Nature Of Science


Nature Of Science In Points | What Is The Nature Of Science : Systematic, Understandable, Accuracy, Logic And Imagination, Way Of Knowing, Human Endeavour, Validity, Durability, Reproducibility, Durability, Curiosity, Subject To Change


Science has certain characteristics which distinguish it from other spheres of human endeavor. These characteristics define the nature of science.

The nature of science can very well be described with the support of the following attributes:

  1. Systematic and understandable
  2. Accuracy
  3. A mixture of logic and imagination
  4. Science is a Way of Knowing
  5. Science is a Human Endeavor
  6. Knowledge itself is good—it is good to acquire knowledge
  7. Validity
  8. Subject to change
  9. Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods
  10. Durability
  11. Reproducibility
  12. Not all questions can be answered by science
  13. Scientific Knowledge is based on Empirical Evidence
  14. Curiosity is good and should be encouraged

1. Systematic And Understandable.

Scientific knowledge is based on the assumption that natural laws operate today as they did in the past and they will continue to do so in the future.

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems.

Science is not arbitrary, it follows rules, principles, and a system.

From the earliest times one kind of response science still following is:

  • To observe the physical and biological environment carefully.
  • Consequentially, look for any meaningful patterns and relations.
  • From this knowledge make and use new tools to interact with nature, technology, system, etc., and then
  • Build conceptual models to understand the world and universe more.

Science assumes that objects and events in natural systems occur in consistent patterns that are understandable through measurement and observation.

2. Accuracy

Every new observation or a new theory, theoretical calculation in science is received with a lot of skepticism.

Scientists wish for accuracy and don’t settle even an inch underneath it.

Scientist carefully considers and evaluates anomalies in data and evidence. With a healthy dose of skepticism and lots of debate scientists accept:

  • A new observation only when experimental observations have been checked by independent individuals or groups at various places with identical results.
  • A new theory is accepted only when theoretical calculations have been repeated by other scientists autonomously with identical results.

Scientists look at everything with suspicion which directly leads to science being accurate.

3. Mixture Of Logic And Imagination

Humans have always been curious about the world around them.

Scientists use all sorts of imagination and thought in approaching theories, experiment, and comes up with hypotheses which they sooner or later verify and test their validity.

The inquiring and imaginative human mind has responded to the wonder and awe of nature in different ways.

Scientific concepts do not emerge automatically from data or from any amount of analysis alone but rigorous use of logic and imagination is its soul. Scientists imagine hypotheses, theories in their real-life application.

Imagination and logic in science is as useful and creative as

  • Writing poetry,
  • Designing skyscrapers,
  • Composing music etc.
Logic and imagination are usually required to recognize the meaning of the unexpected in science.

4. Science Is A Way Of Knowing

Science is both a body of knowledge that represents a current understanding of natural systems and the processes and practices used to:

  • Refine,
  • Elaborate,
  • Revise and
  • Add to that body of knowledge.

Science is a way of knowing used by many people, not just scientists. Science knowledge helps us know about the world. 

Science knowledge has a history that includes the refinement of, and changes to,

  • Theories,
  • Ideas, and
  • Beliefs over time.
Science knowledge is cumulative and many people, from many generations and nations, have contributed to scientific knowledge.

5. Science Is A Human Endeavor

An important trait of humans is to wonder, observe and interact with the surroundings and look for meaningful patterns and relations by making and using new tools and build conceptual models to understand this universe.

Human exploratory actions have triggered the accumulation of vast sources of knowledge in science.

Human endeavor has led to modern science which took thousands of years to get crystallized.
Human’s inquisitiveness and usefulness of the knowledge of science are the two main factors that have led human

  • To continuously endeavor to grasp the behavior of nature and
  • Use the knowledge of science to make their life more comfortable.

In doing so humans systematized science knowledge by

  • Classifying it into numerous fields of their activities,
  • Built concepts to figure out the behavior of nature and
  • Found various ways to exploit it.
In short, the endeavors of humankind resulted in a new discipline known as science.

6. Knowledge Itself Is Good—It Is Good To Acquire Knowledge.

Science is knowledge and knowledge is power and with power come wisdom and liberation.

Knowledge is good-not because it may be useful in some pragmatic manner, but purely since it increases and enriches our store of understanding about the universe in which we live.

Science is a particular way of looking at nature, which may also be called a scientific attitude.

In science, experimentation and theory building complements each other.

  • In a progressive forward-looking society, knowledge especially science knowledge plays a truly liberating role. It’s easy to falsify or fabricate the data but scientific knowledge can foil it.
  • Scientific knowledge helps people to come out of the vicious circle of poverty, ignorance, and superstition
  • Staying open-minded and skeptical is certainly a value and goal for all scientists, provided that one's open-mindedness is reserved for objective evidence, as opposed to subjective.
Science, tempered with wisdom and is the surest and the only way to human welfare.

7. Validity

validity affects the reliability of scientific experiments, knowledge.

Validity refers to the degree to which a theory or study accurately reflects or assesses the specific concept that the scientist is attempting to measure.

Science leads to the generation of ideas helping to make sense of observed facts that get accepted if they fit observations but may be refuted until tested through evidence.

These ideas represent a broad view and are generalized as the scientific principles that are true universally.

Science results, theories are valid as they came into existence after a rigorous and lengthy process of

  1. Finding,
  2. Checking,
  3. Rechecking,
  4. Re-experiment and so on.

8. Subject To Change

Science is about asking questions and finding answers to them through scientific methods and inquiry.

One of the key nature of science is that even the most established theories can be

  • Modified, or
  • Even abandoned, if new experimental results do not fit into the existing theories.

From time to time a new experiment in science throws up finding which force modification in an existing theory or demand the development of an altogether new theory.

  1. Scientific explanations are subject to revision and improvement in light of new evidence.
  2. Theoretical expansion in a theory predicts new facts, phenomena that require further experiment and leads to vast changes. 
Science values an open mind (to be willing to examine and consider new evidence and arguments), tempered by a vigilant level of skepticism.

9. Scientific Investigations Use A Variety Of Methods

The interplay between theory and experiment is a fascinating facet of the scientific process.

Science investigations begin with a question. Most investigations in science include some form of the scientific method and are guided by a set of values to ensure the accuracy of

  • Observations
  • Measurements, and
  • The objectivity of findings.

Scientists use different ways approaches to study the world. Science investigations use diverse methods and do not always use the same set of procedures to obtain data. For Example:

  • The approach used by the scientists in the study of astronomy and ecology is ‘observation’ and ‘prediction’.
  • In micro science scientists rely on ‘laboratory experiment’ and focused on ‘ cause and effect relationship’.

Scientists, in their exploration, employ inquiry and scientific methods which in daily life promotes scientific temper and rationality.

It has been emphasized that students should imbibe the spirit of scientific inquiry in their personal lives.

10. Durability

Continuity and stability are as characteristic of science as change is, and confidence is as widespread as apprehension.

Most scientific knowledge is quite durable but is, in principle, subject to change based on

  • New evidence or
  • Reinterpretation of existing evidence.

Scientific argumentation is a mode of logical discourse used to clarify the strength of relationships between ideas and evidence that may result in the revision of an explanation but still, the certainty and durability of science findings vary.

  • For example: In formulating the theory of relativity, Albert Einstein did not discard the Newtonian laws of motion but rather showed them to be only an approximation of limited application within a more general concept.

Scientific explanations can be probabilistic and although scientists reject the notion of attaining absolute truth and accept some uncertainty as part of nature, most scientific knowledge is durable.

11.  Reproducibility

Reproducibility is one of the important criteria for a scientific result to be acceptable. Reproducibility is defined as obtaining consistent results using the same data and code as the original study.

12.  Not All Questions Can Be Answered By Science

Science knowledge indicates what can happen in natural systems—not what should happen.

Scientists study the natural and material world. Science offers answers to the problems but scientific knowledge is constrained by

  • Human capacity,
  • Technology, and
  • Materials.

Science findings are limited to what can be answered with empirical evidence. Many decisions are not made using science alone, but

  • Involves human Ethics, Moral Values, and Professionalism about the use of scientific knowledge.
  • Heavily rely on Social and Cultural contexts to resolve issues.

Science knowledge can describe the consequences of actions, may raise ethical issues but is not responsible for society’s decisions, and does not provide answers and solutions. 

13.  Scientific Knowledge Is Based On Empirical Evidence

Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations.

Science findings are based on:

  • Looking and recognizing patterns and orders.
  • Coordinating patterns of evidence with current theory.

Scientists use tools and technologies to make accurate measurements and observations.

  • Science disciplines share common rules of obtaining and evaluating empirical evidence.
  • Science arguments are strengthened by multiple lines of evidence supporting a single explanation.

14.  Curiosity Is Good And Should Be Encouraged

Curiosity leads to a search for knowledge for its own sake, which is the driving force behind the great majority of scientific discoveries ever made.

Curiosity is surely the most essential trait a scientist can possess.

  • Curiosity can be a hard sell because, sadly, many of today's students seem to lack curiosity about the world and universe outside their personal spheres of relevance.


B.Ed Notes

Pedagogy of Science

Teaching of Science


Nature Of Science In Points Notes

What Is The Nature Of Science : Systematic, Understandable, Accuracy, Logic And Imagination, Way Of Knowing, Human Endeavour, Validity, Durability, Reproducibility, Durability, Curiosity, Subject To Change Notes For B.Ed In English Medium

What Is The Nature Of Science As A Subject? Notes And Study Material, PDF, PPT, Assignment For B.Ed 1st and 2nd Year, DELED, M.Ed, CTET, TET, Entrance Exam, All Teaching Exam Test Download Free For Pedagogy of Science And Teaching of Science Subject.

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