via dialogue & negotiation.
  2. To develop knowledge and awareness about Interdependency and Inter-relationship in the global & ecological context.
  3. Guidance on how can they form a comprehensive perspective on,
    • Peace,
    • Justice &
    • Non-violence.

The most important teaching at this level is to support and enable students to be not only the recipients of peace but the active makers of peace, who can think for others & help them.

4. Peace Education To Higher Education Stage

The higher education stage is considered extremely significant for peace education.

Students in higher education must be taught

  • Competencies,
  • Attitude, and
  • Knowledge in the area of peacekeeping.

All these students will become Nations builders & role models of society. So, the students in this stage should come out with all good entities of human beings.

The role of the teachers in the higher education stage is of utmost importance.

  1. In this stage teachers also double as role models for the students. Therefore, teachers must be aware of the effect of their behavior on students.
  2. Along with their other syllabus, students should be taught about

5. Peace Education In Adult Education Stage

As society continues to learn & develop its competencies in relation to the new challenges and realities ahead. This is where adult education plays a decisive role in meeting such demands of a more globally interconnected world.

Adult education plays a crucial role in

  1. Supporting society’s capacity for adaptability & change,
  2. Creating a competitive workforce which is essential for competing and surviving in the
    • Global economy &
    • International challenges.

Today we are living in the ever-changing technology era with a lot of human conflicts.

The capacity and potential of adult education, enable people to recognize their human potential fully by relating their individual experiences with the wider structural factors around them.

Adult education curriculum further, help to develop peace in the minds of the adults by teaching aptly

  • Cultural understanding,
  • Social awareness,
  • Self-confidence,
  • Communal harmony & prosperity.

What Is The Best Way To Include Peace In The Curriculum? – Methods And Strategies

Integrating Peace Education In The Curriculum

One of the most significant components in education is ‘Peace Education’.

Peace education

  • Emphasize the need to sensitize the country’s young minds with the knowledge of common cultural heritage.
  • Helps the learner to grow & develop as complete human beings.
  • Establishes the foundations using which students can build a truly just & humane society.

Major Media Of Integrating Peace Education In The Curriculum

Looking at the modern-day world, integration of peace education in the educational system is just not a need but an emergency.

Peace education could be incorporated in the 6 media:

  1. Subject Context
  2. Subject Perspectives
  3. Curricular And Co-Curricular Activities
  4. Teaching Methods
  5. Staff Development And Classroom
  6. School Management

1. Integrating Peace Education Through Subject Context

Peace education can be included in the classroom simply as a subject in itself.

Moreover, it can be a part of the formal ongoing curricula in a classroom, with peace education concepts being introduced as they seem to fit.

The message of peace education can be easily woven into the topics of the school subjects.

The conceptual framework of every subject should include

  • Spread of peace values &
  • Enduring attitudes in the minds of students.

The subjects such as Science, Mathematics, Social science, Language, Arts & Design can be effectively taught with the integration of peace components.

a. Science

Peace education Topics that can be incorporated into the subject of Science are:

  • Environmental sustainability,
  • Environmental protection,
  • Pollution control,
  • Scientific research ethics,
  • Effects of Nuclear War etc.
b. Mathematics

In mathematics too peace education concepts can be successfully integrated.

Charts, graphs, etc. can be used to show and teach the different statistics and relationships. For example:

  • To show the impact of the cost of defense budgets among the residents of the concerned country.
  • To show a relationship between different countries.
  • To show world problems like hunger, malnutrition, crime rate, etc.
c. Social Science

In social science students can study and analyse, what role peace movements and peacemakers performed for a non-violence past & present.

The social science lecture can discuss topics such as:
  • Role of world agencies like - UN Security Council
  • Right to life & responsibility of not to kill.
d. Language

The combination of peace issues into the syllabus of language can stimulate both teaching and learning, and create space in the classroom that is instructive, interactive, & fun.

Activities (related to peace issues), like
  • Writing,
  • Roleplay,
  • Reading,
  • Listening,
  • Speaking,
  • Negotiation,
  • Debates can enhance student's ability to make peace and do conflict management in their life.
e. Art & Design

Using art and design, students can get more insights and understandings of peace.

  • Students can plan and design their own logo or symbol to promote a culture of peace.
  • By encouraging students to do specific projects which bring light towards the necessity of peace is necessary for human race own good.

2. Integrating Peace With Subject Perspectives

A subject or topic is not studied just for the sake, the teachers should also make the subject more meaningful.

The subjects need to be explained in such a way that they contribute to student’s
  • Emotional,
  • Intellectual,
  • Moral and
  • Social self-development.

Subjects teaching in the educational institutions is meaningful & assists the learner in attaining their life goal.

Peace Education tries to humanize subjects by bringing effective dominion and human perspectives into learning.
  • In educational institutions, various diverse instructional strategies (Suitable to teach peace education) can be adopted in teaching all subjects.
  • Different activities can be designed and planned to foster a peace vision attitude among Children.
  • Some activities could be assimilated as hidden activities of all subject matters, like:
    • Self-development activities,
    • Peace-building activities,
    • Self-discipline activities,
    • Religions harmony,
    • Story of civilization,
    • Environmental awareness and
    • All faith prayer.
Teaching Methods For Peace Education
In a broader sense, teaching is any experience or act which creates a formative effect on the mind, character, and physical ability of a person.

In the course of integrating peace education, “HOW TO TEACH IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN WHAT TO TEACH.”

The teaching approaches and methods already applied by the teachers for the existing subjects can be effectively used in teaching peace education too.

Some teaching methods as discussed below can be more beneficial and suitable in teaching peace education.

  1. Cooperative Learning
  2. Group Discussion
  3. Peer Teaching
  4. Brainstorming
  5. Roleplay
  6. Energizers
  7. Storytelling
  8. Service-learning
  9. Experimental Teaching
  10. Inquiry-based learning and teaching
  11. Dialogues
a. Cooperative Learning

In Cooperative learning, small groups are formed,

  • Each consist of students at various level of ability and
  • Use a number of different learning activities.

In the cooperative learning environment, the teacher is a facilitator for the class, a mature trusted person who will advise and guide the students.

Cooperative learning
  • Improves the subject understanding of students
  • Increases their problem-solving skills, and
  • Enables them to think and find more solutions that show practicality and creativity.

Cooperative learning is considered one of the successful strategies for teaching peace.

b. Group Discussion

In a group discussion, class can be divided into small or big groups to examine and discuss peace topics like:

  • Why UNESCO is necessary?
  • Discussion about peace & peace education
  • What can be the positive & negative aspects of conflict?
  • What is the aim and purpose of rules & laws?
  • Discussion on conflict management techniques.
  • What is the importance of culture for peace and social integration?
c. Peer Teaching

Peer teaching assist students in sharing their

  • Ideas,
  • Experience and
  • Knowledge about themselves.
In this method, students are divided into smaller groups to discuss topics like:
  • How do people learn violence because of Video games, war toys, and mass media?
  • Contributions of Mahatma Gandhiji, Martin L. King, and other great peacemakers.

Through peer teaching, both the peers & other students get benefits of imbibing peace values.

Effective peer tutoring provides students with opportunities to develop
  • Social responsibility, and
  • Understanding and awareness about community problems and issues.
Some points for effective peer tutoring

Before the groups start to discuss a topic, teacher must

  • Provide them a topic overview and
  • Give each group some specific task that they must meet within a given time frame.
d. Brain Storming

Brainstorming is a method to solve problems in creative ways and breeds fresh ideas.

  • Brainstorming is a famous technique, formally used by Socrates (a great philosopher).
  • It nurtures the creativity and thinking capabilities of students.
Three levels of Brain Storming

The first level in the Brainstorming method is referred as ‘Identifying Problem’.

  • In this stage, the students will identify and categorize the problem in a well-defined way.

The second level in the Brainstorming method is referred as ‘Consolidation Phase.

  • In this stage, a well-defined topic is to be developed by combining ideas into one large idea map.
  • During this stage, students can find a common understanding of the issue, as they share the meaning behind their ideas and opinions.

The third & final level in the Brainstorming method is referred as ‘Assessment Phase’.

After refining and analyzing the problem, students should be made to draw a mind map, which includes, analyzing the problem in the context of

  • Consequences,
  • Causes,
  • Ways to explore the problem in-depth,
  • finding a solution,
  • Human values to be sustained and cultivated, and
  • Emotions to be managed during the process.
Some points for effective Brain Storming
  • The responsibility of teachers are
    • To guide the session,
    • To encourage participation and
    • Write down ideas.
  • Teachers should dedicate most of their effort
    • To design their teaching more effectively and
    • To bring peace into the classroom.
e. Role Play

Generally, role play refers to the situations where a participant assumes a ‘Role’ by enacting a part in a specific scenario or situation.

In the context of peace education, students can play
  • Role of incredible peace heroes who during their lifespan made important contributions to peace like
    • Martin Luther King,
    • Gandhi,
    • Swami Vivekananda,
    • Mother Teresa,
    • Nelson Mandela and others.
  • Role of politicians who give advice to countries on how to avoid war and not to participate in terrorism.
f. Energizers

School can become quite a bore if students are not able to move and stretch during class. Students of all ages are better learners if they take periodic rests.

To energize and strengthen the student's various activities can be used like:
  • Doing motivational activities for 5-10 minutes.
  • Watching news clippings, reading magazines and journals regarding peace education.
g. Story Telling

Storytelling is regarded as a far-reaching methodology for teaching peace education.

Vocalizing and listening about the lives, great deeds, and experiences of prominent as well as ordinary peace members of society can easily instill peace education in the minds of students.

Some points for effective Storytelling
  • Teachers should use this method in an innovative and unique manner to promote and foster positive social changes of peace.
  • Peace-building stories must be shared in as many different ways as possible.
h. Service Learning

This is a teaching & learning strategy which integrates meaningful community service with instruction & reflection to strengthen and enrich

  • Civic responsibility,
  • Learning experience, and
  • Communities.

Service-learning activities enhance the peacebuilding behavior among the individuals by providing valuable service experience which would aid them to understand and appreciate

  • Mutual respect and
  • Diversity among the human race.

Moreover, it helps students to develop skills such as:

  • Group decision making,
  • conflict resolution and
  • Inter-personal skills.
i. Experiential Teaching

Experiential teaching promotes learning by doing.

In experiential learning, students are not necessarily taught how to do something but how to find out the answer to a problem they are looking for through trial & error.

The process of teaching becomes more of an interaction between the leader & student, awakens learner’s intelligence and curiosity, using experiential learning.

5-step experiential model as per Pfeiffer and Jones includes:


Communication with others


Doing activity


Relate experience with real word


Reflect and Analyze on experience


Use what was learned in various situation

j. Inquiry-Based Teaching And Learning

As inquiry-based teaching and learning, begin with questions where the teacher could make students answer the questions.

Inquiry-based techniques increase students ability
  • To listen actively and
  • To ask critical questions
Critical questioning and answering, make students
  • More engaged with issues.
  • Actively participate in the classroom and
  • Share their personal experiences and knowledge.

More importantly, this method helps students in experiencing a diverse range of perspectives and thoughts about

  • Cultural understanding,
  • Conflict Management Skills, and
  • Non-violent communication.
k. Dialogues

Dialogue is the greatest form of interaction; it includes the 2-way communication where every student

  • Voices one’s own opinion with integrity,
  • Searches for new meaning,
  • Draws the other out,
  • Search for truth or a mutually-acceptable course of action.

Dialogue creates a shared space where through discussion students can come together.

Dialogue method enhances Tolerance and Open- mildness by perceiving the world openly & feeding the skill to accept differences.

Dialogues promote peace between nations and promote principles of
  • Peace,
  • Tolerance,
  • Human rights,
  • Respect for diversity,
  • Citizenship etc.

3. Curricular And Co-Curricular Activities

Curricular activities: Those activities which are content-specific and subject-specific.

For instance:
  • Curricular activities content includes learning about science, mathematics, social studies, language, etc.
  • Additionally, includes practical & extension reading which are connected to the specific content of the subject matter also includes in curricular activities.

Co-curricular activity: It is an out-of-class activity or program which teaches character-building experiences.

For instance:
  • Co-curricular activities train students practically for the future.
  • These activities are particularly good for students in giving opportunities like:
    • work in teams,
    • Take the initiative themselves, and
    • Exercise Leadership.

Peace education can be integrated with co-curricular activities in a variety of different ways, through
  • Sports & Games,
  • Assembly,
  • Cultural Meets,
  • Debates,
  • Organizing Uniformed Groups and
  • Club Activities.

As an answer to increasingly growing violence, conflicts among humans, teaching peace education programs into co-curricular activities is a must.

4. Staff Development

The curriculum, teacher, and student all are important parts of the Teaching-Learning process.

Between these parts, teachers play a dominant role in developing and enriching the learning outcome among students. Especially, for integrating peace education in the syllabus, staff development is most necessary.

Making a school a place of peace is an achievement of a cooperative effort & the commitment of the whole staff under the supportive leadership of a competent school principal.

Hence, proper training in the peace education curriculum should be provided to all the team and staff involved in the educational system.

This professional program and training can be organized in the lines of promoting and advocating peace-building values and culture within the staff. It can be done via

  • Seminars & Workshops,
  • Staff Meeting,
  • Intensive Training Programmes,
  • Discussion Forums etc.

5. Classroom and School Management

Management is considered as the topmost form of cognitive skill, a necessary requirement for administrators and teachers.

A culture of teaching peace formally begins in pre-school & progresses developmentally throughout university educations and extends outwards into each and every aspect of life.

Educational institution and Classroom are the key media that addresses how student conflicts can be resolved in a manner that also improves student’s relationships with their peers and teacher.

Philosophy of school management and classroom management are built on
  • Ethics,
  • Morals,
  • Personal responsibility,
  • Values.
Administrative and teachers of any institution are supposed to inspire others with their refined way of management skills. They should
  • Demonstrate proper manners,
  • Exhibit good values and morals,
  • Mediate peer conflicts,
  • Teach right from wrong,
  • Show support towards students, and
  • Employ effective & impartial listening.

One can understand how teachers can manage classrooms to instill peace among students from classroom management principles.

Culture Of Peace

Concept And Introduction

Historically, the struggle for justice and human rights has often been violent, and violence breeds the culture and philosophy of

  • Authoritarian,
  • War,
  • Exploitative,
  • Hierarchical,
  • Secretive,
  • Male-Dominated, and above all
  • Mobilized to destroy ‘The Enemy’.

Because of this culture of war humankind has paid a high price with the lives and livelihood of millions & millions of innocent people.

During the 20th century, humankind has started choosing a new road to social justice and peace - the road of Non-Violence.

Martin Luther King and Mahatma Gandhi called it - ‘Active Non-Violence’, & they showed yes the non-violent walk to freedom is long, but it is a sure way to peace.

  • In the effort and struggle for non-violence and a culture of peace, there are no foes.
  • Each person must be respected and considered as a potential partner.
  • The task is to continuously negotiate and argue with those involved in the culture of violence, and refuse to surrender and quit the struggle, up until they all are convinced to become a member of a culture of peace.

The topmost duty of humankind is to build a culture of peace, which is linked intrinsically to non-violent struggle.

What Is Culture of Peace?

As per UN Resolutions (1998),

A culture of peace is an integral approach to preventing violence & violent conflicts, & an alternative to the culture of war & violence based on

  • Respect for human rights,
  • Education for peace,
  • Equality between women & men,
  • The free flow of information & disarmament,
  • Tolerance,
  • Democratic participation, and
  • The promotion of social development and sustainable economic development.

The predominant aim of education for peace  is

  • Reduction in violence and
  • Transformation of attitudes and mindsets which emphasize cultures and beliefs of war.

A culture of peace is one where the definition of security will have changed from just national security to include human security.

A culture of peace means

  1. A daily attitude of non-violence, & fierce determination to defend human dignity and human rights.
  2. The main feature of a culture of peace is
    • Cooperation,
    • Global awareness & perspective, and
    • A deep regard for interdependency.
  3. As per this culture, peace will be an everlasting feature of every social institution, particularly –
    • Economy,
    • Schools, &
    • Political scene.
  4. The relationships, media, and sports will all be based on peace.
  5. Dominant principles will be of
    • Democracy,
    • Open-mindedness,
    • Tolerance,
    • Participation, and
    • Sustainability.
  6. Central beliefs of culture of peace are:
    • Accountability and Responsibility,
    • Freedom and Sharing,
    • Inclusiveness,
    • Empowerment,
    • Hope and solidarity,
    • Free flow of information,
    • Morality and persistence.

Culture of peace aims for the change of behaviors, attitudes, and values within each person, and head towards a culture shaped by peace, rather than by violence and war.

Ways To Promote Culture For Peace

The culture of peace can be implemented only by a process of teaching-oriented towards

  1. Inner peace
  2. Democratic participation
  3. Participatory communication
  4. Sustainable economic and social development
  5. Gender equality
  6. International peace and security
  7. Non-violence

1) Inner Peace:

Inner peace or peace of mind means a state of being spiritually and mentally at peace and having enough understanding and knowledge to hold oneself tough in the face of stress or discord.

Being ‘At Peace’ is generally believed by many to be healthy & the reverse of being anxious or stressed.

Peace of mind is normally associated with
  • Happiness,
  • Bliss, &
  • Contentment.
Descriptions of nature free from the effects of stress are having
  • Calmness,
  • Serenity, and
  • Peace of mind.

In many cultures, inner peace is believed to be a state of enlightenment or consciousness, which may be nurtured by several training forms, such as meditation, yoga, and prayer.

  • People face difficulties in embracing and accepting their inner spirituality because of the everyday stress, it gets the best out of them.
  • Finding happiness and peace in the little joys of life seems a lot in life, & results don’t appear all that rewarding.
  • Achieving spirituality is a step-by-step procedure; there are methods using which one can be more spiritual day by day.

Human being inner peace can be understood via the expression of

  1. Tolerance
  2. Understanding
  3. Solidarity
Tolerance is acceptance, appreciation, and respect of the rich diversity of our world's cultures, our forms of expression & ways of being human.
Tolerance is nurtured by
  • Communication,
  • Knowledge,
  • Openness, &
  • Freedom of belief, thought, and conscience.
Tolerance is harmony in difference. It is not only a moral duty; it is also a legal and political requirement.
  • Tolerance is the virtue that makes peace a possibility and contributes to transforming – ‘Culture of War’ into a ‘Culture of Peace.
  • The creation of an encouraging atmosphere surely will help to boost tolerance among humans.
  • Above all, tolerance is, an active attitude encouraged by recognition and respect for universal human rights & fundamental freedoms of others.
b. Understanding:
The culture of peace intended by the UN (United Nations), calls on humans
  • To see and view themselves as peaceful individuals with values like co-operation
  • To be educated (or socialized), and
  • To find conflicts resolution by negotiations,dialogue, & non-violence.
All this can be accomplished by promoting a culture of peace, understanding global problems & acquiring skills such as
  • Non-violence,
  • Resolving conflicts,
  • Appreciation of the cultural diversity,
  • Respect of earth & each other,
  • Struggle for justice,
  • Live for international standards for equity and human rights.
A world of solidarity and peace can only be achieved by acknowledging & celebrating diversity.
Human solidarity is established on
  • A shared respect for each other’s uniqueness,
  • A deep sense of gratitude for common humanity,
  • To know and value that all human beings are brothers and sisters within one human family inhabiting planet earth, our heritage & our home.
Human solidarity is promoted by the strengthening and realization of the links and bonds which bind humankind together are–
  • Our universally-shared values.
  • Our common destiny and habitat.
  • Our human condition and nature.
  • Our mutual humanity.

2) Democratic Participation:

The development of democratic governance and participation is one and only one way to change the authoritarian power structures which were created by & which have, in the past, sustained the culture of violence and war.

The “Copenhagen Declaration” about Social Development, says

Democratic, transparent, and accountable administration & governance in every sector and part of society is:

  • Fundamental for achieving and maintaining peace and security within & among countries.
  • Necessary for getting people-centered sustainable growth.
But most crucially and seriously, importance should be given to DEMOCRATIC PARTICIPATION, because often
  • Governments come to power via such political systems which have the name & just name of ‘Democracy’.
  • This type of government tolerates and allows very little participation of ordinary citizens.
  • As a matter of fact, actions of these type of government is frequently so secretive (typically bearing ‘National Security’ name, in reality - ‘Culture Of War’), that the general public have no clue or knowledge about what their so-called Democratic government is actually doing.

3) Participatory Communication:

It is the practices and theory of communication which is used to include people in the decision-making process. It is an effective strategy that helps individuals to be more involved in the sustainable development of peace culture.

According to the participatory communication method,
  • Communication is supposed to be naturally related with a balanced, 2-way flow of information and
  • Sharing means an equitable division of what is being shared.
Purpose and goal of communication as per participatory communication is
  • To share – knowledge, meanings, worldviews or perceptions, and
  • To make and find something common.

The Peace-making missions are a noteworthy work of humans, their goals are realized via citizen participation, but the reaction against these missions (to some extent, realization of global structural imbalances) gave birth to numerous participatory approaches.

Participatory approaches shared the common intent with peace-making missions like actively involving people. But in most situations, this is where the similarity ends & the diversity of differences began.

Generally, in most development projects, 4 ways of participation can be observed. They are:

  1. Participation In Evaluation
  2. Participation In Implementation
  3. Participation In Decision-Making
  4. Participation In Benefit

Some development projects provide all 4 ways of participation. Many do not, & restrict participation to any 1 or 2 ways.

Participation In Evaluation

Upon peacemaking project completion, individuals are invited to analyze and critique the success or failure.

Participation In Implementation

People are encouraged & mobilized to take actual part in the peacemaking projects. People are given a certain set of tasks or responsibilities or required to contribute to specified resources.

Participation In Decision-Making

People discuss, initiate, plan and conceptualize activities they all will do as a community.

Participation In Benefit

People participate in enjoying the fruits of a peacemaking project, this may be a good relationship or tangible natural resources.

Most people will agree that the third point - Participation in Decision-Making as the most important form because
  • Help people in acquiring conflict management skills,
  • Gives people control of their environment and their lives, and
  • Contribute most towards securing sustainable development of their community with all peace.
Some activities that can be done using Participatory approaches are:
  1. Activities can be related to development areas, like
    • Cleaning environment,
    • Help in setting renewable energy sources,
    • Assisting healthcare etc.
  2. Activities can be related to politics, like
    • Removing misunderstanding and difference of the peoples
    • Broadcasting peace messages using mass media,
    • Resisting pressures from the elites, or
    • Supporting deserved parliamentary runners.
  3. Activities can be related to culture or religion, like
    • Arranging traditional feast,
    • Organizing All faith prayers, and
    • Throw a big party just to have a good time.

4) Sustainable Economic And Social Development:

Sustainable economic growth means economic growth which satisfies human needs but in such a way that it sustains the environment and natural resources for future generations.

Peace education is a powerful driver of development. A peaceful society worth living in is built upon basic social policy values, like, solidarity, equality of opportunity, and participation.

Conflicts do not arise only because of military and political threats to national sovereignty but can arrive due to environmental degradation & prevention of development opportunities.

Investment in long-term good social policy promotes sustainable economic growth and development.
  • For Instance: Education, social, and health protection systems offer people a chance to develop using their own resources and live independently.

We must promote and support peace culture via formal & informal education in school, and university as Peace & economic development are inseparable.

5) Gender Equality:

Gender equality is one of the 8 domains of the United Nations Programme of Action (POA) on the culture of peace; & also plays a vital part in the remaining domains.

Gender equality is a necessity on a part of the promise and guarantee of human rights.

Gender equality is both
  • Important aim on its own, in terms of equality and justice for women, &
  • An important contributor to peace promotion.

The involvement of women has been proportionately less in war & more in peace movements than men, which itself is the reason why gender equality must be promoted through a culture of peace.

  • A knowledgeable informed woman is crucial to campaign for the culture of peace in the world.
  • Women must be given equal claims and rights in
    • Political participation,
    • Studies, and
    • Recruitment in the higher position.
  • The full participation of women in different peace initiatives, conflict prevention & resolution, decision-making is vital in realizing and achieving lasting peace.

6) International Peace And Security:

The United Nations is an organization that works to maintain international peace & security all over the world.

  • Although the UN has had many achievements and successes, unfortunately, there are several tragic incidents where the UN has not been so successful.
  • The line has increasingly become blurred between peace spoilers and criminals and hostile groups, including extremists and terrorists with sophisticated tactics and transnational strategies.
  • Recent ever-increasing conflicts have killed millions of innocent people.

The collapse of the State security system in inter-communal and intra-State conflicts poses massive security challenges and disputes & truly tests UN capacity to successfully carry out its programs and mandates.

  • With the growing complexity & rising costs of addressing and tackling crisis situations, the requirement of prevention of conflict is higher than ever.
  • UN works for conflict prevention as a mediator.
  • It continues to tackle challenges and questions like: What is the best way to engage with fractured armed groups or with amorphous movements?

7) Non-Violence:

Today, all around the world violence, exclusion, and discrimination cause suffering for millions and millions of people. All these factors are born out of ignorance, mistrust, and fear, and undermine the health, safety & potential of human beings.

Disagreements and differences of opinion are natural, but the question is: HOW TO DEAL WITH THEM IN A CONSTRUCTIVE WAY?

Often times we looked at Violence, exclusion, and discrimination, as separate issues. But, in reality, they are interconnected & share common root causes.  To seek common solutions we must deeply study common root causes.

The promotion and support of a culture of peace and nonviolence is an intrinsic principle of humanity,
  • It is not restricted to just the absence of war. It is not a final or end goal, but a process.
  • It is about preventing & minimizing sources of tensions, as much as possible.
  • It is about establishing a healthy environment for discussion and dialogue,
  • Finding answers to problems & tensions, without any fear of violence, with a process in which everyone is able to participate and equally valued.
Seeing the present-day world, the human race needs to take immediate concrete actions for a more equal, non-violent, and humane society.
    • We have seen non-violence working greatly as a foundation for so many religious and social movements.
    • With appropriate promotion and support, nonviolence can also be used by individuals to reach out to others to find common solutions to problems.
Developing a non-violent trait in individuals is a key, for peaceful living within communities, families, organizations, schools, & within our “global village”.

Methods Of Teaching Peace Education

Good teaching methods and techniques make the teaching-learning process

  • Effective,
  • Productive,
  • Interesting,
  • Easier, and
  • Successful.

Every single teaching subject requires some specific methods and techniques, which will be a perfect match for delivering content.

For example: To teach Science experiments best method is the demonstration method.

To teach peace education, the following approaches can be practiced.

  1. Enquiry Method
  2. Value Clarification
  3. Jurisprudential Model of Teaching
  4. Role Play
  5. Dramatics Play
  6. Yoga and Meditation
  7. Sports and Games
  8. Counseling
  9. Teacher Education for Peace
  10. Teacher As A Role Model

1) Enquiry Method

Enquiry-based learning and teaching method is the right method for motivating students to raise doubts and questions themselves.

  • In this approach, classrooms should include space for
    • Inter-cultural,
    • Inter-generational, and
    • Multi-way discussions.
  • Political discussions can be introduced among students with new ways of thought, instead of superficial discussions and memorization, which suppress education.

Enquiry method is appropriate for spreading peace culture in classrooms. Through this approach of learning

  • Classroom communication is enhanced,
  • More socialization occurs,
  • Conflict free place is built, and
  • Sharing of personal experiences and knowledge, increase students ability of
    • Active listening
    • Asking critical questions.

Additionally, students experience a range of perspectives and thoughts for

  • Non-violent communication,
  • Cultural understanding, &
  • Learn how to manage conflict.

2) Value Clarification

Value clarification is relatively a new method to teach peace education.

The objective of this strategy is not to teach specific values but to make the learner

  • Aware about their own personally held values and
  • Do a meaningful assessment on in which ways their values stand compared to those of friends, different groups and adults in society, & to even with other societies in other times.
  • It is hoped that this awareness will increase the peace culture among the learner.

Though the Value Clarification strategy includes a variety of activities, there exists a basic procedure that can be followed while using this method:

  1. Teachers should begin Peace education lessons with ‘Opening up’ activities, with a focus on low-risk problems and issues associated with conflict management.
  2. These activities should compel students to reveal their position and opinions over the issue in an overt & explicit manner.
  3. Teacher should accept student responses without Judgment & discourage any attempts by students to mock or challenge each other’s view and outlook.
  4. The students should be asked to further explain or provide a reason for holding a specific value position. This is the Clarification aspect of the Strategy.
  5. Whenever possible, activities should be related to issues that have historical importance or relation with present social and political issues.

3) Jurisprudential Model of Teaching

The Jurisprudential model fits in the family of social interaction model. This model centered upon the idea of a society, that

  • People differ in their beliefs, priorities, and views,
  • Social values legitimately conflict with one another.

Resolving complex and controversial issues for a productive social order requires people

  • Who can talk to each other &
  • Negotiate their differences successfully.

Jurisprudential model of teaching is especially, an effective strategy to solve and manage major conflicts related to issues like:

  • Religions,
  • Race,
  • Ethnicity,
  • Ideology,
  • Economic, &
  • Security.

4) Role Play

Role-play is any activity with verbal communication, where one is speaking on behalf of others in an imaginary situation.

The plus point of this method is that for a short duration, learners can ‘become’ anyone he/she likes. The choice is endless.

Roleplay is a simulation situation & one gets the chance to get more or less real experience. 

  • Roleplay covers many applications & can be easily done even in the classroom.
  • This activity can be practiced using drama.
  • After the role-play and drama is over, teacher should ask students about their feeling, views, or what they learn during role play.
  • It can also be used to facilitate debate about current and real issues related to various world problems.

5) Dramatics Play

Dramatic play refers to a type of play where one accepts role assigned to them and then act them out.

It is a time when children

  • Pretend to be someone or something different from themselves,
  • Dramatize actions and situations which go along with the role they have chosen to play, and
  • Breaks the walls of reality.

Dramatic play may be seen as trivial by some, but, they are very useful and continue to be an important strategy in the effective teaching-learning process.

While taking part in dramatic play, children develop many skills, such as

  • Make-Believe or Pretending
  • Role-Playing
  • Social Skills and Interaction
  • Use Of Props or Materials
  • Adaptability
  • Effective Communication
  • Increase attention Span.
  • Curiosity & imagination.

Dramatic play provides excellent opportunities to parents and teachers for developing and encouraging, peaceful culture among children from a very tender age and to give them a good head start.

6) Yoga and Meditation

Yoga is nothing but a bunch of various physical exercises named ‘Asanas’. This Asana helps

  • In making an objective assessment of life’s problems by controlling our
    • Anger,
    • Temper,
    • Awareness.
  • To calm nerves which in turn gives us peace.
Mind itself is the cause of diseases. Yoga and Meditation is no more & no less than a better way of living with peace.

Yoga helps

  • To balance state of mind,
  • Generate right thought and attitude, and
  • Provide apt direction to human activities which will lead them towards the joy of fulfillment.

The first step in yoga is to calm oneself - to see things clearly.

  • Calmness helps to generate clarity in thoughts and beliefs.
  • Asanas such as Sukhasana, spreads a sense and feeling of general peacefulness and calmness.

With peace & calm, comes understanding and clarity, which help to better coordinate a day’s work.

  • Asanas such as Vajrasana, help one to feel peace & turn our mind inwardly to have more concentration.

Meditation helps to quieten the mind and the body, thus enabling an individual to focus more on his thoughts & become more concentrated.

  • Meditation improves memory,
  • Create a feeling of peace and calm.
  • Regular practice of mediation, make a person resourceful and intuitive.

Teachers must encourage students to practice yoga and meditation, it would

  • Increase their internal peace,
  • Curb a culture of violence &
  • Helps to maintain and move towards a culture of peace.

7) Sports and Games

The sound mind is a sound body.

For having good mental health, one must have good health and body development.

Sports and games assist people towards peaceful change, as

  • Helps to build strong and good character,
  • Foster spirit of cooperation and understanding,
  • Nurture sportsmanship – fairness, courage, self-control, respect for others, and persistence.
  • Give opportunity to feel and experience sharing & caring behavior.
  • Provide peace to the mind,
  • Motivating peoples to participate in games and sport improve their social behavior & cooperation mind in a long way.

Most psychosomatic diseases can be prevented with systematic fitness activities and physical exercise. Thus, sports & games should be a compulsory subject for all students in the schools.

8) Counseling

Countless people all over the world suffer from psychological issues. After any traumatic experience, one needs help

  • To mitigate the emotional and psychological after-effects,
  • To overcome and come out from their isolation and
  • To again find purpose and meaning in their lives.

The effects and after-effects of traumatic experiences are found most among children.

  • Children's psychosocial well beings & responsibility to protect them from the effects of trauma have been widely recognized as a pressing issue in the humanitarian field.
  • Some places and causes which can start psychological problems among children can be
    • Home,
    • Conflict,
    • Congenital, or other disorders.

Counseling is used as a medium to help children to understand themselves which will lead them towards a better understanding of other aspects of their lives.

9) Teacher Education for Peace

Education is the only defense against wars.  The destiny of any nation is being shaped in the classrooms.

Teachers are role models for students, they play a key role in modeling and shaping the destiny of future stakeholders.

Therefore, teachers must be given intensive training or molding regarding different good aspects like

  • Communication skill,
  • Peace culture
  • Value development, and
  • Knowledge of Science and technology.

The teacher education programs should include components of peace education.

Teacher education programs should be planned to give the right experience, to make every single teacher able to uphold their duties and responsibilities.

10) Teacher As A Role Model

A role model is a person who encourages and inspires others

  • To strive for greatness,
  • To live with their fullest potential,
  • To see best in their potential and in themselves.

A role model can be anyone

  • Parent,
  • Friend,
  • Sibling,
  • Teachers etc.

Teachers are generally regarded as the most influential person in any child's life. Children look to them for both guidance and advice.

We learn so much from teachers, via their

  • Commitment to excellence &
  • Ability to make students realize their own personal growth.

Conflict Resolution

What is Conflict?

According to Dentsch (1973),

Conflict exists whenever incompatible activities occur.

Conflict is an action or activity that blocks, interferes, or prevents the effectiveness or occurrence of other activities, and creates incompatibility or disagreement between different events or actions.

What Are The Main Causes Of Conflicts?

Conflict is defined as

“Natural disagreement resulting from individuals or groups that differ in needs, belief, values, or attitudes”.

It is extremely difficult and complicated to point to one single cause of conflict. Conflict can develop amid several characters due to various reasons like

  • Conflicts occur from differences.
  • Conflicts happen whenever someone disagrees over
    • Ideas,
    • Values,
    • Opinion,
    • Perceptions,
    • Motivations, or
    • Desires.

Conflict many times produce such strong feelings, that differences that look trivial, there too deep relational and personal problems arise.

The conflict frequently creates an internal conflictual dynamic which then makes

  • Peaceful,
  • Non-violent and
  • Constructive settlements extremely hard or impossible.

Conflicts include positive & negative aspects both. 

  • If we consider conflict just as something disruptive and negative, then we tend to shut down potentially creative discussions.
  • As an alternative, we should turn conflict around to gain everything we can from it.

Most person thinks conflict to be only negative, which is true if we ignore conflict, but if we properly manage it then conflict too has several positive aspects.

Aspects of Conflict

a.  Positive Aspects

Some of the positive aspects of conflicts are:

  1. Conflict force peoples to analyze a problem & work towards a solution.
  2. Working together for solving problem, especially in groups, increase cohesiveness.
  3. Conflict nurture creativity and originality as peoples look for innovative solutions and ideas.
  4. With each and every conflict experience, one grows and understands further about others who were involved in the conflict.
  5. Confronting & wanting to figure out a solution to a problem indicates a commitment, desire, and concern to preserve the relationship.

b.  Negative Aspects

Some of the negative aspects of conflicts are:

  1. Conflict cause frustration and stress.
  2. Conflict creates negative feelings among the parties involved.
  3. Conflict produces negative emotions & sometimes violent behavior.
  4. Conflict initiates antagonism and hatred among the people.
  5. Conflict leads groups or individuals to close themselves off from one another.
  6. People involved in the conflict became inactive, confused & less motivated.
  7. Conflict wastes time & energy.
  8. Conflict creates tensions among people & diverts attention from the objectives.

Different Types Of Conflict

There are two types of conflict, namely

  1. Functional conflict
  2. Dysfunctional conflict

1.  Functional conflict: It includes all conflicts which support the goal of a community, workgroup, or organization.

2.  Dysfunctional conflict: It includes disagreements, differences, and all disputes which hinder the performance of a group.

Classification Of Conflict Types

Types of Conflict

Functional Conflict

Dysfunctional Conflict

  • Economical Conflict
  • Global Conflict
  • Social Conflict
  • Armed Conflict
  • Regions Conflict
  • Inter / State Conflict
  • Inter-social Conflict
  • Intra-social Conflict
  • Group Conflict
  • Emotional Conflict
  • Workplace Conflict
  • Value Conflict
  • Data Conflict
  • Interest Conflict
  • Organizational Conflict

Meaning Of Conflict Resolution

"Conflict resolution is the understanding of dynamics of human negotiation among conflicting interest groups and how to achieve mutual agreement.”- Bill Warters

Conflict resolution is an exceptionally challenging job, it involves recognizing specific Conflicts to manage or control a Conflict.

In general, the process of conflict resolution includes

  1. Negotiation,
  2. Diplomacy and
  3. Meditation.
  • All these processes introduce correct measures which assist in stopping fights, fall out, violence, and ensure peace and harmony.

Conflict resolution requires

  1. Correct understanding about the cause of conflict and
  2. Inexhaustible degree of patience.

Characteristics Of Conflict Resolution

The concept of conflict resolution usually centers on

  • Social-behavioral signs and symptoms of conflict.
  • Training people to solve inter-personal differences through techniques like
    • Negotiation &
    • Mediation.

Conflict resolution is about methods, ideas, and theories that study the events of conflict & explore ways to bring it under control.

Some of the main elements of conflict resolution mechanism are:

  • To alter attitudes, beliefs, & behavior from negative to positive attitudes toward conflict.
  • Fair fight and to learn to manage anger.
  • To improve understanding of the conflict.
  • To Improve communication by using skills like:
    • Listening,
    • Identifying needs, &
    • Separating facts from emotions.
  • To collectively reduce and prevent violence.
  • To improve political processes for balance interest.
  • To promote better & more effective relationships between states & peoples.

Bion (1961) characterizes conflict resolution according to 3 underlying basic assumptions:

1. Dependence:

The well-being of the individual, to be secured through dependence upon another object (institution, person, idea).

2. Expectancy:

The well-being of the individual in the future is to be obtained through the intercourse of pairs of objects (institutions, persons).

3. Fight-Flight:

The well-being of the individual, to be secured through fighting for self-actualization & by destroying or evading a person or institution.

Conflict Management

‘Conflict Management’ may imply a process of learning to live peacefully with differences that may not be resolvable at a given point in time.

Conflict is often best understood by examining and exploring the consequences of various behaviors at moments in time.

Thomas and Kilman in 1976 identified 5 basic ways to manage conflict. No way is better to others, it all depends upon the environment, people, & the context.

Conflict Resolution And Management Techniques

  1. Competing
  2. Avoiding
  3. Compromising
  4. Accommodating
  5. Collaborating

1) Competing

Competing means “Standing up for rights”, depending upon a position, which one is certain that it is correct, or simply trying to win.

  • It is a method in which personal needs and wishes are advocated over the needs and wishes of others.
  • The outcome is “win/lose”.

Competing relies upon
  • Aggressive communication style,
  • Exercise of coercive power, and
  • Little regard for relationships.

Competing is normally exercised when basic rights are at stake or to set an example. However, competing can worsen conflict more & losers may attempt to strike back violently.

2) Avoiding

In this technique, the individual neither resolves their own concerns nor those of the others. They do not deal with the conflict.

  • “Perhaps if we don’t bring it up. It will blow over,” - we say to ourselves.
  • The drawback of avoiding is Default Decision Making - crucial decisions can be made by default.
  • The outcome is “lose/lose”.

3) Compromising

This technique of conflict resolution is in the middle of both cooperativeness and assertiveness.

  • Compromising is the combination of individual goals and needs for a mutual aim.
  • The outcome is “Win some / Lose some”.
  • Compromising brings new energy, time & ideas to solve the conflict meaningfully.
Compromising in some conditions might mean
  • Taking a quick and smart middle-ground solution,
  • Exchanging concessions, and
  • Dividing the difference between the two positions.

It requires positive cooperation and communication among different individuals and groups, in order to reach a better solution than either individual or group could have gotten alone.

4) Accommodating

Accommodating is unassertive but a cooperative technique, this approach is normally applied when concerns for others are more important.

  • When accommodating, the person neglects his own concerns to satisfy the concerns of the other person; there is an element of self-sacrifice in this mode.
This technique might take the form such as:
  • Surrendering to another person's viewpoints.
  • Obeying another people order when you would prefer not to, or
  • Selfless generosity and charity.
The advantage of this approach is it helps
  • To build commitment &
  • To reduce bad feelings.
The drawback of this approach, that
  • Individual own concerns and ideas won’t get adequate attention.
  • The person might lose credibility & future influence.

5) Collaborating

Collaborating means to try working with others for finding a solution that will fully satisfy both party's concerns.

  • It means digging into a problem to pinpoint the underlying needs & wants of the two groups or individuals.
  • The goal of the collaboration is to reach a consensus.
  • It is a technique in which persons gain & give in a series of concessions.
  • The outcome is “Win - Win”.

Generally, it is considered the best technique for managing a conflict.

Collaborating between 2 persons perhaps take the form like
  • To Study the disagreement and learn from each other’s insights, or
  • To try to search for a creative solution to an interpersonal problem.
Problem with collaboration technique:
  • Compromise is mostly not satisfying. Every person is shaped by their own individual perceptions of their needs and does not necessarily understand the other side very well.
  • It takes lots of energy & time.
  • Often people avoid risk-taking and have major trust issues, which hinders successful collaborative behaviors.

It is not a watertight compartment that person should just use 1 mode of conflict management technique.

  • Some individuals use some modes better than others &, therefore, tend to rely on those modes than others whether because of practice or temperament.
  • Understanding each technique with its consequences helps in normalizing the results of our behaviors in many situations.

Conflict Resolution Styles And Models

Conflict resolution is also known as 'Reconciliation'. It is a style and method involved in, facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict & retribution.

The conflict resolution models and theory are relatively new in the field of education. Some of the important models & theories of conflict resolution are:

  1. Dual Concern Style
  2. Yielding Conflict Style
  3. Avoidance Conflict Style
  4. Cooperation Conflict Style
  5. Competitive Conflict Style
  6. Conciliation Conflict Style
  7. Thomas and Kilmann’s Style

1) Dual Concern Style:

The dual concern style of dealing with conflict is a conceptual viewpoint that assumes that the preferable method of human beings for dealing with conflict is built on 2 underlying dimensions or themes.

  1. Assertiveness - Concern For Self.
  2. Empathy - Concern For Others.
a. Concern For Self (Assertiveness)
  • Assertiveness is the quality of being confident and self-assured without being aggressive.
  • Assertiveness is a good mode of communication and helpful learnable skill.
b. Concern For Others (Empathy)

Empathy is the quality

  • To feel or understand what other being (human or non-human) is experiencing from within,
  • To identify and understand the emotions of others,
  • To place oneself in another’s position, and
  • To see other people's points of view.

2) Yielding Conflict Style:

Yielding is also known as the “Accommodating” conflict style, characterized by a high level of concern for oneself.

This passive pro-social approach develops when a person
  • Derive personal pride and satisfaction from meeting the needs of others and
  • Have a general interest in maintaining positive, stable social relationships.

When faced with conflict, a person with this yielding style is more likely to give into others’ demands, out of respect or for the social relationship.

3) Avoidance Conflict Style:

This style of conflict resolution is a method, which tries to avoid tackling the issue and problems at hand directly.

Some of the methods for doing this include
  • To Put off a discussion until later,
  • To change the subject, or
  • To simply not bring up the subject of conflict.
This method is applied when one
  • Shows no interest and concern in dealing with the other party, and
  • Uncomfortable with conflict.

4) Cooperation Conflict Style:

This style is normally applied when a person has high interests in their own outcomes as well as in the outcomes of others.

  • Collaborators see conflict as a creative opportunity, and they willingly invest time & resources into finding a ‘Win-Win’ solution.
  • Literature on conflict resolution, recommend a cooperative conflict resolution style over all other conflict styles.

When faced with conflict, cooperators work together with everybody else in an effort to find an agreeable solution that satisfies all the parties involved in the conflict.

Cooperation Conflict style is characterized by an active concern for both
  • Pro-self-behavior and
  • Pro-social behavior.
A person using cooperation conflict style tend to be both
  • Highly empathetic and
  • Highly assertive.

5) Competitive Conflict Style:

Competitive is also known as “fighting” conflict style, it maximizes the person assertiveness (concern for self) & minimizes empathy (concern for others).

Groups (consist of competitive members) or individuals with this style,
  • Typically enjoy getting domination and control over others,
  • Usually see conflict as a “win or lose” situation,
  • Tries to foster feelings of intimidation in others and
  • Have a tendency to force others to accept & believe their personal view by using competitive power approaches like
    • Arguments,
    • Accusations,
    • Insults,
    • Violence, etc.

6) Conciliation Conflict Style:

This style is found in people who have an intermediate level of concern and worry for both personal & others’ outcomes.

  • Compromisers know and value fairness, by doing so, they expect mutual give-and-take interactions.
  • They accept some requests or demands put forth by others.
  • Compromisers trust that this agreeableness will encourage others to meet them halfway, and thus promote conflict resolution.

This conflict style can be considered an extension of both ‘cooperative’ and ‘yielding’ strategies.

7) Thomas and Kilmann’s Style:

In any conflict situation, according to Thomas and Kilmann’s, people mostly react in one of several ways:

  1. Competing,
  2. Avoiding,
  3. Accommodating,
  4. Compromising, or
  5. Collaborating.

Who will choose which conflict management styles, depends most upon the nature of the situation, then the specific personality traits of the person.

Thomas and Kilmann’s 5 different styles of conflict resolution

a) Competing Style:
  • This is a power-oriented style, in which one applies and uses any kind of power which seems to be appropriate for winning one’s own position.
  • This style of conflict resolution is uncooperative and assertive a person pursues their own needs and concerns at the expense of others.
  • This style can be used whenever a quick decisive action is needed and action is crucial for the organization.
b) Avoiding Style:

This style of conflict resolution is uncooperative and unassertive – in this person do not address the conflict. They do not straightaway pursue their own concerns or those of the other person.

General tactics of avoiding conflicts are:
  • Postponing a dispute until a better time,
  • Diplomatically dodging an issue, or
  • Simply abandoning a threatening situation whenever one finds no chance of satisfying his concerns.
c) Accommodating Style:
This style is the opposite of the competing style. It is cooperative and unassertiveness.
  • In this person neglects their own concerns to satisfy the concern of the other person, there is a quality of self–sacrifice in this style.
This style is used in conditions like:
  • To fulfill the requirements of others,
  • When conflict is significantly important for another person than to yourself, and
  • As a goodwill gesture to help maintain a cooperative relationship.
d) Compromising Style:

This style of conflict resolution is a midway between both cooperativeness and assertiveness. It gives up more than competing but less than accommodating

  • This style of conflict resolution could be practiced when objectives are moderately significant & temporary agreement is needed.
  • The goal is to achieve some practical, mutually acceptable solution that partially satisfies both parties.
e) Collaborating Style:

This style is the opposite of avoiding style. It includes both cooperative and assertive.

Collaborating means
  • To make a sincere effort, to work with other parties,
  • To dig into an issue to identify the underlying concerns,
  • To find an alternative or some solution that can fully satisfy the concerns of both parties.

This conflict resolution style is used whenever one needs an integrative solution & the concerns and issues are equally important for both sides.

It is said that education without clear-cut aims is like a rudderless ship.

Aims Of UNICEF In Peace Education Program

United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) has summarized the following aims & objectives of the peace education program.

a)Aims Related To Knowledge:

  1. To be aware of own needs (Self-awareness).
  2. Ability to identify causes of conflict & non-violent ways of conflict resolution.
  3. Understanding of responsibilities and rights.
  4. Recognition of injustice and prejudice.
  5. Capacity to use the mediation process.
  6. Understanding of peace and nature of the conflict.
  7. Ability to understand the interdependence between societies and individuals.
  8. Appreciation and awareness about cultural heritage.
  9. Competence in analyzing conflict.
  10. To enhance and develop knowledge of community mechanisms for building peace & resolving conflict.

b)Aims Related To Attitudes:

  1. Respect for responsibilities and rights of parents and children.
  2. To possess
    • Positive self-image,
    • Self-respect,
    • Strong self-concept.
  3. Sense of Gender equity.
  4. Solid stance for equality and justice.
  5. To have
    • Tolerance and Empathy,
    • Respect for differences,
    • Social responsibility,
    • Acceptance of others.
    • Solidarity and Reconciliation.
    • Joy in living.

c)Aims Related To Skills:

  1. To have good communication skills:
    • Active listening,
    • Reframing,
    • Paraphrasing,
    • Self-expression.
  2. Ability like:
    • To think crucially about prejudice
    • To create alternative solutions.
    • To cooperate.
    • To deal with emotions.
    • To deal with stereotypes.
    • To live with change.
  3. Prevention of conflict.
  4. Know-how to solve problems.
  5. Constructive resolution of conflict.
  6. To develop capabilities such as:
    • Affirmation.
    • Assertiveness.
    • Critical thinking.
  7. Participation in society on behalf of peace.

Democracy And Peace

The modern-day world has seen the spread of democracy as the most valid form of government. This trend has become more evident in recent years.

Democracy enhances and improves the growth of numerous aspects of human potential by providing equal access to education, opportunities, and active participation, in all parts of

  • Economic,
  • Social, &
  • Political life.

Democracy, Peace, sustainable development, and human rights are, in fact, closely interrelated. Without one, the other cannot exist.

Democracy is not possible without peace, and truly peace cannot exist without democracy.

However, no constitutional formula exists which can perfectly design or produce a ready-made democracy.

  • Democracy is not something that can be exported and manufactured. It has to be constantly sought after & nurtured.
  • All one can do is to help flower democracy, if its seeds already exist in the minds of the people.

Though, yes democracy is very difficult to achieve, but if there exist inherent desire in everyone,

  • To be treated as an equal,
  • To think he/she is born free,
  • To demand an equal chance and
  • To develop his/her potential through broader participation in society’s activities, democracy can blossom.

Education for democracy is a continuous lifelong process,

  • Not restricted to a particular grade or level of school education.
  • Take many diverse approaches, depending upon the
    • History,
    • Political system, and
    • Socio-cultural traditions.
  • To enter this education in the entire education process, it needs to be cross-disciplinary.

Education for democracy may take up various dimensions or aspects of democracy, like






Literary ones

Philosophical or Conceptual

Legal and legislative

A selective approach is essential in choosing from this list but special attention should be paid to democracy in the day-to-day life of all communities.

Education for democracy ideally presumes the existence of a democratic environment both in the classroom & outside school life. Where such, environment is missing or underdeveloped, it is necessary to try to eliminate undemocratic factors, conditions, and practices.

This can be done by ensuring

  • The recognition of individual human rights
  • Education for all
  • Gender equity
  • Social obligation & responsibility
  • Freedom
  • Social cohesion
  • Cultural & national traditions
  • Active social participation
  • Encouragement to contribute to the solution of the problems.
Democracy is undoubtedly the very foundation of lasting peace.

Human Rights Education And Peace

Human Rights refer to the - “basic rights & freedoms to which every human is entitled”.

Peace Education and Human rights education are tightly linked activities that support and complement each other.

Rights education typically incorporates components of learning about the provisions of the term written in international documents like:

  • The Convention on the Rights of the Child or
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

The first sentence of DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS states –

Respect for human rights and dignity “is the foundation of freedom justice and peace in the world.”

Rights education teaches and encourages students

  • To develop skills that will enable them to act in ways that promote and uphold rights both their ‘Own & Others’.
  • To know and recognize the impact of violations of rights both at ‘home & abroad’.
  • To understand the responsibilities which come with ‘Rules and Rights’.
  • To develop solidarity and empathy with those whose rights have been denied.
  • To value human rights and realize that all human rights are
    • Interrelated
    • Universal
    • Interdependent and
    • Indivisible.

Peace is a fundamental pre-condition without which rights cannot be realized while at the same time the ensuring of basic rights is essential to bringing about peace.

The most successful and effective way of nurturing values related to human rights is ‘Education’.

The basic responsibility of human rights education is to develop the ability to value care and protect

  1. Equality
  2. Freedom of thought and belief
  3. Justice & love
  4. Conscience
  5. Rights of
    • Women
    • Children
    • Disadvantaged groups
    • Ethnic and religious minorities
    • Workers etc.

The first step in enhancing understanding & actualizing values related to human rights is to teach students what their shared rights & freedoms are so that these may be respected & a willingness to protect those of others will be promoted.

Teaching & learning activities must focus on

  1. Imparting values that maintain human dignity and preserve life
  2. Provide ample opportunity to every student to evaluate the realization or non-realization of core principles and values associated with human rights in their own life.
  3. Teaching learners that only forming & maintaining this sensitivity is not enough. They must also develop an ability to react to human rights violations.

Principle values related to human rights can be explored through experiential learning. Experiential learning fundamentally includes

  1. A process with which the development of cognitive skills can take place
  2. Exploration of attitudes values & personal feelings
  3. All the above things can be achieved during the experience or on later reflection.

While developing core human rights values learners must be exposed to factors and reasons which contribute to the human rights violation such as:

  1. Lack of education
  2. Too much importance within a nation on the economic considerations at the cost of Justice and equality for the common person
  3. Ignorance of customs and law
  4. Poverty
  5. The vested interests of a powerful and rich minority
  6. Inequitable wealth distribution
  7. Neglect of older and vulnerable people due to families becoming more nuclear in nature.
  8. Certain traditional norms with respect to the status of women in society.

Human rights & fundamental freedom permit us to use and develop our human qualities our talents our intelligence & our conscience & to satisfy our spiritual & other needs.

  • These are based upon humankind growing demand for a better life in which the inherent dignity & worth of each individual will receive equal protection and respect.

The denial of fundamental freedoms & human rights is not only a personal tragedy but also

  • Creates conditions of political and social unrest
  • Sow seeds of conflict and violence within & between nations and societies.


The Peace Education Plays A Vital Role In Shaping The Next Generation Of Scientifically Literate Individuals. By Understanding The Principles And Strategies Discussed In This Blog Post, You Will Be Well-Prepared To Create Meaningful And Impactful Peace Education Learning Experiences For Your Students.


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