Health And Physical Education (Free Notes)


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Table Of Contents

1. What Is Physical Education?

46. Different Yoga Asanas – Their Position, Posture, Method, Procedure And Health Benefits

2. Definition Of Physical Education

47. Why Physical Exercise Is So Important?

3. What Are The Aims And Objectives Of Physical Education?

48. Aerobic & Anaerobic Exercise

4. Scope Of Physical Education

49. Aerobic Vs Anaerobic Exercises

5. Importance Of Physical Education

50. Major Difference Between Yoga And Physical Exercise

6. (Best) Methods Of Teaching Physical Education

51. Muscles And Its Types

7. Physical Education Lesson Plan

52. Long Term Positive Effects Of Exercise On Muscular System

8. What Is Physical Fitness? - Meaning And Definition

53. First Aid - Meaning, Aims And Objectives

9. Components Of Physical Fitness

54. Scope Of First Aid

10. Long Term Mental And Physical Benefits Of Exercise And Fitness

55. Qualities That A Trained First Aider Should Possess

11. What Is Health Education?

56. First Aid Principles - Do's And Don't

12. Aims Of Health Education

57. List Of 14 First Aid Box Contents

13. Objectives Of Health Education

58. First Aid Treatment For Dislocation

14. What Are The Benefits Of Health Education?

59. What Is The Correct First Aid Treatment For Fainting?

15. Role Of Health Education Program In School

60. How Do You Initially Treat A Snake Bite?

16. Health Instruction

61.Emergency Dog Bite First Aid - Top Things You Need To Do

17. How To Effectively Impart & Promote Health Education In School - Ways And Strategies

62. Electric Shock - First Aid Steps, Precautionary Measures

18. Role, Responsibilities & Duties Of School Health Services Program

63. How To Treat A Patient In Respiratory Distress? - What Is The Correct First Aid?

19. What Is Safety Education And Why It Is Important?

64. Unconsciousness – Meaning, Causes, First Aid Treatment

20. Safety Tips For School - Precautions, Rules

65. Heat Stroke Meaning, Symptoms & First Aid Treatment

21. Safety Tips For Home - Precautions, Rules

66. Fracture Meaning, Signs And Symptoms, First Aid Treatment

22. Road Safety Rules

67. First Aid Treatment For Burns

23. Types Of Injuries In Sports

68. How Do You Treat Bleeding From The Nose? - What Is The Correct First Aid?

24. Food And Its Classification

69. Communicable Diseases

25. Essential Constituents Of Our Food

70. How Is Whooping Cough Transmitted – Treatment And Prevention Of Whooping Cough

26. Fat-Soluble Vitamins

71. How Is Smallpox Transmitted – Precautions, Treatment And Prevention Of Smallpox

27. Water-Soluble Vitamins

72. How Is Typhoid Transmitted – Causes, Precautions, Treatment And Prevention Of Typhoid

28. What Is Nutrition In Short? – Meaning, Definition & Function

73. How Is Cholera Transmitted – Causes, Precautions, Treatment And Prevention

29. What Is Malnutrition And Its Causes?

74. How Is Diarrhoea Transmitted – Causes, Precautions, Treatment And Prevention Of Diarrhoea

30. Sign And Symptoms Of Malnutrition

75. How Is Malaria Transmitted – Causes, Precautions, Treatment And Prevention Of Malaria

31. Different Ways To Prevent Malnutrition

76. Lifestyle Diseases

32. Positive Effects Of Exercise On The Digestive System

77. Cardiovascular Disease

33. What Is Balanced Diet : Meaning, Characteristics And Balanced Diet Chart

78. Cancer - Sign And Symptoms, Prevention

34. Balanced Diet Composition And Chart For Healthy Living

79. What Is Hiv/Aids? – Meaning, Sign And Symptoms, Causes, Prevention, Treatment

35. Basic Causes Of Obesity

80. Reproductive Health

36. Health Risks Linked To Obesity

81. Depression

37. Food Guide To Prevent Obesity

82. Unintentional Injuries

38. Ways To Prevent Obesity

83. Intentional Injuries

39. Food Guide To Gain Weight

84. How To Avoid Intentional And Unintentional Injuries? – 5 Best Ways

40. Classical Meaning Of Yoga

85. Diabetes And Its Causes

41. Definition Of Yoga

86. Diabetes Due To Obesity And Physical Inactivity

42. Aims And Objectives Of Yoga In Physical Education

87. Backpain

43. Types Of Yoga (Ashtanga Yoga)

88. Different Types Of Pollution With Their Causes & Effects

44. What Are The Health Benefits Of Yoga?

89. What Is Pollution And Its Harmful Effects?

45. [What Guidelines Must Be Followed While Practicing Yoga?

90. How To Successfully Control And Reduce Pollution?

Every person must possess a healthy mind: to have a healthy mind one must have a healthy physique. Healthy persons could alone make a healthy society.

Physical Education may provide the right direction and needed actions to improve the health of members of any

  • Community,
  • Society,
  • Nation and the world too.

Meaning Of Physical Education

A sound mind is in a sound body in a sound environment.

The word physical education comprises of two words:

  1. Physical and
  2. Education

The plain dictionary meaning of the word physical as relating to body characteristics of a person such as

  • Physical Strength,
  • Physical Fitness,
  • Physical Endurance,
  • Physical Appearance Or
  • Physical Health

The word education may mean systematic instructions or training or preparation for some particular tasks.

The two words combined together stand for the systematic instructions or training related to physical activities or programs of activities necessary for the development and maintenance of the human body or the development of physical powers or activities for cultivating physical skills.

Definition Of Physical Education

Physical Education is education through physical activities to the development of total personality of the child and its fulfillment and perfection in body mind and spirit.’- J.P.Thomas

Physical education is the sum of the changes in the individual caused by experiences centering motor activity.' - Cassidy

Aims And Objectives Of Physical Education

Aims of Physical Education

The primary aim of physical education is not to develop star athletes winning teams or expert performance but a national vitality with character values and physical fitness.

Ministry of Education National plan of physical education and recreation expressed that the aim of physical education must be

  • To make every child
    • Physically,
    • Mentally, and
    • Emotionally fit.
  • To develop in child such personal & social qualities which will help him to live happily with others and build him up as a good citizen.

Butcher listed the 5 aims of physical education as follows:

  1. Physical development
  2. Emotional adjustment
  3. Mental balance
  4. Social adaptability
  5. Manual training

Objectives of Physical Education

The objective of physical education is stated differently by many Physical Educationists. The following are the main objectives of physical education.

  1. Development of Mental Health
  2. Social Development
  3. Development of Organic Fitness
  4. Development Of Desirable Habits
  5. Development OF Functional Knowledge
  6. Development Of Neuro Muscular Co-Ordination
  7. Providing For Mental Hygiene
  8. Development Of Qualities Of A Good Citizenship

1. Development of Mental Health

The mental development objective deals with the accumulation of a body of knowledge and the ability to think and interpret their knowledge.

Physical education programs need
  • The alertness of Mind,
  • Deep Concentration, and
  • Calculated Movements.
Physical activities sharpen the mind, to perform various activities. It includes
  • Rules and regulations and techniques of games,
  • Anatomical and physiological studies,
  • balanced diet,
  • Sanitation,
  • Health and diseases,
  • Personal hygiene etc.
Through participation in various activities, an individual learns to draw certain conclusions.
  • He is able to understand the new situations faced in the games.
  • He is able to take decisions independently.

2. Social Development

In the democratic society in which we live it is necessary to have all individuals develop a sense of group consciousness and cooperative living.

  • Social traits are essential for better adjustment in life.
  • The program of physical education develops these traits.
  • They provide leadership qualities.
  • Through physical activities, the players come closer with each other and adjust themselves according to situations.
  • It helps in attaining traits like
    • Cooperation,
    • Sportsmanship,
    • Unselfishness,
    • Self-control,
    • Courtesy,
    • Fair play,
    • Tolerance and sympathy.

3. Development of Organic Fitness

This objective deals with the program of activities that build physical power in an individual through the development of the various organ systems of the body such a

  • Circulatory system,
  • Nervous system,
  • Respiratory system,
  • Muscular system and digestive systems.
Physical education is related to physical activities, which create various effects on our organic systems.
  • These systems are developed in size, shape, efficiency, etc.
  • This promotes sound health, which enables the individual to be a valuable asset to the nation.

If our systems remain in sound health, they can perform their functions in an efficient way.

4. Development Of Desirable Habits

  1. Maintaining cleanliness.
  2. Development of Personality.
  3. To be disciplined in one’s work.
  4. Chalking out a schedule of desirable activities that may contribute towards a healthy body and a happy mind.
  5. Attainment of sportsmanship.
  6. Development of fearlessness.
  7. Attainment of positive qualities of self-confidence.
  8. Development of leadership qualities.
  9. Development of social cooperation.
  10. Attainment of self-control.

5. Development OF Functional Knowledge

  1. To know and acquire knowledge of proper health procedures.
  2. To know the rules and techniques of different games.
  3. To know the body parts and the effects of exercise on various organs and systems.
  4. To know the methods and principles of games and exercises.

6. Development Of Neuro Muscular Co-Ordination

Good neuromuscular coordination helps to keep off fatigue coordination.

  • We get accuracy and smooth function of our body.
  • Neuromuscular development helps one to perform the daily work with proficiency. Our reaction time becomes less.

7. Providing For Mental Hygiene

Mental Hygiene comprises those activities and techniques which promote and maintain mental health. It includes

  • Elimination of worry and tension through games and sports.
  • Development of ability to face stresses in life.

8. Development Of Qualities Of A Good Citizenship

  • One has to abide by rules and regulations.
  • One’s discipline improves the qualities of good citizenship.

Scope Of Physical Education

Physical Education is an integral part of general education.

The following are the scope of physical education.

  1. Games And Sports
  2. Corrective Exercises:
  3. Self-Défense Activities
  4. Rhythmics
  5. Yogic activities
  6. Recreational Activities

1) Games And Sports:

  • various team games like hockey, football, cricket, basketball, and volleyball, etc., and individual events like athletics, wrestling, boxing, judo, and archery are included in the programs of physical education.
  • Swimming, diving, canoeing, etc. are related to water sports.

2) Corrective Exercises:

  • Corrective exercises help to remove the deformities in the body of a child.
  • Sometimes these defects are there because of defects in muscle development and for that, we use light corrective exercises.

3) Self Defense Activities:

  • Hiking, Trekking, Judo, karate, and self-defense activities are included in the programs of physical education.

4) Rhythmics:

  • Gymnastics, Leziums Dance, mass physical training, and Dumbbell, etc. are rhythmical activities necessary for rhythm and balance.
  • Rhythmical activities are also included in the programs of physical education.

5) Yogic activities:

6) Recreational Activities:

Recreational activities like minor games, chess, carom, horse riding, education campus, hunting, folk dance, fishing, etc are included in the programs of physical education.

On the basis of the above-mentioned facts, the following activities can be included in a program of physical education in India:

  1. Freehand exercises
  2. Major games
  3. Minor games
  4. Exercises with apparatus
  5. Gymnastics
  6. Track and field events
  7. Rhythmics
  8. Combative
  9. Swimming
  10. Folk dances
  11. Yoga
  12. Diving
  13. Hiking
  14. Trekking
  15. Dands and baithaks
  16. Comping
  17. Pyramids

What Is The Importance Of Physical Education In Our Life

  1. Physical education develops the alertness of the mind.
  2. It develops social traits, like
    1. Cooperation,
    2. Loyalty,
    3. Fraternity,
    4. Sympathy,
    5. Courtesy and
    6. Other traits of leadership.
  3. Through physical education, the human body can be developed in good proportion. Physical beauty also improves.
  4. Physical education provides knowledge about health and its hazards and communicable disease and non-communicable diseases.
  5. Through physical activities, leisure time can be utilized properly.
  6. Physical education helps in developing and maintaining good relations among human beings.
  7. By participating in physical activities, we can overcome
    1. Stress,
    2. Tension And Sensitiveness
    3. Eliminate Aggressiveness.
  8. Physical education helps in creating discipline through games and sports.
  9. Physical education leads to happiness efficiency and character building.
  10. Physical education helps people to become fit to develop their spiritual and more forces.
  11. Physical education provides a number of opportunities to enhance the power of tolerance.
  12. Physical education enhances all the essential traits required for the development of the personality.

Physical education increases the scope of human abilities and enriches the life of the individual and that of society as a whole.

Methods Of Teaching Physical Education

Teaching methods may generally be classified into 2 categories or areas:

  1. Methods that are teacher cantered and
  2. Methods that are student-cantered

The following are a few methods of teaching physical education:

  1. Lecture Method
  2. Command Method
  3. Demonstration Method
  4. Problem-Solving Method
  5. Task Or Project Method
  6. Circuit Method
  7. Guided Discovery Method
  8. Reciprocal Method
  9. Discussion Method
  10. Individual Programme Method
  11. Co-Operative Method
  12. Felt- Need Method
  13. Whole Method
  14. Part Method
  15. Part-Whole Method
  16. Whole-Part-Whole Method
  17. Inductive Method
  18. Deductive Method

1. Lecture Method

Classroom corollary of the command style is known as the lecture style.

  • But it allows adequate opportunities for the students to ask/probe questions.
  • Inspection of the teacher continues to have full control of the classroom atmosphere.

2. Command Method

In this method, the learning process is completely dominated by the teacher.

  • The teacher’s role is all-pervasive and the student’s role is limited to obedience only.

This method is useful in teaching

  • Drill,
  • Mass drills,
  • Hoops,
  • Wands,
  • Marching,
  • Set drills such as dumbbells,
  • Control of general assemblies,
  • Poles,
  • Rallies and parades.

3. Demonstration Method

  • The demonstration method is based on the theory of learning by imitation.
  • A perfect demonstration of an activity or skill catalyzes mental processes and serves as a model for its practice.

4. Problem-Solving Method

  • This method provides maximum freedom of thought and action to the students.
  • Each student is provided with specific questions or tasks and is directed to seek out a variety of alternative solutions.
  • It encourages the students to make their own decisions in tackling problems.

5. Task Or Project Method

  • In this method, a physical education task is selected, a proposal is presented by the teacher to a student, the specific assignment is agreed upon and the task is completed.
  • The students then receive a previously prescribed level of credit.

The task assigned maybe

  • Attaining a certain score on the pentathlon or decathlon,
  • Demonstration on an agreed level of fitness,
  • A trip in the mountains,
  • Running a given distance in a specified time,
  • Organizing a short or long duration camp,
  • Organizing a picnic,
  • Organizing athletic meet or writing on a specific project.

6. Circuit Method

The circuit method can be applied to many activities consisting of a number of stations arranged in a circuit.

  • At each station, the participant performs the required task.
  • A circuit may be set up in a gymnasium or in many other facilities.
  • At each station, directions are provided for describing the task and indicating the next step.

This method has been used extensively for

  • Weight-training,
  • Physical fitness programs and for the administration of tests,
  • But it may also be used for daily classwork as well.

7. Guided Discovery Method

  • This style uses the process of inquiry to lead the students to the discovery of desired end product.
  • In this method, the teacher makes certain statements on a few stimulating questions so as to present a clear background of the subject and to bring students to a common point of understanding.

8. Reciprocal Method

  • In this method, one student acts as the performer while another student evaluates his/her performance as the teacher.

9. Discussion Method

  • Discussion method is the most democratic style of teaching, which is useful for the interpretation of rules and regulations of games, tactics, and techniques of performance, game strategies, and officiating.

10. Individual Programme Method

  • In this method, there is an opportunity for self-motivated learning and decision-making over a more prolonged period of time.
  • The chief objective of the individual program style is to make the students self-reliant in monitoring and assessing their own performance.
  • Each student is required to learn a separate unit of subject matter with self-directed efforts.

11. Co-Operative Method

  • In this method, a high degree of interaction between the students and the teacher is observed and it requires a constant flow of information between the two and it will keep both of them active.

There are 2 variants in the co-operative method,

  1. Movement Practice
  2. Discussion

a. Movement Practice

In movement practice, the movement is performed by the students an optimum number of times and is helped/supported/encouraged, and corrected by the teacher.

b. Discussion:

The second variation of the co-operative method is discussion.

  • The discussion between the teacher and the taught is important means of education and motor learning.
  • The discussions should be planned and interestingly organized by stimulating the students to actively participate in them.
  • Discussions can be held at any time.
  • After a training session, a short discussion of 10-15 minutes is always advisable.

12. Felt- Need Method

  • Reminiscent of the ‘whole-part-whole’ and traditional methods, this is commonly used in physical education classes, especially where highly organized team games constitute the content.

Felt- Need Method Steps:

It consists essentially of the following steps.

The exposure of the students to the game
  • By participation,
  • By observing films,
  • By watching the experts and
  • By informal involvement outside the school.
  • The discovery by the students that better execution of fundamentals is needed to perform well and receive the most satisfaction from playing the game.
  • The return to some instruction and drill on the basics of the game.
  • Actually, playing the game, as skills become increasingly automatic and execution becomes more perfect.
  • A constant return to fundamental drills to prevent deterioration in performance.

13. Whole Method

  • In this method, the technique or skill is taught through demonstration and explanation and is practiced as a whole, where the learners are introduced to the movement/technique as a whole.
  • It aims at the perception of the skill as a whole in terms of developing rough coordination i.e.,
    • The learner is able to do the complete movement but maybe with several errors and mistakes.

14. Part Method

  • In this method, the technique/skill are taught, demonstrated, explained, and practiced by part.
  • This method starts with the acquisition of fine co-operation i.e.,
    • the learner is able to do the movement nearly perfectly under normal conditions, but he/she is unable to do so under changed or difficult conditions.
  • This method is characterized by
    • high training volume,
    • increased amount of movement correction, and
    • erratic progress in motor learning.
  • The skill to be learned is divided into different parts and each is taught/learned separately.
  • Learning by this method results in mastery of each part but lacks a joint/combined effort for performing the complete skill.

15. Part-Whole Method

  • In this method, the skill to be learned is divided into different parts, each part is taught and learned separately, and afterward, all these parts are combined gradually to learn the skill completely.

16. Whole-Part-Whole Method

  • In this method, the technique/skill is introduced by demonstrating and explaining it as a whole to the students in order to create and develop a rough image of the technique/skill and learned by the students in the same manner.
    • Then the skill is divided into different parts and each part is taught and learned separately i.e., part by part.
  • Here, the skill perceived as a whole is practiced in different parts of difficult situations and is corrected at each level for perfection and detailed learning.
  • Once again, the skill is performed as a whole with the purpose of achieving fine coordination, mastery of the technique, and stabilization of movement execution under different and difficult situations.
  • This method of teaching physical activities is considered the best among all particularly for learning the most difficult technique/skill.
  • Teaching methods are really a way of organizing the class for instructions.
  • However, a teacher may use any of these methods or a combination of two or more methods according to their requirements for best teaching outcomes.

17. Inductive Method

  • This method is a combination of other teaching methods, where the task method is followed by a presentation (demonstration, explanation, and lecture) and Co-operative method (movement and discussion).

18. Deductive Method

  • In the deductive method too, the other methods of teaching are arranged in a particular sequence, in which, presentation method is on the priority (demonstration, explanation, and lecture) followed by the co-operative method (movement practice and discussion) and task method (observation, assignment, project, etc.)
Topics Covered:
  • What is Planning
  • Elements Of Good Physical Science Lesson Plan
  • Components Of A Physical Education Lesson Plan
  • Physical Education Lesson Plan Format
  • Sample Physical Education Lesson Plan

Physical Education Lesson Plan

What is Planning?

According to Koontz and O’Donnell,

Planning is an intellectual process, the conscious determination of course of action, the basing of decisions on purpose, facts and considered estimates.

According to L. Urwick,

Planning is fundamentally a mental predisposition to things in an orderly way, to think before acting and to act in the light of facts rather than to guesses.

Elements Of Good Physical Science Lesson Plan

  1. In a good physical science lesson plan, objectives are clearly stated.
  2. The plan indicates all apparatus that can be used for the particular period. i.e.,
    • Charts,
    • Diagrams,
    • Audiovisual aids etc.
  3. A good lesson plan is usually a written statement.
  4. A good lesson plan includes certain evaluation exercises, which may be in the form of recapitulatory questions or problems to be solved.
  5. The lesson plan is built on the apperceptive background of the class.
  6. A good lesson plan provides an outline or summary of the whole lesson plan
  7. The material for instruction or subject matter is selected in an organized manner.
  8. In a good lesson plan, time allotment for each unit is clearly indicated.
  9. A good lesson plan has the option for self-criticism so the improvement for a future reference may be noted.
  10. A good lesson plan indicates well-selected and directed learning activities of students.
  11. The plan indicated teaching techniques to be used by the teacher.

Components Of A Physical Education Lesson Plan

The general lesson of physical education is divided into the following parts:

  1. Assembly & Roll Call
  2. Warming Up Exercises
  3. Formal Activities
  4. Special Activities
  5. Recreative Activities
  6. Assembly & Dismissal

1) Assembly & Roll Call

  • It is very essential for the success of physical activities that students must be disciplined and physical education must be made a regular activity.
    • Hence students must be ordered to gather on the school grounds.
  • Attendance should be taken after the students have gathered.
  • Absentees must be noted and called the next day or in the next period to explain their absence.

2) Warming up Exercise

  • A certain amount of warming up is essential before indulging in any vigorous activity.
  • The warming up shall consist of a few informal activities like running, hopping, jumping, skipping, imitation of the animals, locomotives, etc. which are to be stated in a slower rhythm and finished with a faster rhythm.
  • It must be particularly noted that the entire class is fully engaged in warming up.
  • About 1/8 of the total time of the period may conveniently be devoted to warming up.

3) Formal Activities

  • Formal activities form an important part of a lesson because of their high physiological values.
  • They develop and maintain
    • Body control,
    • Body suppleness,
    • Good posture and graceful carriage of the body.
  • These activities are done to commands.
    • They include calisthenics (Free Arm exercises)
    • ¼ of the total time of the periods is to be utilized for the formal activities.

4) Special Activities

  • The special activities may be conducted after the formal activities.
  • It is not imperative to include special activities in every general lesson; it included, about 1/6 of the total time that may be utilized.
  • They include
    • Asanas,
    • Dands,
    • Baithaks,
    • Light apparatus,
    • Lezium,
    • Suryanamaskars, etc.

5) Recreative Activities

  • These consist of a variety of
    • Minor games,
    • Story plays,
    • Lead-up games,
    • Simple stunts and combats,
    • Relays, etc.,
  • No lesson is complete without recreative activities because they not only develop natural skills but also provide fun, pleasure, and enjoyment to the participants.
  • Therefore, ½ of the total time must essentially be devoted to these activities.

6) Assembly & Dismissal

  • As part of the class management assembly and dismissal of the student at the end of the lesson plan from the regular class routine.
  • At the end of recreative activities, all equipment is gathered and kept in the proper place after which the students assemble for orderly dismissal.

Physical Education Lesson Plan (Model And Sample Lesson)


Subject Matter



Assembly And Roll Call

(2 Minutes)

  • Assemble the students,
  • Make the students fall in a single line according to their height and
  • Then the attendance is taken.


Introductory (Or) Warming Up

(5 Minutes)

  • Students are asked to run fast on the circle.
  • While running they should perform all movements-imitating birds, animals, and other things such as airplanes, motor cars, engines, and whistling.
  • They produce sounds like the barking of dogs, ducks, and cows; this will prove to be quite an interesting activity in which the participants exhibit extraordinary interest.


Formal Activities

(10 Minutes)

  1. Free apart jump arms sideward raise
  2. Legs together, hands-on his
  3. Same as one
  4. Come back to position

a. Class formation:

  • The open order formation shall be made from a single line by conveniently numbering the students according to the strength of the class and allowing ample space among them.
  • The teacher shall so station himself that he can see all and be seen by all.

b. Demonstration

  • The exercise shall properly be demonstrated by the teacher with a due explanation.

c. Teaching by counts

  • The demonstrated exercise shall be taught by counts (hold each position and correct the mistakes).

d. Doing continually and Rhythmically

  • After teaching by the counts exercise shall be done a few times for physiological effects


Special Activities

(10 Minutes)

  • Right foot over the left thigh
  • Left foot over the right thigh
  • Keep the hands on the knees of chin mutura.
  • Breathing should be slow and steady and deep
  • Maintain the position for a while
  • After the exercise, the student will be brought back to a single line.
  • The class-formation shall be semi-circular formation, allowing space for each student.
  • The ‘asana’ should be demonstrated properly according to the counts emphasizing the accuracy and precision of each position.
  • The student shall be made to do the asana by counts.
  • Corrections are made then and there.
  • The ‘asana’ shall be done only in slow counts.


Recreative Activity

(10 Minutes)

Three-Legged Relay
  • Arrange the team behind the starting line in pairs.
  • Tie the two inners' legs together.
  • At the given signal the first pair of each team runs to the end line and turns back and touches off the next pair, who repeats.
  • The first team to complete wins the relay.


Assembly And Dismissal

(3 Minutes)

  • After all the recreative activity the students will be made to assemble and fall in a line on the command dismissal they have to do clap thrice (1, 2, 3)
  • (1, 2, 3) (1, 2, 3) and disperse.

Meaning And Definition Of Physical Fitness

What Is The Meaning Of Physical Fitness?

Physical fitness implies abilities such as that of

  • Resisting fatigue,
  • Performing with an acceptable degree of motor ability and
  • Being able to adapt to muscular stress.


Physically fitness is the quality of the whole body in terms of its state of adaptation to physical activity.

"Physical fitness refers to the organic capacity of the individual to perform the normal tasks of daily living without undue tiredness or fatigue having reserves of strength and energy available to meet satisfactory and emergency demands suddenly placed upon him”. - Nixon

Explain The Components Of Physical Fitness

Physical fitness can be most easily understood by examining these components, or elements.

The five basic components of physical fitness are:

  1. Strength
  2. Speed
  3. Flexibility
  4. Endurance
  5. Body Composition

1) Strength:

  • Strength is the ability of a muscle to exert force for a brief period of time.
  • For example, upper body strength can be measured by various weight lifting exercises.

2) Speed:

  • Speed is the quickness of movement of a limb whether this is the leg of a runner or the arm of the shot putter.

3) Flexibility:

  • It is the ability to move joints and use muscle through their full range of motion.
  • The sit and reach tests are good measures of the flexibility of the lower back and backs of the upper leg.

4) Endurance:

  • Endurance is the ability to deliver oxygen and to tissues arid to remove wastes over sustained periods of time.
  • Long runs and swims are the methods employed in measuring this component.

5) Body Composition:

  • Body composition is also considered a component of fitness.
  • It refers to the makeup of the body in terms of lean mass (muscle, bone, vital tissue, and organs) and fat mass.
  • An estimation of fat to lean mass is an indication of fitness and the right exercise will help one to decrease body fat and increase maintains muscle mass.

What Are The Benefits Of Physical Fitness?

Regardless of age, gender, or role in life, one can benefit from regular physical activity.

If there is a commitment exercise in combination with a sensible diet can help to provide an overall sense of wellbeing and can even help to prevent

  • Chronic illness,
  • Disability and
  • Premature death.

Some of the benefits and importance of physical fitness are:

1) Improved Health

  1. Increased muscle strength
  2. Increased efficiency of heart and lungs
  3. Reduced cholesterol levels
  4. Reduced blood pressure
  5. Weight Loss
  6. Reduced risk of major illness such as diabetes and heart disease

2) Improved Sense Of Well Being

  1. Improved quality of sleep
  2. More energy
  3. Less energy
  4. Increased mental sharpness
  5. Improved ability to cope with stress

Meaning And Definition Of Health Education

Any system of Physical education without the support of health education cannot possibly accomplish the best rules. The mutual coordination of physical and health education is a matter of fundamental importance in any system.

What Is the Meaning Of Health Education?

Health Education is concerned with promoting health as well as reducing behavior-induced diseases.

In other words, health education is concerned with establishing or inducing changes in personal and groups attitudes and behavior that promote healthier living.


"Health education like general education is concerned with changes in the knowledge, feelings, and behavior of people. In its most usual form, it concentrates on developing such health practices as are believed to bring about the best possible state of wellbeing". - W.H.O Technical Report (1954)

"Health education is the sum of experiences, which favorably influence habits attitudes, and knowledge relating to the individual community and social health". - Thomas wood

Aims of Health Education

The following are some of the main aims of health education

  1. To Maintain Good Health
  2. To Provide Health Information
  3. Precautionary And Preventive Measures
  4. To Develop And Promote Mental And Emotional Health
  5. To Take Precautionary And Preventive Measures Against Communicable Diseases
  6. To Render Assistance To The School Going Children
  7. To Develop A Sense Of Civic Responsibility

1) To Maintain Norms Of Good Health:

  • The authorities should provide a hygienic environment in the form of
    • Adequate ventilation,
    • Proper temperature,
    • Good sanitation and all-around cleanliness.
  • It helps the authorities to keep certain forms of health.

2) To Provide Information About Health And Its Value As Community Asset:

  • Health education aims at acquainting with the rules of health and hygiene.
  • It provides Functioning of Precautionary measures towards diseases and provides good disease-free working conditions.

3) Precautionary And Preventive Measures:

  • If they are properly adopted can help in improving the health standards of society.

4) To Develop And Promote Mental And Emotional Health:

  • Mental and emotional health is also equally important along with physical health. Physically health makes a person physically fit, mental and emotional health enables him to maintain an even temper and a happy disposition

5) To Take Precautionary And Preventive Measures Against Communicable Diseases:

  • Its aim is to take adequate precautions against contamination and the spread of diseases.
  • Thus, good sanitary arrangements are made.

6) To Render Assistance To The School Going Children An Understanding Of The Nature And Purpose Of Health Services And Facilities:

  • It aims at discovering physical defects and other abnormalities in the child and promoting their reduction if they are easily curable.

7) To Develop A Sense Of Civic Responsibility:

  • School is a miniature society. Responsibility for skill health does not lie on anyone’s shoulders.
  • Even some cause of skill health has their origin in social conditions which require action on the part of the community as a whole in order to eradicate them.
  • It aims at realizing the people to make combined efforts and work for community health.

Objectives Of Health Education

The following are the main objectives of health education to be adopted in schools.

  1. To enable the student to take interest in current events related to health.
  2. To enable the students to develop a scientific point of view of health with reference to the traditional and modern concepts of health.
  3. To enable the students to identify health problems and understand their own role on health and medical agencies in meeting those problems.
  4. To enable the students to arrive at suitable conclusions based on scientific knowledge and take action as individual members of the family and community for protecting, maintaining, and promoting individual and community health.
  5. To help students to understand the importance of Physical training, sports, games, yogic exercises as well as their relationship with health education
  6. To emphasize students on the bad effects of smoking and taking alcohol etc
  7. To enable the students to gain sufficient knowledge of first aid.
  8. To provide desirable knowledge about marriage, sex, and family planning to the students.
  9. To acquaint students with the functioning of various organizations working for the maintenance of health.
  10. To enable the students to set an example of desirable health behavior.
  11. To enable the student to understand the causes of the pollution of air, water, soil, and food as well as their ways and means of prevention.
  12. To help students understand how the present-day rapid development of science and technology has increased the hazards of life and health problems and also how to face and prevent them.

The first wealth is health. – Emerson

What Is The Importance Of Health Education?

If health is so precious asset, then the education of health is indeed, more important.

Health education helps us in the following ways:

  1. Health education helps in discovering physical defects of children and discovering various types of abnormalities of children.
  2. Health education provides information to the students and the teachers about the
      1. The function of the body,
      2. The rule of health and hygiene and
      3. Precautionary measures for keeping off diseases.
  3. Health education provides knowledge regarding good health habits.
  4. Health education develops better human relations between
    • School,
    • Home, and
    • Community.
  5. Health education develops health habits like
    • Need of fresh air,
    • Hygienic feeding and various classroom habits.
  6. Health education provides first aid training that is essential for everyone. An emergency may come to anyone and at any time.
  7. Health education provides knowledge regarding the prevention and control of various diseases.

Health Education Program In School

Program of health education should not confine itself to personal hygiene of students only. It should include all aspects which may help in promoting the health of the community as a whole.

A school program is two fold.

  1. Prevention of the development of poor health.
  2. Preservation of good health.

The school health program is divided into 3 parts

  1. Health instruction
  2. Health service
  3. Health supervision

Health Instruction

Health Instruction Meaning

The school has a major responsibility in the area of health instruction. It should instruct youth in such things as

  1. The structures and functioning of their bodies,
  2. The causes and methods of preventing certain diseases,
  3. The factors that contribute to and maintain good health, and
  4. The role of the community in the health program.

Such an instructional program if planned wisely and taught intelligently will contribute to good health habits and attitudes on the part of the student.

    • Health instruction should avoid too much stress on the field of diseases and medicine.
    • This is pointed out by Dr. Baue health authority in an article entitled Teach health Not Disease. He says that teachers should primarily teach health how to live correctly and how to protect one’s body against infection rather than teach diseases and medicine.
  • Proper health instruction should impress upon each individual, the responsibility of his own health and as a member of a community for the health of others


Health instruction is the organization of learning experience directed towards the development of favorable health, knowledge, attitude, and practice. – D. K. Barle

Aim And Objectives of Health Instruction

The aim of health instruction is to acquaint students about

  • The functioning of the various organs of the body,
  • The rules of health and hygiene and
  • Methods for curing diseases.

Methods Of Imparting Health Education In School

Health Education forms an essential part of total education. There is nothing very special about the methods of imparting health education.

The following are some of the important ways and means through which health education and its instruction can be imparted effectively in institutions.

  1. Healthful Environment Of The Institution
  2. Incidental Teaching
  3. Systematic Health Instructions
  4. Lectures On Health By Experts
  5. Health Club
  6. Films and Film Strips
  7. School Broadcast And Radio Talks
  8. Printed Material
  9. Educational field trips
  10. Health Weeks
  11. Health Scrap Books

1) Healthful Environment Of The Institution

  • The environment is the most important of all educational media.
  • Any scheme of health education must receive top priority to the improvement of the physical and human environment.
  • Neat, clean, attractive, and well-maintained institutional building, classrooms, equipment’s, plays fields, sympathetic and affectionate teachers contribute greatly to inculcate
    • Healthful living,
    • Healthy habits and conditions of work and
    • Health notions about work and life.

As is the environment, so is the individual therefore healthful environment of the institution plays a key role in achieving success.

2) Incidental Teaching

  • At the school stage, the teacher can give health instruction in the classroom situation when there is any incident of communicable disease in the school.
  • In this way, such incidental teaching may benefit the individual or the entire class.
  • Similarly, teachers have opportunities to give instruction off and on, on personal hygiene in a simple language which is beneficial for the school and community as a whole.

3) Systematic Health Instructions

  • Direct health instruction should be provided through subjects like
  • This will enable students to
    • Understand the structures and function of the human body,
    • Realize the need for keeping physically fit and
    • Take precautionary and remedial measures in case of illness and diseases.
  • Such instruction will also lay emphasis on

4) Lectures On Health By Experts

  • The school authorities should make arrangements on certain occasions to request medical officers or physical instructors and other experts of health to visit the school and to deliver a lecture on health and hygiene.
  • However, emphasis should be laid on the fact that talks should be supplemented by illustrative aids and material.
  • At the end of the talk, the students must be given opportunities to ask any questions concerning the topic to get their doubts cleared.

5) Health Club

  • Each institution should organize a health club as a self-governing unit.
  • Through this club, the students can be associated with institution health laws and their administration.
  • They can also be encouraged to practice health rules in their daily lives.
  • These clubs in co-operation with the institutions of Red Cross society should arrange debates, declamations, plays, and dramas concerning health.

6) Films and Film Strips

  • The school can arrange documentary film from various sources which generally displayed the various diseases and how to prevent ourselves from these.
  • They also stress the importance of personal habits like cleanliness.
  • Similarly, film strips accompanied by talks or commentary by experts can be displayed and may be retained on the screen as long as wishes.

7) School Broadcast And Radio Talks

Radio talks are a powerful medium for giving health instruction to young students and reaching a wide public at the same time.

  • Radio talks can be delivered on the problem of health and hygiene by way of songs or play. In this way, the children not only get entertainment but useful instruction also.
  • Similarly, the school broadcast program does include items of health and hygiene.

8) Printed Material

The school can accumulate printed material on health and hygiene such as

  • Pamphlets,
  • Short Leaflets,
  • Posters And
  • Standard Books.

Even the school authority can have the material from the local health department to highlight certain diseases, their causes, and cures.

9) Educational field trips

Actual field trips provide learning situations for the children and they can get first-hand experience.

Such trips include visits to

  • Red cross hospitals,
  • Exhibitions,
  • Yogic center,
  • Clinics,
  • Fairs
  • Public health centers and water supply centers etc.

However, each visit needs proper planning and advanced classroom discussion to motivate young children.
At the end of the visit, if the teacher clarifies the doubts of the students, it will be more beneficial for the children.

10) Health Weeks

  • It is a good method of imparting health instruction to young students.
  • Health week may be celebrated in the school every year in which emphasis is laid on personal hygiene and upkeep of the school campus.
  • Special talks by the expert may be arranged on personal hygiene and sanitation.

11) Health Scrap Books

Students should be encouraged to maintain scrapbooks on health.

  • On the top of every page, one important health rule should be written or pasted.
  • Pictures illustrating important health rules, causes and prevention of various diseases, neat and healthy living, functions of various organs in the human body should be collected.
  • This book should contain the records concerned with the students.
Topics Covered:
  • School Health Services
  • Agencies Of School Health Services
  • Establishment Of Health Services In Schools And Educational Institutions
    • Duties Of Teachers
    • Medical Inspection And Maintaining Records
    • School Clinic
    • To Maintain Sound Health Condition
    • Follow Up Work

School Health Services

The ultimate goal of the institutional and school health services program is the attainment of the physical, mental and emotional health of every student to the optimum experience for students leading them to adopt desirable health habits.

  • The health service program includes different protective measures to maintain and improve health.
  • The Aim Of Health services is to locate ill health and provide medical care after a proper medical check-up.

Agencies Of School Health Services

  • School medical department under the charge of a school doctor
  • School health educator
  • School dispensary
  • Red cross unit of the school
  • Sports department under the charge of a qualified physical education instructor

Establishment Of Health Services In Schools And Educational Institutions

In order to ensure the normal and sound physical condition of the students, the institutions should establish certain organized services and the program should constitute.

  1. Duties Of Teachers
  2. Medical Inspection And Maintaining Records
  3. School Clinic
  4. To Maintain Sound Health Condition
  5. Follow Up Work

1. Duties Of Teachers

  • Observation by the teacher and experts to locate defects and disease if any especially of skin, eyes, ears, teeth, etc and to inform the parents for speed recoveries.
  • In addition, teachers should look at the child’s posture, Cleanliness, and hygienic conditions. If they observe any deformity or diseases in the students, they must inform the school doctor and check that for the treatment.
  • A whole-time dispenser should be appointed for the school clinic of the dispensary where children may be given proper first aid and medicines for small diseases and for some ailments.

2. Medical Inspection And Maintaining Records

  • Proper arrangements in the school to get every student medically examined at the time of his first admission to the institution and in subsequent years.
  • Periodically arrange for health inspection of the students with regard to
    • Vision,
    • Hearing,
    • Dental,
    • Health and personal hygiene.
  • Maintain the records of medical inspection and health status of the children,
  • Promote the importance of vaccination and immunization to parents.
  • If any dangerous disease is identified, the school authorities should take proper steps and suggest the parents to consult with the experts in the hospital.

3. School Clinic

A school clinic or dispensary needs proper care and should be equipped with medicines for

  • Ordinary aliment,
  • Chairs,
  • Dispensary tables,
  • Bed for the sick of patients,
  • Covered dustbin,
  • Charts and models concerning health,
  • Scale for measuring height,
  • Heater and first aid boxes etc.
A school clinic helps in looking after the health of the students and for the systematic treatment of small diseases.
  • There should be at least two rooms for school clinics or dispensaries out of which one should be reserved for the school doctor where the students consult the doctor about their personal problems.

4. To Maintain Sound Health Condition

  • Highlight the importance of sanitation to children.
  • Maintain proper sanitation conditions of the school.
  • An arrangement in the school for first aid emergency treatment when the child receives injuries while playing or is suddenly ill.
  • Record the history and defects of special cases.

5. Follow Up Work

  • Head of the institutions may arrange for timely vaccination against smallpox and typhoid so as to reduce the outbreak of these infectious diseases.
  • If some students have some contagious disease like ringworm, eczema, or leprosy, precautionary measures should be adopted till they are cured of such diseases.
  • The physical defects of the children should be corrected.
  • The health status of the students reading in the school be appraised annually.
  • All the students of the school should get the benefit from school health counseling.

The guidance personnel physicians, school health educators, and the teachers should interpret to student and their parents the nature and significance of health problems and help them in formulating plans of action leading to the solution of the problems of the students.

Meaning And Importance Of Safety Education

Safety education forms an integral part of health education. In the modern civilized world, though man is able to conquer space and time, he has not yet conquered risks and dangers to life.

Meaning of Safety Education

Safety education is an important device to control and prevent accidents.

It has been shown repeatedly that there is a need for cooperative action in safety education whether it be in school playfield, road, or home.

Why Is Safety Education Important?

Every day the loss of life is untold due to carelessness in every walk of life.

Life is closely associated with risks and dangers and at every moment one has to be alert to maintain safety.

  • Safety education has to be taught to children.
  • They should be trained to avert and avoid risks and dangers instead of inviting them through carelessness.
  • Thus, safety education forms an integral part of health education.

The gardens and lawns at home and the playfields should always be maintained well and should serve as secure places ensuring safety.

  • Until children learn to be safe, they should be watched very carefully at home, school and playfields. These are the places to be taught and trained to be safe.
  • Hence safety education should find its place as a classroom subject to be taught along with health education.

Many of the risks hazards and dangers can be averted at home, school, and playfields if the teachers and parents take due care of the child.

  • Children by nature are always naughty and mischievous.
  • They go about tampering with things not knowing the risks involved in them.
  • Both at school and at home all electrical appliances should be kept away from their easy reach and they should never be allowed to operate on electric switches.

Safety At School

Students spend most of their time in school.

  • During leisure hours they get opportunities to get involved in such activities which may lead to accidents.
  • To make school life safe, safety education should be included in the curriculum.

Safety Measures At School

  1. Safety Measures Inside The Classroom
  2. School Play Ground
  3. Role of Teachers
  4. Safety Rules For Students
  5. Facilities Provided By The School
  6. Safety Measures In The School Laboratories
  7. Rules and Regulations For Playing Games And Sports
  8. Sports Equipment’s
  9. Safety Tips For School Play Ground Area
  10. Gymnasium
  11. Safety Precautions In Swimming Pool

1) Safety Measures Inside The Classroom

  1. Congestion of benches and tables in the classroom should be avoided.
  2. All the walls should be whitewashed and there should be proper ventilation in the classrooms.
  3. Broken furniture must be removed.
  4. Classroom should prove to be a safe place for every student to sit at ease and listen to lectures. Any inconvenience in enjoying the comforts of sitting at ease is likely to disturb his concentration.
  5. Sharp edges of the walls pillars and doors are always dangerous for children when they take sharp turns may dash against them.
  6. Glass fitted to the windows should be highly fixed and there should be no broken places hanging over anywhere.
  7. There must be sufficient elbow space for the student to move about in the classroom.

2) School Play Ground

  1. Play areas should be fenced properly avoiding barbed wires.
  2. Playing equipment’s should be checked.
  3. Students will be divided into groups then only play the activities.
  4. During Physical activity classes, students should wear a suitable dress.
  5. Warming up exercise is essential before indulging in any vigorous activity.

3) Role of Teachers

  1. To explain how to follow the rules and regulations in the classroom laboratory and playground.
  2. To approach psychological problems among the students regularly.
  3. To maintain proper discipline in the class.
  4. To provide knowledge related to medical inspection rules and regulations of sports and games.

4) Safety Rules For Students

  1. Areas outside the classroom building and inside the classroom should be kept clean.
  2. Go through doors carefully.
  3. Avoid pushing, showing, and running in the school building.
  4. Don’t play inside the classroom.
  5. Know the location of exits and fire escapes.

The attitude of the children is not totally free from mischievousness. As such livewire laying anywhere, uncovered switched and broken parts of electrical installation exposed anywhere are tempting ones for the children to meddle with.

Therefore, instead of instructing them to keep off from them, immediate attention may be given to rectifying and restoring them to order.

5) Facilities Provided By The School

  1. Classroom drinking water, sports, bathrooms, lavatories urinals, and all the surroundings areas inside the school compound should prove to be safe.
  2. No child sits in the class permanently.
    • He moves from place to place during recess and leisure time.
    • To ensure safety all places should be free from obstructions.
  3. The urinals and flush out should always be kept clean.
  4. The walls should be as high as possible.
    • The cement flooring should not be too much polished.
    • When children move fast there is a very likely hood of their falling down Such falls may result in heavy damage to the clinic.
  5. Staircase should not be too high or too steep.
    • They must be broad to and on a rush at times and should have side support to a reasonable height.
  6. Fire extinguishers are to be fixed to the walls at places where fire can break out or where there are inflammable substances.
  7. Drinking water areas should not be
    • Marshy,
    • Slushy,
    • Muddy and slippery.

6) Safety Measures In The School Laboratories

  1. The laboratory rooms must be comparatively big.
  2. In addition to the big room where experiments are performed a lecture theatre, one attaché’s storeroom, and one preparation room should also be provided.
  3. Proper arrangement of gas burners, spirit lamps.
  4. There should be a proper arrangement for ventilation and light in the laboratories and the lecture hall.
  5. Wall, almirahs, and cupboards for keeping apparatus and chemicals safe.
  6. All bottles with poisonous chemicals should be labeled in bold letters.
  7. Proper arrangements of water sink and tap.
  8. In home science lab, separate rooms for kitchen, laundry sewing, and first aid are provided.
  9. Care in the use of equipment of chemicals.
  10. Aquarium for keeping fish and water plants and a germination bed.
  11. The laboratories where breakages of glass vessels are common: the floor and the works table should be kept with perfect cleanliness.

7) Rules and Regulations For Playing Games And Sports

  1. Teacher should make the students know the rules of the game before attempting to teach it.
  2. Teacher should carefully evaluate the situations in the field and discuss with the students above their activities.
  3. In the game of football kicking, tripping, or pushing an opponent or jumping at him, and also puling an opponent bodily or by his shirt constitutes foul play. To charge dangerously or to injure a player is bad out. As a safety measure players should be advised not to adopt bad fouls.
  4. Players must know what they are going to do and they should do different activities while participating in games. They must be sure of the rules of the game and how to obey them.
  5. Students who follow strictly the rules of the game should be rewarded. However, when a boy hits another student, the teacher should tell him to stop.
  6. In order the avoid accidents in the field, the teacher should use some tone of voice each time he/she speaks to the students as a major clue to his feelings towards the players. Thus he/she can avoid danger in the field.
  7. We must be sure that the teachers assisting in the programming of games are aware of the safety factors involved in the game. They should play the role of supervisors

8) Sports Equipment’s

  1. Always check the equipment before working class.
  2. Place the equipment in a suitable storage container such as
    • trolleys,
    • bags or
    • boxes.
  3. Teacher should train the students in the use of different equipment so that the participants will be able to play efficiently with those pieces of equipment.
For examples
  • While playing with the equipment like cricket balls, shot put, javelin, etc. they must know how to save themselves from accidents and injury.
  • Anklets must be used by the students while playing some games like football.

9) Safety Tips For School Play Ground Area

  1. The field must be clean and articles like broken glass, nails, small pieces of stones, and other harmful articles must be removed from the field and rectified through periodic inspection.
  2. Play areas should be fenced properly avoiding barbed wires.
  3. Safety measures should be made available to prevent the fall of fear or injury and to encourage optimum performance.
  4. Playgrounds are not made in a day or two. Continuous attention and mending render the fields playable.
  5. Space between courts is essential.
  6. Students should not be allowed to remain under the sun for a long period of time. There must be provision for rest shade to help the student to take rest for some time.
  7. First aid facilities should be made available as close to the playfield as possible.
  8. Students should be advocated well to keep off the grass, not to cut across the ground facilities, and not to misuse the playfields.
  9. Drinking water must be available.
  10. Care should be taken to keep the grounds smooth with a good grading for free flow of water to the drains at rains.

10) Gymnasium

  • All gymnastic activities should be conducted under the strict supervision of a trained physical education
  • The participants should strictly obey the rules and regulations for different gymnastic activities.
  • Learning of exercises should progress from simple exercises to difficult exercises.
  • Exercises must be conducted according to a fixed time.
  • The students should be advised to wear gymnastic shoes.
    • It will help the students to escape from serious accidents in the gymnastic programs.
  • A large mat should also be placed under the flying rings.

11) Safety Precautions In Swimming Pool

At the time of swimming, certain principles must be followed by the swimmers.
  1. Children should be allowed in such swimming pools where the water level is not so deep.
  2. Children suffering from skin diseases should not be allowed to use the swimming pool.
  3. They should wear minimum clothes so as to save themselves from accidents.
  4. There should be provision for first aid boxes to provide immediate help to those who met with accidents.
  5. Provision must be made to recruit supervisors to look to the safety of the individuals who use the swimming pool.

Safety At Home

Safety Measures At Home

  1. Role And Responsibilities Of Parents
  2. Role Of Children
  3. 7 Kitchen Safety Tips
  4. Safety Precautions For Bathroom And Bedroom

1) Role And Responsibilities Of Parents

Parents at home have total responsibility in looking after the safety of the children.
  • They should Advise them to wear cotton clothes.
  • Do not allow children to play near the parked cycle and motors.
  • Give proper guidance to close and open the door.
  • Keep away the drugs, chemical substances safely from the reach of the children.
  • Windows should be opened for ventilation.
  • If not in use turn off the gas cylinder.
The carelessness of the parents towards their children may cause
  • Bleeding,
  • Bruises,
  • Tearing up of muscle,
  • Dislocation
  • Breaking of bones,
  • Heavy hemorrhage and several other complications.

2) Role Of Children

Children are under the care of their parents at home, parents have to educate the children to gain sufficient knowledge to keep themselves safe at all times.
  1. Children should be given proper training in the handling of electrical appliances especially electric switches.
  2. No child should be prevented from playing.
  3. The flooring of the bathroom and the lavatory should not be slippery.
  4. Children should never be allowed to handle electric items such as
    • Iron box,
    • Electric stove,
    • Mixer, grinder, etc.
  5. Children at home cannot confine themselves to studies at all hours.
  6. Electric switches and plug points should be fixed on the walls at a height above their reach.
  7. Sharp instruments such as knives, scissors, vegetable cutters, etc. should never be made available to them.
  8. Children should not be allowed to go alone to the upstairs of the buildings.
  9. Playing in the street should never be encouraged.
  10. Children should never be allowed to go near the electric stove, mixy or grinder.

3) 7 Kitchen Safety Tips

  1. It is essential to know the techniques of operating the gas or electricity.
  2. The valve on the cylinder should be closed when not in use.
  3. When cooking, it is dangerous to wear a synthetic dress.
  4. The kitchen floor should be dry from grease, skins of fruits, and vegetables, otherwise, there is a chance of slipping that may cause a fall.
  5. All sharp instruments such as can openers and knives should be stored in a drawer and immediately of the clearing, they must be put away safely.
  6. During operating, should not stand in front of the oven.
  7. Pressure cookers should be used as per the manufacture’s direction.

4) Safety Precautions For Bathroom And Bedroom

  • Electric switches and plug points should be fixed on the walls at a height above the reach of children.
  • Bathroom should be kept clean.
  • Mosquito mats should not be kept near beds.
  • Minimum mats bulbs should be used.

Safety Measures On The Road

Accidents on the roads have become very common in modern society.

  • Due to the speed and increase in the number of automobiles, road accident occurs almost every day.
  • School children who are not aware of the traffic rules meet with accidents.
  • Safety measures can be successful if we take into consideration either problem of the road.

The following safety measures are taken into consideration to avoid accidents.

  1. General Rules And Regulations
  2. Road Safety Measures For Drivers And Vehicles
  3. Road Safety Rules For Pedestrians
  4. Road Cleanliness
  5. Role And Responsibilities Of Government For Safety Measures On The Road

1) General Rules And Regulations

To avoid accidents people should follow the rules and regulations of the road.

  • The instruction boards give message giveaways to entry one way. It should be placed wherever it is needed.
  • The people should learn how to obey the traffic light signals and the instruction of the traffic police.
  • Children do not play on the road. While crossing the busy road, they should be very careful when they feel that the road is free from danger only then they should cross it.

2) Road Safety Measures For Drivers And Vehicles

While driving automobiles, the driver should be very careful and should follow traffic rules.

  1. The driver should be aware of the safety driving rules.
  2. Driver should avoid alcohol.
  3. Accident can also be avoided if the driver and vehicle operator keep off-highway.
  4. The driver should see that the vehicle is well equipped with
    • Indicators,
    • Break light,
    • Horn and other important materials.
  5. The automobile driver should be aware of the all-road signs and drive carefully according to the sign.
  6. He must know the mandatory sign of the schedule of the motor vehicle act.
  7. The number plate of the vehicle, the mirror, etc should be visible to the people.
  8. The women should wear the proper dress during riding.

3) Road Safety Rules For Pedestrians

Pedestrians should be aware that they must take on a pathway while walking keeping an eye on the road.

  • They should look at the signals at every crossing.
  • They should be aware of the drainage system.
  • While crossing the road they should move straight looking to both sides of the road and avoid reading and thinking.

4) Road Cleanliness

  1. Keep the road clean, do not throw garbage on the road.
  2. Do not use crackers on the road.
  3. Do not cause any breakage on the road.

5) Role And Responsibilities Of Government For Safety Measures On The Road

  1. Rules and regulations awareness camps should be organized by the government.
  2. Government should conduct drug addiction awareness camps among the drivers.
  3. Celebrate road weekday celebration.
Topics Covered:

Types Of Injuries In Sports

  • Exposed Injury (Open Wounds)
    • Abrasion
    • Laceration
    • Punctured Wounds
  • Unexposed Injury (Internal Injuries)
    • Sprain
    • Strain
    • Contusions
    • Fractures

Types Of Injuries In Sports

Every day millions of people of all ages in the world participate in games and sports activities.

Participation in sports improves physical fitness, coordination, self-discipline and gives children and adults valuable opportunities to learn teamwork, Games, and sports but sometimes may also result in injures.

  • Some of which are minor
  • Some are serious and
  • Some others are so serious which may require lifelong medication.

The common types of sports injuries are

  1. Exposed injuries or open wounds
  2. Unexposed injuries or Internal injuries
Injuries may be further classified into


Soft Tissue Injuries:

 Skin Muscle And Fascia


Bone Injuries:



Joint Injuries:


a. Exposed Injury (Open Wounds)

Any injury that is external in nature and visible to the naked eyes is known as exposed injury or open wounds.


  1. Abrasion
  2. Laceration
  3. Punctured wounds

1. Abrasion

Definition: An abrasion is a scarping injury to the skin by which a loss of epidermis and dermis in the skin takes place.

Causation: A sudden fall on the hard surface and slide.

Signs and Symptoms
  • It is extremely painful and blood may ooze from injured capillary vessels to the surface.
  • The wound does not penetrate completely through the skin.
First Aid Treatment
  • Clean the skin with soap and water.
  • The soap acts as a solvent for grease and embedded dirt.
  • Washing can be done with a soft brush to remove the ground dirt and any other foreign material.
  • A tincture of benzoin may be applied to reduce pain.
  • An antibiotic ointment like furacin may be used.
  • A suitable dressing and gauze with adhesive tape to prevent reinjure must be done.

2. Laceration

Laceration is a separation of the skin, an irregularly torn wound with sharp edges of objects.

  • The wound may occur to the skin subcutaneous tissue, the underlying muscles, and associated nerves and blood vessels
  • Direct contact of a sharp instrument.
  • Clean the area with soap and water.
  • Remove the pieces of torn tissue from the wound.
  • Clean with antiseptic (Dettol). If the cut is deep suture the wound.
  • Apply hydrotherapy once daily a week.
  • Do not use adhesive tape to bring the edges of the wound together.

3. Punctured Wounds

Usually, it occurs while playing or doing physical activities. This is caused by projectiles or pointed objects like

  • Spikes
  • Splints
  • Studs (football shoe)
  • Javelin etc.

Direct penetration of tissues by these types of pointed objects is called punctuated wounds. There is a possibility of tetanus bacillus infection. When left careless it makes the athlete or individual be a victim of lockjaw.

  • Dieppe lacerations and punctured wounds are to be referred to the physician immediately.
  • Using a ring pad, put a bandage around the wound and take the injured to the nearby physician.
  • If any implement or piece is left inside the wound do not try to remove it.

b. Unexposed Injury (Internal Injuries)

Even though the injury is factored by an external force that does not affect the epidermis but causes internal injury. This is known as unexposed injury.


  1. Sprain
  2. Strain
  3. Contusions
  4. Fracture

1. Sprain


Sprain is an injury to a ligament resulting from over-stress.

  • A sprain is usually produced by twisting or stretching it beyond its normal range of motion, stretching or tearing some of the supporting capsule and ligaments.
  • Sprain is a partial dislocation.
  • Sprain is a muscular-skeletal injury.
Types of Sprain causation

According to the severity of the injury, there are 3 categories of sprains.

1. Mild Sprain (First Degree)
  • This is a sprain in which some fibres of alignment are torn with little hemorrhage.
  • There is no functional loss and the ligament is not weakened.
2. Moderate Sprain (Second Degree)
  • A moderate sprain is one in which some portion of the ligament is torn and some of the functional loss is present.
  • There may be tearing of a small portion of the ligament.
  • There may be mild functional loss or severe complete functional loss of ligament.
3. Severe Sprain (Third Degree)
  • In a severe sprain, the ligament is completely torn from one or the other of its attachments with separation of end or pulls it apart from within its substances.

Signs and Symptoms
  • Pain and tenderness around the joint are increased by movement.
  • Swelling around the joint followed later by bruising and later discoloration.
  • The joints lose the power of movement.
  • Severe pain is experienced in that part.
  • Inflammation appears on the affected part.
  • The color of the skin changes.
  • The affected parts should be given complete rest and movements should be stopped for some days.
  • The affected part should be thoroughly massaged with mustard oil.
  • The affected part should be tightly bandaged and put in ice water.
  • If the above treatments do not relieve pain, the sprained part should be washed with hot water. This is likely to reduce the pain.
  • Rest and support the injured part in the most comfortable position for the causality to elevate an injured limb.
  • Carefully expose the joint and if the sprain is of recent origin apply a cold compress to reduce swelling and pain.
  • If the patient has no relief, the bandage should be removed and retied.
  • The sprained part should be given complete rest.

2. Strain

A strain is a sudden twist pull or tear of a muscle or tendon.

Signs and Symptoms
  • Severe pain, bruising, and inflammation.
  • Swelling, discoloration of the injured place.
  • Non-functionality of the joints.
  • One may hear a snap sound when the tissue tear.
  • Sharp pain at the moment of injury is felt.
  • Loss of function of the part affected.
  • Raise in the temperature.
  • Take complete rest.
  • Apply cold compression bandage and ice pack around the injured place for about 24 hours.
  • Apply hot water fomentation or contrast bath.
  • Call physician help if pain persists.

3. Contusions

Contusions are actually brushing of the tissues and are caused by a direct blow by a blunt instrument or by crushing.


An injury pressure or a fall causes the blood vessels beneath the skin to break as the result of which the injured part turns blue.

Signs and Symptoms
  • Blood vessels in the underlying tissues are torn and bleeding takes place.
  • The blood gradually moves towards the skin and causes discoloration with black and blue marks.
  • Swelling and pain develop in the area which may be superficial or deep depending upon the type of object striking the blow.
  • If more damage is caused in the tissue and large blood vessels are damaged more blood is collected at the site of contusion and it is called hematoma or blood donor.
  • When a fracture of a large bone-like femur happens more than a liter of blood collects.
  • Arrest bleeding by the application of cod and pressure bandage in the early stage for 12 hours.
  • Immobilize the part and protect it to prevent further injury.
  • If the damage is serious with a fracture splinting is needed to control bone injury.
  • Fomentation is also beneficial.
  • The injured part should be given sufficient rest.
Classification of Contusions
  1. Simple or superficial contusions
  2. Muscle contusions
  3. Joint contusions
  4. Visceral Contusions

4. Fractures

  • A fracture is a break, usually in a bone.
  • If the broken bone punctures the skin, it is called an open or compound fracture.
  • Fractures commonly happen because of
    • Car accidents,
    • Falls, or
    • Sports injuries.
  • Other causes are low bone density and osteoporosis, which cause the weakening of the bones.
Topics Covered:
  • What Do You Mean By Food?
  • Classification Of Food
    • According To Chemical Composition
    • According To Main Function
    • According To Nutritive Value
    • According To The Source
  • Food Obtained From Plants And Vegetables
  • Food Obtained From Animals

Classification Of Food

What Do You Mean By Food?

Food is a substance that produces heat and energy in the body and repairs tissues. It also contains some rough-age which adds quantity or bulk to our diet.

  • Food builds up new tissues.
  • Food supplies material for growth and nourishment to all the parts of the body.
  • Food repairs worn-out tissues.
  • Food produces heat and energy in our body
  • Food helps in the production of compounds that regulate body processes.

In short, food is very important for life.

Classification Of Food

Food serves to

  • Nourish,
  • To build up tissues, and
  • To supply energy to the body.

Food can be classified in the following ways;

  1. Classification According To Chemical Composition
  2. Classification According To Main Function
  3. Classification According To Nutritive Value
  4. Classification Of Food According To The Source

1. According To Chemical Composition

According to chemical composition, food can be divided into 5 categories.

  1. Protein
  2. Vitamins
  3. Minerals
  4. Carbohydrate
  5. Fats

2. According To Main Function

  1. Bodybuilding foods
  2. Energy giving foods
  3. Protective foods

3. According To Nutritive Value

  1. Pulses
  2. Vegetables
  3. Fruits
  4. Cereals
  5. Animal foods
  6. Nuts and oilseeds
  7. Sugar and jaggery
  8. Condiments or spices.

4. Classification Of Food According To The Source

  1. Food obtained from plant sources.
  2. Food obtained from animal sources.

Food Obtained From Plants And Vegetables

Vegetable foods contain a large purporting of carbohydrates and almost all are proteins, fats, and vitamins.

These foods are

  • Cereals,
  • Pulses,
  • Fruits,
  • Roots and tubers,
  • Green vegetables,
  • Nuts, and
  • Fungi.


Cereals are in the form of grains such as

  • Wheat,
  • Rice,
  • Maize

They have a high nutritive value.


  • Pulses include beans and peas.
  • They obtain vitamins A, B, and C when fresh.
  • They are a rich source of protein.
  • They also have sugar and minerals but little starch.

Roots And Tubers

Roots and tubers include

  • Beetroot,
  • Carrot,
  • Arrowroot,
  • Radish,
  • Turnip,
  • Topical and sweet potato.

They contain a high percentage of starch and proteins but no fats.


Fruits are rich in

  • Sugar,
  • Salts,
  • Acids and
  • vitamins.


  • Nuts possess a high percentage of proteins and fats but less carbohydrates.
  • They are also rich in vitamin B.

Green Vegetables

  • Green vegetables consist of buds, leaves, leaf-stalk, or the whole plant.
  • They contain a high percentage of water and some protein, starch, and fats.
  • They are also rich in vitamins A, B,C,E, and K.


  • Fungi are mushrooms that contain over 90% of water and little protein.
  • They have no food value.

Food Obtained From Animals:

These foods include:

  1. Meat,
  2. Fish,
  3. Egg and
  4. Milk.


  • Meat usually means mutton or pork.
  • It is rich in protein, iron, and some vitamins of the B group.


  • Fish consists mainly of protein, fat, and water.
  • The fat content amount varies widely in different kinds of fish.


  • Eggs have a high nutritive value.
  • They are rich in iron, phosphorous, and vitamins A and D.


  • Milk is obtained from the cow, buffalo, goat, and reindeer.
  • It is generally given to babies and children as a complete food.
  • Milk contains all the nutrients.
  • Milk products like cream, butter, curds, cheese, and ghee are also rich sources of energy.

Constituents Of Food

The following are the 6 main constituents of food.

  1. Protein
  2. Minerals
  3. Carbohydrates
  4. Fats
  5. Vitamins
  6. Water

1. Protein

The most essential element in our food is protein. This is a mixture of

  • Carbon,
  • Hydrogen,
  • Nitrogen,
  • Oxygen,
  • Sulphur and phosphorus.

The amount of nitrogen in protein is about 1/6 part.

Uses Of Protein

  1. Produce heat in the body.
  2. Builds up tissues in the body.
  3. Serves as a source of fat in the body when it is in excess.
  4. Repair the worn-out tissues of the body.
  5. It increases hemoglobin.
  6. It is helpful in the development of mental faculty.
  7. It is helpful in the growth of energy and working ability.

The Deficiency Of Proteins Causes The Following Harms:

  • It increases the ability to intake oxygen.
  • Body development is hindered.
  • Children suffer from rickets.
  • Swelling occurs in the legs and stomach.


Vegetable’s proteins:



Cashew nut







Bitter Gourd

Cabbage Etc.

Animal protein:

The first-grade protein is found in

  • Milk,
  • Egg,
  • Cheese,
  • Meat,
  • Fish etc.

2. Minerals

Minerals are much needed for the body. The food we eat contains different types of minerals.

  • Most minerals are found in fresh fruit and green vegetables. Their amount decreases in cooking.


  • They enhance digestive power.
  • They make up the deficiency of fibres.
  • They maintain the balance of acid chemicals.
  • They assist in the normal growth of the body.
  • They are important for the constitution and health of the body.

The chief minerals are:

  1. Calcium:
  2. Iron:
  3. Iodine
  4. Potassium:
  5. Phosphorus:
  6. Sodium:
  7. Copper:
  8. Magnesium:
  9. Silicon:
  10. Chlorine:
  11. Sulphur:
  12. Common salt

a. Calcium:

It is called lime in common dialect.


It is found insufficient amount in




Green vegetables






Fresh fruit and guava

Small fish and nuts

  1. It controls the heart rate.
  2. It strengthens the bones.
  3. It constructs teeth and keeps the muscles active in order to keep them strong.
  4. It begets energy to the blood.
  5. It protects from asthma and skin diseases

b. Iron:

It is a very essential element for a healthy body. It produces hemoglobin.


It is found in



Green Vegetables

Green Dhania










Dry Beans






  1. It protects the skin.
  2. It protects new blood.
  3. It enhances appetite.
  4. It saves from breath lessens.
  5. It is useful for girls during adolescence.
  6. It is essential for pregnant women.
  7. It does way fatigue and lethargy.

c. Iodine

Iodine is helpful in the development of thyroid glands.

  • Iodine deficiency causes thyroid ailments and the thyroid gland swells.

It is found insufficient amount in










Sea Salt

Coastal Vegetables Etc.

d. Potassium:

It is generally found in all types of food articles.


It is found in

  • Pulses
  • Green vegetables
  • Lemon
  • Dried plum
  • Pear etc.
  1. It strengthens the liver and heart.
  2. It makes tissues flexible
  3. It heals wounds sooner.
  4. It removes constipation.
The deficiency of potassium causes the following harms
  1. It causes fickleness.
  2. The heart rate becomes slower.
  3. It causes less sleep.
  4. The heart muscles become weaker.

e. Phosphorus:

  • It is very helpful in the growth of bones, teeth, and hair.
  • Its deficiency stops physical growth.
  • It helps the nervous system healthfully.

It is got from











Green Vegetables

Black Pepper

f. Sodium:

This is helpful in preventing kidney and stomach ailments.


It is found in

Sea Salt








Green Vegetables


Turnip etc.

g. Copper:

  • It provides hemoglobin to the blood.
  • It provides oxygen to red blood cells.

It is found in






Choker (Husk)


Dry fruits

h. Magnesium:

  • It protects the body from skin ailments.
  • It keeps all body systems healthy.
  • It also saves from vein-related ailments.
  • It is mostly found in wheat, goat milk, and orange.

i. Silicon:

It provides flexibility to fibres and glows to the eyes.

  • It is found in tomatoes and spinach.

j. Chlorine:

Chlorine produces digestive juice and it does the task of excreting polluted matters from the body.

k. Sulphur:

  • It is found in all protein matters.
  • It keeps body fibres healthy.
  • It keeps growing nails and hair.
  • Its deficiency causes digestive power.
  • It is found in carrots, cabbage, onion, and milk.

l. Common salt

  • It is called by the name sodium chloride too.
  • It makes food tasty and digestive.
  • It excretes extra water from the body and thus makes the body active.
  • It diminishes activity in the body.
  • It is found in milk, meat, and vegetables.

3. Carbohydrates

It is also called sugar. It is a mixture of Carbohydrates, carbon with hydrogen, and oxygen.


  1. Carbohydrates change into glucose by digestion activity and after absorption, they are carried to muscles by the blood where they are used.
  2. After this, it changes into glycogen and stores in the liver and muscles.
  3. When heat or energy is needed glycogen can be used by bringing it back to sugar.
  4. It makes up for the weakness as produced by physical work.
  5. Supply energy to the body quickly.
  6. Produces heat in the body.

The deficiency of carbohydrates causes the following harms;

  1. Activeness of the body decreases.
  2. The skin starts to shrink.
  3. The body becomes weak due to its deficiency.
  4. The individual proceeds towards old age.

A person’s daily diet should contain 300gm of sugar & starch.



Simple Sugar

Fruit Sugar Or Fructose, Grape Sugar Or Glucose

Complex Sugar

Beet Sugar, Mannose

Cane Sugar


Malt Sugar


Milk Sugar




Barley, Maize, Rice, Wheat

Root Vegetables

Arrow Root, Tapioca, Turnip

Stem Vegetables

Colossi, Potato and Yam.

4. Fats

Fats contain fatty acids and glycerin.

  • Like Carbohydrates, fats too are made from 3 elements – the mixture of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. But their proportion varies.

Uses of fat

  1. Supply more energy to the body as compared with other food.
  2. The body looks strong and glowing.
  3. Prevents loss of energy from the body.
  4. The internal bones, joints, and tissues remain safe.

The deficiency of fats causes the following harms:

  1. The weight decreases.
  2. The skin dries up.
  3. The body becomes weak.
  4. It may cause heart ailments.
  5. It may cause a stone.

A normal person needs 100 gm of fats every day.


Fats may be obtained from 2 sources

  1. From Vegetables –
    • Ground and Nut,
    • Mustard Oil,
    • Coconut Oil Etc.
  2. From Animals –
    • Eggs,
    • Ghee,
    • Butter,
    • Fish,
    • Milk,
    • Meat Etc.

5. Vitamins

  1. Vitamin A
  2. Vitamin B
  3. Vitamin C
  4. Vitamin D
  5. Vitamin E
  6. Vitamin K

a. Vitamin A

(anti-infective vitamin) Vitamin A is soluble in fat.


Vitamin A is found in

Fish Liver










Sweet Potato

Ripe Tomato



Ripe Mango

Ripe Papaya

Cabbage Etc.

  1. It is very essential for body growth.
  2. Helps in digestion and increases appetite.
  3. Keeps up general bodily health.
  4. It prevents infectious diseases.
  5. It keeps the eyes healthy.
  6. It is very essential fern children and pregnant women.
  7. It supplies food to the eyes intestines lungs skin and soft fibres.
Deficiency Diseases:
  1. It causes deafness.
  2. It causes eye ailments.
  3. It causes cough and cold.
  4. It causes intestinal ailments.
  5. It stops watering in the nose, ears, mouth and kidney.
  6. It causes a deficiency of blood in the body.
  7. It causes swelling in the body.

2. Vitamin B

Vitamin b is very beneficial to the body.

  • Vitamin B1, B2, and B12 are very important. The mixture of this vitamin is called vitamin B complex.
Vitamin B1 thiamine



Germinating Seeds

Green Vegetable

Egg Yolk







  1. Needed by the nerves, appetite, and digestion.
  2. It is necessary for the communication of sensation and the natural activity of the intestines.
  3. Helps in using up the Carbohydrates stored in the body.
  4. It is essential for the virus-destruction ability of the white blood cells.
  5. It prevents beriberi.
  6. It changes food into energy.
  1. It causes headaches.
  2. It decreases appetite.
  3. It causes pain to the hands, feet, and other body parts.
  4. It causes anxiety and fear.
  5. It causes darkness before the eyes.
  6. It diminishes memory.
  7. It causes vertigo.
  8. It diminishes the desire to work hard and to stimulate tasks.
Vitamin B2 (or Rhib of lavin)

It is found in

  • Milk
  • Cheese
  • Yeast
  • Fish
  • Egg White
  • Liver
  • Kidney
  • Meat
  • Green Vegetables Etc.
  1. It maintains youthfulness.
  2. It assists in maintaining the amount of air balanced in the body.
  3. It protects the body from plague and skin diseases.
  4. It gets destroyed in sunlight.
Its deficiency causes the following effect
  1. The rate of growth of the body becomes slow.
  2. Eyesight becomes weak.
  3. Eyes become red.
  4. It causes a burning sensation to the tongue while eating.
  5. The tongue becomes reddish.
Vitamin B12 (Or niacin)

It is found in

  • Milk
  • Grains
  • Leafy vegetables
  • Eggs
  • Liver
  • Kidney and yeast etc.
  1. It is essential for tissues and fibres and the metabolism and transportation of hydrogen.
  2. Niacin (B12) is needed for enzymes structures and actions.
Its deficiency can cause the following effect
  1. It causes the skin to become wrinkled and thin.
  2. Its deficiency causes an ailment called pellagra.
  3. It causes swelling on the tongue.
  4. It causes headaches and lethargy.
  5. It causes hands and legs to tremble.
  6. It causes swelling in the gums.
  7. It causes loose motions continuously.
  8. It can cause mental insanity.

c. Vitamin C


It is found in







Sour Fruits

Green Vegetables

Sprouted Grains Etc

  1. It heals the wound soon.
  2. It strengths the bones.
  3. It purifies the blood.
  4. It strengthens the teeth and gums of children.
  5. It increases red blood cells.
  6. It kills infectious viruses such as joint pain and cold.
Its deficiency causes the following effect:
  1. It causes swelling of the gums.
  2. It causes weakness in the body.
  3. It causes scurvy.
  4. It causes a deficiency of blood in the body.
  5. It causes tuberculosis.
  6. It causes arthritis.

d. Vitamin D


It is got from

  • Direct sunlight,
  • Milk,
  • Butter,
  • Egg,
  • Yellow ghee,
  • Fish,
  • Oil and cream etc.
  1. It strengthens bones.
  2. It is helpful in constructing bones.
  3. It is essential for pregnant and feeding mothers.
  4. It can be accumulated in body fibres.
  5. It is helpful for strong teeth.
Its deficiency can have the following effect on the body;
  1. It can cause bones to weaken and curve.
  2. It can cause arthritis and rickets.
  3. It can cause pain in the waist and thighs.
  4. Teeth do not erupt at the proper times in children.
  5. It can curve the spine and cause a hump.

e. Vitamin E

(Anti sterility vitamin) Vitamin E is very important for reproduction.


It is available in animals as well as in vegetables.

It is found in












Green Vegetables Etc.

  1. It is helpful in body growth.
  2. It increases weight.
  3. It prevents loose motions.
  4. It prevents miscarriage.
Its deficiency can cause the following effect
  1. The females suffer a miscarriage.
  2. The male becomes unable to copulate.
  3. The child in the womb can suffer death.
  4. The females become unable to reproduce.

f. Vitamin K

(Meno-dion or coagulation vitamin) Vitamin K is discovered in 1964.


This vitamin is available in








Egg Yellow And Orange Peel.

  1. It avoids the clotting from blood.
  2. It is needed for normal coagulation of blood.
  3. It is essential for pregnant women.
  4. It is essential for mothers.
Its deficiency can cause harms
  1. The power to coagulate the blood decrease.
  2. Bleeding is severe in case of an injury.
  3. Its deficiency causes the cessation of production of prothrombin.

6. Water

Water is essential for our bodies. Our body constitutes 75% of water and 25% of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals.

  • Hydrogen (Two Parts) And
  • Oxygen (One Part)
Functions of water
  • It maintains the temperature of the body.
  • It helps to absorb food.
  • Needed for all tissues of the body.
  • Needed for every chemical process.
  • Mixing with blood, it supplies food and oxygen to all fibres of the body.
  • The blood and all juices of the body look liquid due to water.
  • It mixes body toxins into waste urine and sweat and excretes it out of the body.
  • It keeps the body fibres soft and flexible.
  • Rain, lakes, tanks, springs, wells, rivers, and the sea are the sources of water.
  • Rainwater is the purest form of water and seawater is the dirtiest form of water.
  • Certain foods like
    • Cucumber,
    • Green leafy vegetables,
    • Milk,
    • Watermelon contains a high percentage of water.

Which Are Fat Soluble Vitamins?

Vitamins soluble in fat are

  1. Vitamin A
  2. Vitamin D
  3. Vitamin E
  4. Vitamin K

1. Vitamin A

Vitamin A (anti-infective vitamin) is soluble in fat.


Vitamin A is found in

Fish Liver










Sweet Potato

Ripe Tomato



Ripe Mango

Ripe Papaya



  1. It is very essential for body growth.
  2. Helps in digestion and increases appetite.
  3. Keeps up general bodily health.
  4. It keeps the eyes healthy.
  5. It is very essential for children and pregnant women.
  6. It prevents infectious diseases.
  7. It supplies food to the eyes, intestines, lungs, skin, and soft fibres.


  1. It causes eye ailments.
  2. It causes a deficiency of blood in the body.
  3. It causes deafness.
  4. It causes intestinal ailments.
  5. It causes swelling in the body.
  6. It causes cough and cold.
  7. It stops watering in the nose, ears, mouth, and kidney.

2. Vitamin D


It is got from

Direct sunlight




Yellow ghee


Oil and cream


  1. It strengthens bones.
  2. It is helpful in constructing bones.
  3. It is helpful for strong teeth.
  4. It can be accumulated in body fibres.
  5. It is essential for pregnant and feeding mothers.


  1. It causes bone diseases in children.
  2. It can cause pain in the waist and thighs.
  3. It can cause arthritis and rickets.
  4. It can curve the spine and cause a hump.
  5. Teeth do not erupt at the proper time in children.
  6. It can cause bones to weaken and curve.

Vitamin E

(Anti sterility vitamin) Vitamin E is very important for reproduction.


  • It is available in animals as well as in vegetables.

It is found in












Green Vegetable


  1. It is helpful in body growth.
  2. It increases weight.
  3. It prevents loose motions.
  4. It prevents miscarriage.


  1. The male becomes unable to copulate.
  2. The females become unable to reproduce.
  3. The females suffer miscarriage
  4. The child in the womb can suffer death.

Vitamin K

(Meno-dion or coagulation vitamin) Vitamin K is discovered in 1964.


This vitamin is available from








Egg Yellow and Orange Peel


  1. It avoids the clotting from blood.
  2. It is essential for pregnant women.
  3. It is needed for normal coagulation of blood.
  4. It is essential for mothers.


  1. The power to coagulate the blood decrease.
  2. Its deficiency causes the cessation of production of prothrombin.
  3. Bleeding is severe in case of an injury.
Topics Covered:
  • Vitamin B
    • Vitamin B1
    • Vitamin B2
    • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin C

Which Are Water Soluble Vitamins?

Vitamins soluble in water are

  1. Vitamin B and
  2. Vitamin C

1. Vitamin B

Vitamin B is very beneficial to the body.

  • It is of many types. Vitamin B1, B2, and B12 are very important.
  • The mixture of this vitamin is called vitamin B complex.

A. Vitamin B1 Thiamine




Germinating Seeds

Green Vegetable

Egg Yolk







  • It changes food into energy.
  • Needed by the nerve’s appetite and digestion.
  • Helps in using up the Carbohydrates stored in the body.
  • It is necessary for the communication of sensation and the natural activity of the intestines.
  • It prevents beriberi.
  • It is essential for the virus-destruction ability of the white blood cells.
  • It causes pain to hands feet and other body parts.
  • It decreases appetite.
  • It causes headaches.
  • It causes anxiety and fear.
  • It causes darkness before the eyes.
  • It diminishes the desire to work hard and to stimulate tasks.
  • It diminishes memory.
  • It causes vertigo.

B. Vitamin B2 (or Rhib of lavin)


It is found in





Egg White




Green Vegetables.

  • It maintains youthfulness.
  • It assists in maintaining the amount of air balanced in the body.
  • It protects the body from plague and skin diseases.
  • It gets destroyed in sunlight.
  • The rate of growth of the body becomes slow.
  • Eyes become red.
  • It causes a burning sensation to the tongue while eating.
  • Eyesight becomes weak.
  • The tongue becomes reddish.

C. Vitamin B12 (Or Niacin)


It is found in



Leafy vegetables



Kidney and yeast

  • It is essential for tissues and fibres and the metabolism and transportation of hydrogen.
  • Niacin is needed for enzymes structures and actions.
  • It causes the skin to become wrinkled and thin.
  • It causes swelling on the tongue.
  • It can cause mental insanity.
  • Its deficiency causes an ailment called pellagra.
  • It causes swelling in the gums.
  • It causes hands and legs to tremble.
  • It causes loose motions continuously.
  • It causes headaches and lethargy.

2. Vitamin C


It is found in







Sour Fruits

Green Vegetables

Sprouted Grains


  • It heals the wound soon.
  • It increases red blood cells.
  • It strengthens the bones.
  • It strengthens the teeth and gums of children.
  • It kills infectious viruses such as joint pain and cold.
  • It purifies the blood.


  • It causes swelling of the gums.
  • It causes weakness in the body.
  • It causes scurvy.
  • It causes a deficiency of blood in the body.
  • It causes tuberculosis.
  • It causes arthritis.

What Do We Mean By Nutrition?

Nutrition is defined as the science of food and its relationship to health. It is concerned chiefly with the part played by nutrients in the growth and development of the body

In other words, Nutrition is the science deals with foods and their uses by the body.

Good nutrition stands for the supply of essential nutrients in adequate quantities.

Functions Of Nutritious Food

  1. It creates tissues.
  2. It created heat in the body.
  3. It provides energy to the body.
  4. It repairs the damaged tissues.
  5. It affects chemical changes in the body.
  6. It accumulates energy in the body.
  7. It creates a fibre while the other gets destroyed.

What Causes Malnutrition?

Meaning of Malnutrition

Physical weakness and bad health caused by having too little food, or too little of the types of food necessary for good health is called malnutrition.

11 Most Common Causes And Reasons for Malnutrition

  1. Lack of rest and sleep.
  2. Lack of nutrition food because of the carelessness of elders.
  3. No balanced diet.
  4. No opportunities for play.
  5. Lack of self-control.
  6. Irregular life, no time for anything e.g., not taking meals at the proper time.
  7. Chronic long-standing diseases.
  8. Bad and unhealthy environment.
  9. Indigestion due to indigestible foods.
  10. Domestic reasons e.g., poor economic condition but having a large number of mouths to feed.
  11. Too much work and lack of rest.

[15] Sign And Symptoms Of Malnutrition

Some of the Sign And Symptoms Of Malnutrition are

  1. The muscles become loose.
  2. The complexion becomes pale.
  3. Eyes become sore and eyesight suffers.
  4. The person does not sleep properly and sees dreams.
  5. There is a decrease in the amount of flesh and loss of weight.
  6. The person feels fatigued easily.
  7. The person is bothered by worry, restlessness, and excitement.
  8. The person is overpowered by lassitude.
  9. His muscles and nerves are in a state of tension because he feels bored.
  10. The person falls quick prey to diseases.
  11. The person adopts a bad sitting posture which increases his illness.
  12. His proper development does not take place.
  13. He suffers from headaches, a bad cold, and a cough.
  14. The person is afraid and becomes suspicious over trifles. He cannot concentrate because his mind wavers.
  15. Teeth weaken and start failing.

9 Ways To Prevent Malnutrition

Some of the Ways To Prevent Malnutrition are

  1. Diet
  2. Rules Of Personal Hygiene
  3. Neatness Of Environment
  4. Punctuality
  5. Tasty And Delicious Dishes
  6. Balanced Life
  7. Proper And Regular Exercise
  8. Medical Examination And Diagnosis
  9. Recreation

1. Diet

  • Always take a balanced diet (i.e., diet containing all proximal principles) and a mixed diet.
  • Take a variety of foods.
  • Food should be easily digestible but nutritious.

2. Rules Of Personal Hygiene

Adequate stress should be laid on rules of personal hygiene and health.

3. Neatness Of Environment

  • Home environment should be neat and clean.
  • The kitchen and dining room should be specially attended to.

4. Punctuality

We should take our meals punctually.

5. Tasty And Delicious Dishes

  • Food should be tasty and delicious.
  • It should appeal to our senses.
  • The food having taste contrary to our likes causes more harm than gain.

6. Balanced Life

Life should have sufficiently challenging work punctuated with intervals of rest and sleep. Working alone or resting alone is injurious.

How wisely it has been said:

“All work and no play make Jack a dull boy”
“What is this life if full of care we have no time to stand and stare?”

7. Proper And Regular Exercise

The body should be made ever easy and active through suitable and regular exercises.

8. Medical Examination And Diagnosis

The diseases should be nipped in the bud after being properly diagnosed in medical examination.

9. Recreation

There should be adequate provision for recreation.

Effect Of Exercise on Digestive System

The digestive system works in such a way that the digested food may reach every part of the body. This job is done by large and small intestines.

  • When we are busy in doing exercise then those parts which are busy in exercise more blood is needed.
  • The large and small intestine blood reserve is supplied to these parts while doing exercise.
  • With all this digestive system gets affected.

Therefore, it is necessary that one should not go for exercise after taking for about two to three hours. The food takes about three hours to cross the intestines.

So, it is advised that the exercise should be taken after three hours of food. If one does not follow this rule then undigested food creates some trouble.

What Are The Effects Of Exercise On The Digestive System?

If we are regular in exercise then some permanent effects we can see on our digestive system.

1. Improvement In Digestive System

  • As we have noted that the exercises improve our blood circulation and muscular system, in the same way, it also improves our digestive systems because all of them are interrelated.
  • In this way when another system of the body is improved then the digestive system also improves.

2. End Of Elements Causing Defects Intestine

By exercises, the elements which are harmful to intestines die themselves and therefore the digestion becomes alright.

3. Increase In Appetite

When the digestive system is improved then automatically the appetite will also be increased.

4. No Constipation

  • The man, who takes regular exercises never complains of constipation.
  • The intestines are massaged by exercises and excretory function becomes normal.

5. Increase In The Working Capacity Of Slavery Glands

  • The exercises also increase the working capacity of salivary glands and saliva helps indigestion.
  • Therefore, the whole system is affected.

6. Increase In The Energy And Capacity Of Salivary Glands.

The strength of the stomach, liver, and panaceas is improved and they work more efficiently and keep the body free from ailments and disorders.

7. Increase In The Storage Capacity Of Essential Elements In The Body

  • The salivary glands become more active by exercises and with this, the digestion is easier and cleaner.
  • Therefore, the body is able to store more essential elements in the body and they are supplied when they are needed.

Characteristics Of Balanced Diet

A balanced diet is a food that contains a sufficient quantity of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals which provide enough energy and maintain good health.

  • A balanced diet prevents diseases arising out of malnutrition.

7 Characteristics Of Balanced Diet

  1. The materials providing energy are present in the diet in adequate amounts.
  2. The presence of preventive nutrients is necessary for a balanced diet.
  3. This varies with the age of each individual.
  4. The food articles containing proteins and minerals are contained in the diet in adequate amounts.
  5. This varies according to the sex of each individual.
  6. This varies according to the occupation of each individual.
  7. This varies according to the climate of the place.

Balanced Diet Chart For All Age Groups

The number of calories needed by an individual is discussed for different age group



Age Group

Requirement Of Calories



1 - 6years

1100 - 1400

7 - 12 Years

1500 - 2000



13 - 16 Years

2300 - 2400

17 – 20 years

2500 - 3000



Hard Work


Medium Work


Light Work




Hard Work


Feeding Mother




Medium Work


Light Work


Composition Of Balanced Diet

Every day, a balanced diet is essential for all human beings.

A well-balanced diet contains the following:

Composition Of Balanced Diet

Required Quantity Per Day


400 gms


85 gms

Fats And Oils

56 gms


284 gms

Leafy Vegetables

114 gms

Non-Leafy Vegetables

85 gms


85 gms


85 gms

Sugar Jaggery and Honey

57 gms

Fish, Meat, and Eggs on Alternate Days

125 gms

Groundnut, Salt, and Condiment

57 gms

What Food Makes A Balanced Diet?


  • It Includes Rice, Wheat, Barley, Oats, And Millets.
  • It Provides About 50-80 Percent Of The Calories needed.


  • It Includes Dhal, Pea Beans Etc,
  • It Contains Proteins, Iron And Vitamins.

Fats And Oil

  • Animal Fat Includes Ghee And Butter.
  • It Contains A High Amount Of Cholesterol.
  • Vegetable Fat Includes Ground Nut Oil, Gingili Oil, Coconut Oil, Palm Oil Which Contains Cholesterol, Amino Acids And Vitamin E.


  • It Is Ideal Food For All Ages.
  • It Contains All Nutrients Such As Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, Vitamins, And Minerals.

Green Leafy Vegetables

  • It Includes Drum Stick, Spinach, And Cabbage.
  • This Green Leave Contains Vitamins And Minerals.

Roots And Tubers

  • This Category Includes Potato, Tapioca, Carrot, Radish, Onion Etc.
  • They Contain A High Amount Of Starch.


  • Fruits Contain Minerals, Carbohydrates, Vitamin Etc.

Fish, Meat, And Eggs

  • These Include Flesh Of Cattle, Sheep, Goat, And Pigs, Which Have Contained High Amount Of
    • Proteins,
    • Amino Acids,
    • Minerals,
    • Vitamins And Fats.

Sugar, Jiggery, And Honey

  • These Containing Glucose, Fructose, Iron, Carbohydrates, Vitamin C Etc.


  • Almost All Minerals Such As
    • Sodium,
    • Potassium,
    • Calcium,
    • Phosphorous,
    • Magnesium,
    • Cobalt,
    • Iodine,
    • Iron

Balanced Diet Chart For Healthy Living

Balanced Diet Chart for a Common Individual


73 gms


74 gms


408 gm


2.02 gm


30-40 mg


1.47 gm

Vitamin A

40 or more mg

Vitamin B

49 or more mg

Vitamin C


Types Of Eating Habits That May Lead To Obesity

Certain types of eating habits that may lead to obesity are:

  1. Nibbling between meals is common among housewives and is a potential cause of obesity.
  2. Housewives who are fond of cooking a variety of foods or persons who are working in the business executives who frequently attend business lunches have more chance of becoming obese.
  3. Some may eat more food when they are unhappy as a compensation mechanism.
  4. Some may eat faster, taking less time for chewing therefore they tend to consume more food.
  5. Obese respond to external cues to eat rather than internal hunger signals. They eat when it is mealtime or when they are surrounded by tasty foods instead of when they are hungry.
  6. Housewives who did not want leftover foods to be thrown out may consume forcibly and put on weight.
  7. Certain cultural practices like making and distributing sweets on festive occasions contribute to increased calorie consumption.
  8. Non-inclusion of fruits and vegetables as on vegetarian diet causes weight gain.
  9. People who like eating processed concentrated and high-fat food are susceptible to obesity.
  10. People who eat outside the home more frequently are prone to obesity.
  11. People who eat more junk food (high fat, high carbohydrate) may become obese.
  12. There is an abundance of palatable Calorically dense food available in the market. Sophisticated marketing in the mass media, supermarkets, and restaurants and large portions of food served outside the home promote high-calorie consumption.

What Are Some Of The Health Problems Associated With Obesity?

The 6 health problems that are associated with obesity are:

  1. Obese children may experience delayed puberty.
  2. Obesity creates complications for pregnancy; the duration of the labor period is significantly increased for heavy women.
  3. Overweight people are accident-prone.
  4. Obese teenage girls may be predisposed to a certain type of CANCER as cancers are also related with
    • Overeating,
    • Excessive consumption of alcohol and
    • High-fat diets.
  5. Obese persons cannot enjoy recreational activities because of their low muscular endurance and poor motor ability.
  6. Orthopedic problems are more common among these people.

Dietary Guidelines To Reduce Obesity

Low calorie, normal protein, vitamin and mineral (except sodium), restricted carbohydrate; restricted fat and liberal fluid, high fibre is given to reduce obesity.

Balanced Diet To Reduce Obesity



  • About 20 kcal per kg
  • Ideal body weight is prescribed for a sedentary worker and 25 kcal for a moderately active worker.



  • About 0.81g of protein/kg.
  • Bodyweight is prescribed for tissue repair and for specific dynamic action.



  • High carbohydrate content foods like potatoes and rice are restricted.
  • Fruits rich in carbohydrates like bananas should be avoided.
  • Sugar that gives empty calories should be totally avoided.



  • Low fat or no-fat diet should be given to reduce calories.
  • Skim milk should be chosen.
  • Food rich in fat like nuts and oilseeds is avoided.



  • With the prolonged restriction of fats, there is likely to be a restriction of fat-soluble vitamins A and D which may be supplemented.



  • Restriction of sodium a common salt is helpful in a weight-reducing diet as excess sodium predisposes to the retention of fluid.
  • Research suggests that a calcium-rich diet especially one that included dairy sources (with a limit in total calories) not only helps young women keep weight in check but may reduce overall levels of body fat.
  • Calcium may depress certain hormones which consequently improve the body’s ability to break down fat in cells and slow fat production.



  • Fluids can be taken liberally as extra fluids are excreted by healthy kidneys.
  • Also, a glass of water before meals helps to out down food intake.


High Fibre:

  • High-fibre low-calorie foods like green leafy vegetables, fruits, vegetables, salads, whole grain, cereals, and pulses can be included in the diet.
Advantages of High Fibre Food

The inclusion of high fibre foods in diets have many advantages, they are

  1. Reduce blood cholesterol.
  2. Promote chewing and decreases the rate of ingestion.
  3. Low-calorie density.
  4. Foods like green vegetables provide vitamins and minerals (which are difficult to meet with restricted food).
  5. Help in regulating bowel movements.
  6. Give satiety.

A higher intake of fibre automatically cuts down fat and calories.

Suggested Foods And Recipes Helpful In Reducing Obesity



Vegetable And Salads
  • Low Calorie And
  • High fibre
Chapathis Without Oil
  • More Proteins And High Fibre And
  • Give Satiety
Thin Dates, Steamed Foods Like Idlis
  • To Limit Calories,
  • Increase Protein Content
Thin Soup
  • Provide Fluids,
  • Low-Calorie Value,
  • Provide Fullness
Poached Fish
  • Low In Calories
  • High In Protein Of Good Quality
Boiled Chawli
  • Rich In Protein And
  • B Vitamins
Greens Poriyal
  • High In Fibre
Coffee Or Tea Without Sugar
  • Low Calories

Diet Tips To Prevent Obesity

  • Cut down on sugar
  • Take control of what you eat
  • Eat more fibres
  • Eat frequently and eat slowly
  • Eat more fruits, vegetables, and grains

Ways To Prevent Obesity


Avoid Eating Of High Fat Foods

  • Eat small and frequent meals.
  • Decrease consumption of liquids sweetened with sugar.
  • Maintain structures and patterns of eating.
  • Engage in physical activities.


Medical Management

  • Excess weight will be reduced at an early stage of obesity by medical intervention.
  • A regular visit to a doctor is essential to avoid health problems caused by excess weight (eg. High blood pressure, liver problems, diabetes)



  • For successful weight control, regular physical activities are necessary.


Support Groups

  • The obsessed children can take support from the dietician and physical educationists to undergo physical activities and controlled deistic conditions.


Environmental Changes

  • The environment can have either a negative impact or a positive impact.
  • Overweight children and families can make changes in their environments to reduce triggers for unhealthy eating and promote high levels of activities

What Should You Eat If You Are Underweight?

People whose BMI is less than 18.5 are considered underweight.

  • A High-calorie, High fat diet with liberal vitamin intake is recommended.
  • But before going into the diet the first step is to determine and eliminate the causes for undereating.
  • Then a balanced diet should be planned based on the requirements.

Balanced Diet For Underweight



  • Instead of 1g of protein, over 1.2 g per kg is recommended for tissue building.
  • Good quality protein is completely utilized by the body and as far as possible best protein sources must be liberally included in the initial stage.



  • The calorie requirements vary depending upon the activities, for increasing weight, the total calorie intake should be in excess of the energy requirement.
  • An additional 500 kcals per day is recommended.
  • The increase should be gradual over one or two weeks otherwise digestive disturbances may occur.


Vitamins And Minerals:

  • With a liberal diet, there is no need for extra vitamin and mineral supplements.



  • High carbohydrate sources must form the basis of the diet.
  • The number of meals should be increased.
  • Incorporating soups, juices, or sweets in between major meals improves the nutritive value of the diet.
  • Leafy vegetables should be restricted and preference to be given to potatoes.
  • Dried fruit, sweets, nuts, desserts, jam, jelly, coral products, and non-vegetarian foods are rich sources of energy and can be liberally in the diet.
  • Thick soups are easily digestible and high nutritious items.
  • Easily digestible foods should be given.
  • Porridge, cutlets, desserts, potatoes, chips, high protein drinks like milk, matted milk, and badam kheer can be included.



  • Even though the fat content is increased, easily digestible fats are to be included.
  • Fatty food should not be taken at the beginning of a meal as they reduce appellate.
  • High-calorie fatty foods such as cream, butter, margarine, and oils help to increase weight.
  • Fried and fatty foods are not recommended as they may cause diarrhea.



  • Fluids should not be taken before or with a meal but only after a meal so that food intake is not reduced.
  • Enough fluids must be taken so as to avoid constipation.

Meaning Of Yoga Defined By The Classic Hatha Yoga

The term ‘Yoga’ is derived from the Sanskrit verb ‘YUJ’ meaning ‘to join’ or ‘to yoke’ or ‘to unite’ or ‘to integrate’ which means total integration of the physical, mental, intellectual, and spiritual aspects of human personality.

Historically, this term refers to a wide range of bodily postures that have been transmitted by teachers in India for thousands of years.

Many of these postures or asana have been defined by the classic Hatha Yoga tradition, the tradition from which the word Yoga comes.

Hatha means union,

  • “Ha” means sun and
  • “tha” means moon.

Therefore “Hatha Yoga” means a balanced union, a system for creating the balanced wellbeing of the total person as Yoga joins the mind, body, and spirit into a balanced whole.

While we are on the path to achieving our highest spiritual potential, asana practice promotes structural stability, physiological immunity, and emotional health, as it helps us restore and develop

  • Balance,
  • Flexibility,
  • Stability,
  • Strength,
  • Skeletal alignment, and
  • Mechanical freedom

What Are The Various Definitions Of Yoga?

Simple Definition Of Yoga

Checking the impulses of mind is yoga” - Patanjali

Yoga is the way or method through which internal and external facilities of man meet in totality and changes occur and by which may achieve God or feel his existence and may become the part of Him”. - Sri Aurobindo

Yoga is attaining the pose”- Ved Vyas

Yoga is a skill in actions.” - Lord Krishna.

The meeting of the human being with God is Yoga.” - Nukeshwar Majumdar

Yoga is that method or activity (sadhna) by which we realize the oneness of human soul with God and human meet God and feel its knowledge (Gyan).” -Swami Shiva Nandji

What Are The Aim And Objectives Of Yoga?

5 Aims of Yoga

  1. The aim of yoga is to control the mind.
    • A man who cannot control his mind will find it difficult to attain divine communion, but the self-controlled man can attain it if he tries hard and directs his energy by the right means.
  2. The main aim of yoga is to integrate the body, mind, and thoughts so as to work for good ends.
  3. By practicing yoga, the mind will get sharpened and concentration and memory power may develop.
    • Thus, minds could be canalized for thinking the right good thoughts. Then the good and healthy thoughts will develop in the right direction.
  4. Yoga will pave the way for an individual to do any action peacefully and perfectly.
  5. Through systematic and regular Yogic practices, the body may be made healthier and its resistance power to fight against the diseases could be enhanced.

Objectives Of Yoga

The main objectives of the Yogic practices are to make one free from

  • Diseases,
  • Miseries
  • Ignorance,
  • Egoism,
  • The Affiliations Of Old Age, And
  • Fear Of Death Etc.

8 Limbs Of Ashtanga Yoga

There are eight limbs of ashtanga yoga to secure the purity of body, mind, and soul. They are,

  1. Yama
  2. Niyama
  3. Asanas
  4. Pranayama
  5. Pratyahara
  6. Concentration (Dharana)
  7. Mediation (Dhyana)
  8. Samadhi

1. Yama

(Universal moral commandments) Yama means restraint or abstention.

It Has Five Moral Practices.


Ahimsa (Non-Violence)

Means Not To Hurt Any Creature Mentally Or Physically Through Mind Speech Or Action.


Satya (Truth)

Is The Presentation Of A Matter As Perceived With The Help Of The Sense Organs.


Asteya (Non-Stealing)

Means Not To Cover And Acquire Physically, Mentally Or By Speech Others Possessions.


Brahmacharya (Continence)

Brahmacharya Does Not Mean Lifelong Celibacy, But Moderation In Sex Between Married Couples.


Aparigraha (Non-Coveting)

Means Abandoning Wealth And Means Of Sensual Pleasures.

2. Niyama

(Self-purification by Discipline) Physical and mental rules of conduct towards oneself.

They Are:


Saucha (Purity)

Purity Means Internal And External Purification Of The Body And The Mind.


Santosa (Contentment)

Contentment Is A State Of Mind By Which One Lives Happily And Satisfied In A Congenial Or Uncongenial Atmosphere.


Tapas (Austerity)

Austerity Is The Conquest Of All Desires Or Sensual Pleasures By Plasticizing Purity In Thought, Speech, And Action.


Swadhaya (Study of The Self)

Study Of The Self Means Exchange Of Thoughts In Order To Secure Purity In Thought And Accomplish Knowledge.


Isvara Pranidhana (Dedication to The Lord)

It Is Pure Devotion To God And Surrender Of All Actions To Him.

3. Asanas

It has been described as meaning to sit comfortably without any movement for long in one pose.

  • Whatever may be the type of Asana the backbone, Forehead, and chin should always remain straight.
  • When a person masters an asana’s, he is not affected by seasons, whether cold, hot, or rain like disturbances.
  • To master the asana, one should be able to sit comfortably at least for 3 hours at a stretch.
  • Among a number of asanas, the Sidhasana, Padmasana, and swastika asana are considered the best.

4. Pranayama

  • A complete cycle of respiration is called Pranayama.
  • It completes the respiratory system.
  • It is the method to take the air inside the body
    • i.e., inhalation and after some pause brings the air out of the lugs
    • i.e., exhalation in a particular way.

5. Pratyahara

Through our various sense organs, we use things according to our interests and attitude, desire, and likes.

  • But when our sense organs become detached, they settle down in the heart.
  • This situation is known as pratyahara.

6. Concentration (Dharana)

Human being has tremendous strength and energy in them. They can achieve anything.

  • Due to a lack of concentration within one is unable to get many powers in life.
  • Through concentration one achieves power.
  • Dharana is the concentration of the mind on some object.

7. Mediation (Dhyana)

When taking the concentration form of mediation the aspirant marches forward continuously and without pause towards his goal and becomes inseparable from his aim.

8. Samadhi

  • It is the highest attainment.
  • It is the worshipper and worshipped become one.
  • There remains no difference between the two i.e., One who is performing Dhyan and For the object of Dhayn.
  • One soul becomes an integral part of God.

Advantages Of Yoga

  1. Yoga is easy to perform.
    • Anybody can take part in it and perform according to one’s capacity and capability.
    • Yoga does not require equipment and implements.
  2. Yogi remains ever young with vigor and vitality.
  3. Vertebra (Spinal cord) remains erect.
  4. Nerve strength (energy) is improved.
  5. Stomach in the human organs is the mother of all diseases and sickness. It is the root cause of all illnesses i.e.; all diseases originate from the stomach due to yogic exercises particularly pertaining to the stomach,
    • The stomach becomes clean,
    • Digestion becomes regular and
    • Constipation is removed.
  6. Yoga has a special place and importance to refresh the mind and body and to regain the lost or spent energy from the spiritual point of view.
  7. It develops and improves food habits and behavior.
  8. It provides strength to the heart and lungs.
  9. Yoga practices can be performed and practiced by everyone whether child or adult, man or woman, young or old, rich or poor without reservation or without any difficultly.
  10. By doing all activities pertaining to all sorts of exercise and activities removes all sorts of tension and fatigue.
    • The strength and energy are recovered and regained.
  11. The mind becomes controlled and stable.
  12. The intelligence and memory are improved and developed.
  13. Due to yoga, glands secretion becomes normal,
    • Body organs get stronger and energetic.
  14. Ladies become beautiful and charming in perfect shape and size fully developed in all their organs fit and attractive with elegant gait.
    • They remain ever young.
    • Their belly remains under control and in good shape even after becoming a mother.
  15. Yoga helps in the growth and development of intelligence of a person.
  16. Yoga makes the man and woman self-controlled.
    • They do not indulge in extremes.
    • Their thinking is pure and refined.
  17. It helps in achieving good mental as well as physical health.
  18. Yoga controls and regulates respiration and respiratory systems as a whole.
  19. It purifies and regulates the blood in the body.
  20. Yoga destroys the causes of diseases.
    • It protects and safeguards the person against diseases.
  21. Body becomes disease-free, strong, and healthy.
  22. Concentration of mind is improved.
  23. Will becomes strong and stable.
  24. The eyesight is improved
    • If already weak it becomes better.
  25. The body becomes beautiful, clear, clean, strong, energetic, and graceful.
  26. There is marked improvement in indigestion.

There are several systems in the world by which diseases can be cured and treated. But to cure diseases through yoga asanas has no parallel. Yoga destroys diseases and illnesses.

General Guidelines For Yoga Practice



Always Breathe Through The Nose



This Is As Essential To The Practice Of Asanas As It Is All Practices, Physical, Mental, Emotional, Psychic And Spiritual.



When Feeling Physically Or Mentally Tired.



  • Asanas,
  • Pranayamas And
  • Meditation.


Counter Pose

  • Forward To Backward,
  • Left To Right.


Time To Practice

Brahammuhurta, Two Hours Before The Sunrise.

Place Of Practice

Well Ventilated Room, Calm And Quite,



Surrounding Should Be Pleasant, A Beautiful Garden With Trees And Flowers.



Insulator Between The Body And The Earth.



Wear Loose, Light, And Comfortable Clothing.



Bath Will Help To Improve The Effect Of The Asanas.


Empty Stomach

Try To Avoid Using Laxative Drugs.


Abdomen- One Quarter

Empty: One-Quarter Water And Two-Quarter Food.


No Straining

Beginners May Find Their Muscles Stiff At First


Age Limit

Above 10 Years To All Age Groups



  • Fractured Bone,
  • Chronic Ailments And Diseases As Stomach Ulcer,
  • Tuberculosis Or Hernia And
  • Recuperating From Operations.


Termination Of Asanas

If There Is Excessive Pain In Any Part Of The Body The Asanas Should Be Terminated Immediately.


Limitation ForWomen

  • During The First 3 Months Of Pregnancy To Do The Few Asanas Which Give The Pressure In The Abdominal Region Should Be Avoided By Women,
  • During Menstrual Periods No Asanas Should Be Practiced, Because Undue Pressure Exerted During Asanas May Cause Increased Bleeding.

Yoga Asanas Procedure and Benefits

There is a large number of asanas. According to Charandas, there are 84,000 asanas.

  • Some of the asanas are very useful and important from the viewpoint of the physical, mental, and spiritual growth of an individual.

Some Important Asanas Are:

  1. Sitting Position Asanas
    1. Padamasana (Lotus Pose)
    2. Matsyasana (Fish Pose)
    3. Yogamudhra ( The Psychic Union Pose)
    4. Paschimottanasana (Seated Forward Bend)
  2. Standing Position Asanas
    1. Trikonasana (Revolved Triangle Pose)
  3. Prone Position Asanas
    1. Salabhasana ( Locust Pose)
    2. Bhujangasana ( Cobra Pose)
    3. Dhanurasana (Bow Pose)
  4. Supine Position Asanas
    1. Sarvangasana (Shoulder Stand)
    2. Halasana (Plough Pose)

1. Sitting Position Asanas

a. Padamasana (Lotus Pose)

Padamasana (Lotus Pose)

  • Lotus posture
  • Long sitting position
  • Sit and spread out both legs to the front. Hand to be one the side palms on the ground and fingers joined together.
  • Slowly lift the right toe with the left hand and right ankle with the right hand and place it on the left thigh.
  • In the same manner, hold the left toe and ankle. Place it on the right thigh.
  • Place the hands on the knees in a meditative posture. Close the eyes or look to the front.
  • In the reverse order remove the left leg first from the thigh.
  • Then remove the right leg too and assume the initial position.
General Benefits
  • Padmasana is used for mediation, prayer, and worship and for pranayama practice.
  • It develops physical and mental stability.
  • This asana helps the players to obtain mental control.
  • Padmasana keeps a person young.
Physiological Benefits
  • The abdominal region receives more supply of blood.
  • Padmasana improves the digestion process.
  • It activates the functions of kidney.
Therapeutic Benefits
  • Padmasana relieves constipation, and indigestion.
  • It is a very good asana for curing knee ailments.
  • Padmasana is useful in curing the flatulence i.e gastric trouble in the stomach.
  • It also cures pile complaints.

b. Matsyasana (Fish Pose)

Matsyasana (Fish Pose)

  • Fish Posture
  • Long sitting position
  • Slowly bring the right leg and place it on the left thigh.
  • The heel of the right foot should as much as possible touch the groin.
  • Slowly bring the left leg and place it on the right thigh.
  • The heel of the left should as much as possible touch the groin.
  • With the support of the arms and elbows, slowly and backward and lie down flat on the ground.
  • Slowly bring the hands and place the palms near the shoulder (elbow facing upward).
  • With the help of hand support slowly lift the chest upwards and rest the centre of the head support slowly lift the chest upwards and rest the centre of the head on the ground and arch the back as much as possible.
  • Slowly bring the hands forward and place the palms on the feet.
General Benefits
  • Matsyasana enlarges the thoracic cage.
  • It strengthens the spinal cord.
  • It gives more flexibility to the neck region, hip, and knee joints.
Physiological Benefits
  • Matsyasana allows the flow of more blood to the thoracic region.
  • It regulates the free flow of the breathing process.
  • It regulates the function of the thyroid gland.
Therapeutic Benefits
  • Matsyasana is useful in curing asthma.
  • It is very good asana for backache patients.
  • It is useful for curing headaches and sinus problems.
  • It helps to reform the disorder of kyphosis.

c. Yogamudhra ( The Psychic Union Pose)

Yogamudhra ( The Psychic Union Pose)

  • Psychic Union Posture
  • Length sitting position
  • Slowly bring the right leg and place it on the left thigh.
  • The heel of the right foot should as much as possible touch the groin.
  • Slowly bring the left leg and place it on the right thigh.
  • The heel of the left foot should as much as possible touch the groin.
  • Slowly bring hands back and hold the right hand at wrist by the left hand.
  • Slowly bend the trunk forward until the forehead touched the ground or nearly touches the ground.
General Benefits
  • This Yoga asana is very useful for focusing our mind on a particular object.
  • Separates the individual vertebrae from each other, thus allowing the spinal column more flexible.
Physiological Benefits
  • Yogasana activates the kidneys, liver, pancreas and adrenal glands.
  • It is useful for a good flow of fresh blood to the spinal nerves and muscles.
  • It increases the functions of the circulatory and respiratory systems.
  • The entire nervous system are toned up.
Therapeutic Benefits
  • This Yogasana is useful for curing obesity.
  • It is a good remedy for constipation.
  • It is a very good asana for pile complaints.
  • It can check and even cure diabetes.

d. Paschimottanasana (Seated Forward Bend)

Paschimottanasana (Seated Forward Bend)

  • Back-Stretching posture
  • Long Sitting Position
  • Slowly bring the hands upwards above the head sideways (without bending elbows).
  • Slowly bring the hands downward on forwarding direction and try to catch the big toes with fingers (if this is not possible try to hold the ankles, as near to the feet as possible).
  • Slowly bend the body forward and try to touch the knees with the forehead (without any strain anywhere in the body.)
General Benefits
  • Paschimottanasana strengthens the hamstring, calf, and back muscles.
  • It gives more flexibility to the vertebral column.
  • It removes excess fat in the abdominal region.
Physiological Benefits
  • It is useful for a good flow of fresh blood to the spinal nerves and muscles.
  • Paschimottanasana activates the kidneys, liver, pancreas, and adrenal glands.
  • It increases the functions of the circulatory and respiratory systems.
Therapeutic Benefits
  • Paschimottanasana is a good remedy for constipation
  • It is a very good asana for the pile complaints.
  • It can check and even cure diabetes.
  • It is useful for curing obesity.

2. Standing Position Asanas

a. Trikonasana (Revolved Triangle Pose)

Trikonasana (Revolved Triangle Pose)

  • Triangular posture
  • Standing position
  • Place the right leg to the right side in such a way that the legs are 3 to 4 feet apart.
  • Slowly raise the arms sideward up to the shoulder level without any bend at the elbows with facing down.
  • Slowly bend sideways towards the right leg and try to touch the right foot or floor as much as possible with the right hand.
  • Keeping the left arm perpendicular to the floor with the palm facing forward. Slowly turn the head and lookup.
  • If you feel stiffness at the neck, keep the head facing forward.
General Benefits
  • Trikonadana reduces the excess fat in the sideways
  • It improves the balancing power in the body
Physiological Benefits
  • Trikonadana regulates the digestive and circulatory systems
  • The spinal nerves are toned up thus it develops the concentration
Therapeutic Benefits
  • It is very useful in curing some of the functional and organic disorders like acidity, arthritis, heart diseases etc.
  • Trikonadana is helpful to reform the vertebral disorders scoliosis.

3. Prone Position Asanas

a. Salabhasana ( Locust Pose)

Salabhasana ( Locust Pose)

  • Locust posture
  • Prone position
  • Slowly raise the head, and place your chin on the floor
  • Gently raise the thighs and place the hands below the thighs with palms touching the floor.
  • Slowly raise both legs one or two feet above the ground level.
  • Maintain the pose for a few seconds without any oscillation.
  • In the final position try to relax the whole body as much as possible.
General Benefits
  • Salabhasana will strengthen the back and abdomen muscles
  • Salabhasana gives more flexibility to lower vertebrae in the spinal column
  • It develops the balancing power in the body.
  • It helps to make the maximum range of movements in all directions in the hip joint.
Physiological Benefits
  • Salabhasana brings a large supply of blood to the kidneys, heart, and lungs.
  • It activates the functions of liver and pancreas
  • It regulates the respiratory process.
  • It activates the functions of the digestive and excretory system, particularly the large and small intestine.
Therapeutic Benefits
  • Salabhasana relieves the low back pain to a great extent
  • It plays a vital role in curing impotency
  • It is a good remedial asana for indigestion problem.
  • It is useful in curing constipation
  • It is a very good asana for arthritis disorder

b. Bhujangasana ( Cobra Pose)

Bhujangasana ( Cobra Pose)

  • Cobra posture
  • Prone position
  • Slowly bring the arms sidewards nearer to the chest and place the palms on the floor with fingers pointing towards the head.
  • Slowly raise and make an arch backward on the head, neck, and shoulder as much as possible.
  • Slowly raise the chest as mush a possible in such a way that the lower abdomen should be in touch with the ground.
General Benefits
  • Bhujangasana strengthens the neck and back muscles.
  • It will enlarge the thoracic cavity.
  • It will give more flexibility to the vertebral column.
  • It will develop concentration and memory power.
Physiological Benefits
  • It regulates the free flow of the breathing process.
  • Bhujangasana activates the functions of the thyroid gland.
  • It allows the flow of more blood to the thoracic region.
Therapeutic Benefits
  • Bhujangasana stimulates the digestion.
  • It is a very good asana for neck pain
  • It relocates the slipped discus
  • It is a good remedy for paralysis and rheumatism.
  • It helps to reform the vertebral disorder of kyphosis

c. Dhanurasana (Bow Pose)

Dhanurasana (Bow Pose)

  • Bow posture
  • Prone position
  • Gently fold the right leg at knee and hold ankle with right hand
  • Slowly the left leg at the knee and hold the ankle with the left hand
  • Raise the head, chest and thighs as high as possible by gradual application of force on the hands and legs
  • Raise the body and make a perfect back arch on the vertebral column as much as possible.
General Benefits
  • Dhanurasana lessens the spinal column
  • It develops the balancing power in the body
  • It will strengthen the back and abdomen muscles
Physiological Benefits
  • Dhanurasana stimulates the endocrine glands
  • It brings a large supply of blood to the kidneys, heart and lungs
  • Particularly it activates the function of liver, kidney and pancreas
Therapeutic Benefits
  • Dhanurasana is useful for women suffering from irregular periods.
  • It is a very good asana for curing many disorders like asthma, diabetic, constipation, sexual debility etc.,

4. Supine Position Asanas

a. Sarvangasana (Shoulder Stand)

Sarvangasana (Shoulder Stand)

  • Shoulders stand posture
  • Supine Position
  • Raise the legs slowly upto 90 degree, and hold them in the position for a few seconds.
  • While raising maintain the legs straight and together.
  • Raise the trunk slowly the support of the hands with the palms placed at the centre of the back.
  • Hold the body at an angle of 90 degree with head, shoulder and upper arm alone on the ground.
  • Maintain the same body position.
  • Keep the total body perpendicular to the ground.
General Benefits
  • Sarvangasana develops memory and concentration power.
  • It gives more flexibility to the spinal column.
  • It reduces the excess fat in the stomach region.
Physiological Benefits
  • Sarvagasana particularly stimulates the thyroid gland.
  • It increases the more amount of blood flow to the head region.
  • It has a beneficial effect on the endocrine and digestive system.
  • It activates the functions of the pituitary gland, which is the master gland that controls all the ductless glands functions.
Therapeutic Benefits
  • Sarvangasana relieves headaches, asthma, etc.
  • It regulates the nervous debility
  • It is a very good asana to relieve impotency and throat ailments.
  • It is a good remedy for menstrual disorders, varicose veins and obesity.

b. Halasana (Plough Pose)

Halasana (Plough Pose)

  • Plough Posture
  • Supine Position
  • Raise the legs slowly upto 90-degree and hold them in the position for a few seconds.
  • Raising the legs straight and together.
  • Gently lower the legs behind the head until the toes are touching the ground.
  • Extend the feet a little further behind the head with toes pointing outward.
General Benefits
  • Halasana is extremely beneficial to the spinal column
  • It reduces the excess fat at the stomach region.
  • It develops the memory and concentration power.
Physiological Benefits
  • It regulates the functions of the circulatory and respiratory systems.
  • It increases the more amount of blood flow to the head region.
  • It activates the functions of pituitary gland, which is the master gland that controls all the ductless glands functions.
Therapeutic Benefits
  • Halasana relieves backache, low back pain, and rheumatism,
  • It is a good remedy for menstrual disorders and obesity.
  • It regulates the nervous debility

Exercise is the key to sound health. It is the activity of exerting our muscles in various ways to keep fit.

Importance Of Physical Exercise In Our Daily Life

9 Benefits of Physical Exercise

  1. Exercise provides an adequate quantity of oxygen and enables different organs of the human body to function properly.
  2. Muscles can also be kept in tone.
  3. Exercise helps in the proper functioning of the organs in the human body. It also makes them strong.
  4. Toxic products are eliminated from the bloodstream.
  5. Exercise promotes the circulation of blood to all parts of the body.
  6. Exercise brings joy to a man.
  7. Exercise develops muscular systems in the body.
  8. Exercise peps up metabolism.
  9. Exercise stimulates the nervous system.

What Are The Different Types Of Exercise?

There are two major types of exercises that are

  1. Aerobic
  2. Anaerobic

1) Aerobic Exercise

  • The literal meaning of aerobics is oxygen. Hence, aerobic exercise can be defined as one which involves the use of oxygen to produce energy.
  • Aerobic activities are rhythmical exercises having large muscle groups involvement continuously in a sequential manner.

Some Aerobic Exercises Are:

  • Jogging,
  • Cycling,
  • Hiking or playing tennis,
  • Brisk walking,
  • Running,
  • Focus on increasing cardiovascular endurance
  • Skating and swimming

2) Anaerobic Exercises

Anaerobic exercises make the body provide energy without using oxygen.

Anaerobic exercises include high-intensity workouts such as

  • Jumping,
  • Weight lifting,
  • Sprinting,
  • Short-term muscle strengthening exercises.

Difference Between Aerobic And Anaerobic Exercises

Some Major Differences Between Aerobic And Anaerobic Exercises are:

S. No.

Aerobic Exercises

Anaerobic Exercises


It involves only simple exercises.

It needs more strenuous exercise.


Energy is provided by carbohydrates and fats.

Energy is provided by the Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) and the creation of Phosphate.


  • It concentrates on strengthening and the muscles involved in respiration.
  • It improves the circulation of blood and transportation of oxygen in the body,
  • Reduces blood pressure and burns fat.
  • It helps build strength and muscles, mass, stronger bones and increases speed, power muscle strength, and the metabolic rate as well;
  • It concentrates on burning the calories when the body is at rest.


Activities need more endurance.

Activities need more strength and speed.


It involves a moderate-intensity workout.

It involves high intense workout.


Activities performed for a longer duration.

Activities performed for a short duration.


Activities performed for more than two minutes to an hour.

Activities performed from some seconds to two minutes.


Oxygen is used to break down glucose.

Oxygen makes use of phosphocreatine which is stored in the muscles.

Difference Between Yoga Asana And Physical Exercise

Sr. no.

Yoga Asana (Yogic Exercises)

Physical Exercises


Flexibility of the bones, especially the spinal cord is made possible by the asana.

Flexibility of the spine or bones is not the purpose as far as exercises are concerned.


There is a minimum expenditure of energy and does not give fatigue and bring about a feeling of freshness.

A lot of energy is consumed in performing these exercises and they give fatigue and sometimes it may give bodily discomfort


The inner vital organs are benefited rather than muscular development.

These bring in muscular development.


Despite the static nature, yoga helps to develop cardiovascular efficiency.

Physical exercise also develop cardio-vascular efficiency but the vigorous nature of these may not be suitable for practice by different individuals


There is no spirit of competition.

These involve encouragement to the spirit of competition.


These are essential in individualism.

These involve group practice.


Practice like asana and pranayama release tensions in the body and bring control over autonomic functions and lead to peace of mind.

The muscle system gets affected, muscle tension is reduced. An emotional balance should be restored due to the release of tension.


In advanced age, other vigorous activities are not possible yoga becomes very ideal. Yoga can be followed throughout life.

In advanced age, vigorous exercises cannot be done and hence not possible to follow Continue physical exercise.


Development of basic fitness factors required by the common man is provided by yoga.

Physical fitness such as strength, speed, stamina, skill, stability, and flexibility are improved.


This makes a man introspective.

They make a man an extrovert.

Muscular System Of Human Body

What Are Muscles?

The muscles come after bones in the human body. The body’s activity is because of muscles. The bones are covered by muscles and bones are active with the help of muscles.

  • The muscles are covered with skin.
  • It clarifies that muscles are in between bones and skin.
  • Generally, muscles are not visible as they are covered by skin.
  • Those who take exercises their body is strong their muscles are seen from outside.
  • Every muscle has a group. From where it starts that is called the origin.

The Muscles Are Of Two Kinds

  1. Voluntary Muscles
  2. Involuntary Muscles

1. Voluntary Muscles:

  1. They work as we want.
    • They are controlled by the brain.
  2. Their cells are just like fibres.
    • They are called muscles fibres many muscle fibres are tied with other fibres.
  3. They look like lines.
    • Therefore, some call them line muscles.
    • Muscles of hands and feet are in this category.
  4. They help in laughing, talking, sleeping, and walking activities.

Involuntary Muscles:

  • These muscles are not under the control of man’s wishes.
  • They work on their own according to the needs of the body.
  • They don’t have lines upon them as voluntary muscles have.
  • Almost all internal parts of the body like the heart, food pipe, and kidneys abdomen circulatory veins have these involuntary muscles.

What Are The Effects Of Exercise On The Muscular System?

  1. The size of muscle fibres increases.
  2. Amount of connective tissue increases.
  3. Level of activity of concentration of enzymes and amount of glycogen store increases.
  4. Blood supply in the muscles increases.
  5. Amount of Protein increases.
  6. Capillary density per fibre increases.
  7. Total and relative body fat decreases.
  8. ATP-PC and Glycolytic capacity increases.
  9. Fat free-weight (muscle mass) increases.
  10. Myoglobin content increases.
  11. Oxidation of carbohydrates and fats increases
  12. Number of Mitochondria (Powerhouse of the cell) increases.
  13. Flexibility increases.

What Are The Three Aims Of First Aid?

Meaning of First Aid

First aid is the immediate treatment given to the victim of the accident or sudden illness before medical help is obtained.

First aid is based on scientific medicine and surgery.

  • It is skilled assistance but the first aid need not be a doctor.
  • After the doctor takes charge the first aiders responsibility ends.
  • He can then stand by to help the doctor.

The first aider should observe carefully think clearly and acts quickly.

  • He should be calm, cool, and confident.
  • He should not get excited.
  • He should ask someone to call a doctor/inform hospital immediately by giving details about the victim.
  • While waiting for the doctor he should give first aid methodically.

Aims And Objectives Of First Aid

First aid has 3 main aims

  1. To preserve life
  2. To promote recovery and
  3. To prevent worsening of the causality’s conditions until the victim receives the services of a doctor or arrangement transportation to the hospital.

Scope Of First Aid

The scope of first aid includes:



The First aider should examine the causality to know the details of injuries and their nature.



The diagnosis will give him an idea of the treatment to be given until the doctor takes charge.



The next step is to send the causality to his house or to be hospitalized as the case may be in a suitable atmosphere.

1. Diagnosis

  • Diagnosis of a case based on its history signals and symptoms.
    • History of the case is the study of the accident namely how the accident actually occurred.
    • The causality will give history.
    • If he is unconscious someone who saw the accident will help.
    • The surroundings will add to the information like an abandoned scooter or a broken pillar near the place and its condition.
    • Symptoms are what the causality tells the first aider like pain, shivering, etc.
    • Pain described by the causality will lead the first aider to the region of injury without waste of time.
  • Signs are what the first aider feels and finds out for himself like paleness, swelling of parts, injured bleeding, deformity of the limbs, etc.
  • The training the first aider has undergone will help him make these observations correctly.

2. Treatment

  • In treating the causality, the first aiders training will come into use.
  • The first aider should read his book again and again otherwise he may forget the principles of first aid treatment.

The main ideas are if the cause of the accident is still there remove it.

  • e.g., live electric wire pillars or logs on the body, etc. Or remove the causality from the danger
  • e.g., a burning house a room with poisonous gases, etc.

The Following Conditions Require The First Aiders Prompt Attention To

Continue the treatment until the doctor takes charge.

3. Disposal

  • The earlier the doctor takes charge the greater the chances of recovery.
  • First, take the casually to the nearest shelter.
  • The best of course is to the hospital or else it can be his house of the nearest clinic.
  • The quickest means of transport should be made use of.
  • A carefully worded message to the relatives as to his condition and also to what place he is being taken must be sent someone in the crowd will generally help in this.
    • It is of course the duty of the police and they are most reliable.

Qualities Of First Aider

The following are the qualities that a trained first aider should possess

  1. Prompt And Quick
  2. Resourceful
  3. Wise And Intelligent
  4. Dexterous And Clever
  5. Faith And Perseverance
  6. Calm And Controlled
  7. Skillful And Tactful
  8. Sweet Tempered And Sympathetic

1. Prompt And Quick

  • As soon as an accident or injury takes place the first aider should be prompt and quick to render help to the victim without delay.

2. Resourceful

  • He should be resourceful enough to make available his first aid material at once or get the required things on the spot for giving immediate relief to the victim.

3. Wise And Intelligent

  • He should be intelligent and wise enough to decide what immediate treatment is essential even before a complete diagnosis especially in case of serious injuries and severe bleeding.

4. Dexterous And Clever

  • He should be clever enough to handle the patient without giving unnecessary pain and use the applications efficiency.

5. Faith And Perseverance

    • He should have full faith in himself and in the success of his efforts.
    • He should continue his efforts even if he was to handle all serious and non-serious situations until proper medical aid is received.

6. Calm And Controlled

  • He should be a calm and controlled sort of man because he has to take immediate action without any fuss or panic.

7. Skillful And Tactful

  • He should be skillful and tactful to know the symptoms and history of the case without wasting the time.
  • He must also be skillful to secure the confidence of the injured.
  • If there is any crowd around the victim, he should be tactful to control it.
  • If needed he should get the assistance of one or more by standard to the best advantage of the injured.

8. Sweet Tempered And Sympathetic

  • The First Aider should use sweet and encouraging words to lessen the victim’s distress.
  • He should keep the victim as comfortable as possible.
  • With sympathy, he should be able to calm the victim’s fears.

Principles Of First Aid

The Following Are The Basic Principles Of First Aid.

  1. The bleeding should be stopped immediately irrespective of other injuries.
  2. Keep the patient warm by wrapping him in clothes, rugs or blankets, and sheets as the cause may be.
  3. Make immediate proper arrangements to transport the patient to a hospital or to a qualified doctor are the vicinity.
    • It should however be remembered that the first aider need not be a doctor.
    • So, he should never take upon himself the duties and responsibilities of a doctor.
    • His responsibilities are over as soon as proper medical aid is available.
  4. Remove the clothes of the patient only when essential.
    • Such removal of clothes must not cause pain or discomfort to the patient.
    • He should very softly study the ankle and then undo the laces of shoes and cut off the socks if needed.
  5. Remove the cause of injury or the patient from the cause as early as possible.
    • He should then render such help that may prevent further injury.
  6. The wound should be covered at once with a clean dressing.
    • In case of a fracture, the injured limb should be supported and placed in a natural position as far as possible with splints and bandages.
  7. Offer warm milk or tea if the patient is in senses, he may be given a cup of warm milk or tea.
  8. Full knowledge of anatomy is essential for giving first aid.
    • The first aider must have complete knowledge of anatomy and physiology.
    • It will enable him to render proper first aid to the injured.
  9. The injured should be given as much rest as possible and his body should be kept in a restful position.
  10. In case of fracture, the broken part should be saved from movement till proper medical aid is available.

Do not assume the role of a doctor. The first aider should remember that he is not a doctor So he should never take upon himself the duties and responsibilities of a doctor.

What Are The Basic Contents Of A First Aid Box?

The first aid box should contain the following equipment and medicines to enable the first aider to render effective timely appropriate aid.

  1. Clean Cotton Wool
  2. Bandages
  3. Needle
  4. Safety Pin
  5. Measuring Tape
  6. Tweezers
  7. Thermometer
  8. Scissors
  9. Adhesive Dressings
  10. Spoon
  11. Camel Hair Brush
  12. Pads Of Various Sizes
  13. Tourniquet
  14. Graduated Glass

First Aid Treatment For Dislocation

Dislocation is the displacement of the ends of two bones at their joint so that the joint surfaces are not in proper contact.

  • Generally, the knee, elbow, shoulder, and lower jaw get dislocated.

Causes Of Dislocation

  1. A forcible extension at a joint causes dislocation.
  2. A sudden fall may also cause dislocation.


  1. Dislocation of bone causes severe pain.
  2. The affected part loses its power of functioning.
  3. The part is deformed.
  4. The affected part gets swollen.
  5. The part becomes motionless.
  6. Sometimes tearing of muscles and tendons occurs.

First Aid Treatment

  1. This part should be tightened with a cold water-soaked bandage.
  2. If the Coldwater-soaked bandage does not relieve the pain, the affected part should be fomented.
  3. If even the fomentation does not prove of any use in reliving the pain a doctor should be consulted.

First Aid Treatment For Fainting


  1. The patient becomes pale.
  2. Respiration becomes weak.
  3. The patient may become unconscious.
  4. Skin becomes cool.
  5. There will be sweating of the forehead.
  6. Pulse becomes weak.

First Aid Treatment Of Fainting

  1. Lay down the patient on the floor and keep his feet raised so that more blood may enter the head.
  2. Give fresh air by open doors and windows do not let other children crowd around him.
  3. Take the child to a cool place.
  4. Keep hands and feet of the fainted child warm.
  5. Give smelling salt.
  6. Stop bleeding if any.
  7. Do not give any stimulants.

First Aid Treatment For Snake Bite

  1. Call the doctor at once.
  2. Recognize the kind of snake that has bitten.
  3. If the snake is poisonous make every effort to avoid from position entering into the body.
    • For example, if the snake has bitten in the leg or arm, stop the flow of blood by means of a tourniquet.
    • The tourniquet should be between the wound and the heart.
  4. Take a rubber pipe or an extensible lace or handkerchief and prepare the tourniquets.
  5. Keep this at its place for 20 minutes and then loosen it and again fasten it strongly.
  6. Do this till the doctor arrives.
  7. Apply potassium Permanganate on the wound.
  8. Make a wound of ¾ inches deep in the spot of bite with a sharp knife or blade and rub the particles of potassium permanganate.
  9. Give strong coffee tea or hot milk if the patient can swallow it.
  10. Give him courage so that he may not fear the snake bite.

First Aid For Rabies Dog Bite

  1. Call for the doctor.
  2. Wash the wound with water and soap.
  3. Apply carbolic acid with a match stick at every place of bite inside and outside the wound.
  4. Burn the wound with a hot iron or a knitting needle.
  5. Apply potassium permanganates, silver Nitrate, or strong Nitric Acid.
  6. Get all information about the bite and the dog.
  7. Find out whether the dog has bitten of its own accord or when it was troubled.
  8. If the dog belongs to some person ask him to keep it tied so that it may be inspected by the doctor.
  9. Get anti rabbis’ treatment with Anti Rabies vaccine (ARV)

First Aid Treatment For Electric Shock


  • Do not allow persons to crowd around the victim.
  • Lay him down on a blanket in a cool place.
  • If he becomes unconscious place his head between his knees.
  • Raise the feet to loosen the light clothing around the neck in the loins and at the chest.
  • Put cold water drop by drop in his mouth.
  • Call for the doctor at once.
  • Try to keep the patient vigilant.
  • Protect him from anxiety and provide encouragement and comfort.
  • Give artificial respiration if needed.
  • Treat the burns.

Precautionary Measures

  1. As electric shocks take place in houses generally, hence the parents should be properly trained.
  2. They should stop the flow of electric current by switching off the main.
  3. If it is not possible put on dry rubber gloves, coat, or cloth and then with the help of a bent stick or dry rope remove the child caught by electricity.
  4. Remove the plug or break the electricity.
  5. Remove the plug or break the electric wire by drawing it out.
  6. Do not cut it with a knife.

First Aid For Respiratory Distress (Breathing Difficulties)

Respiratory arrest is a condition where the lungs stop contracting efficiently resulting in the cessation of breathing, thus oxygen is not delivered to the rest of the body.

  • In some cases, symptoms of respiratory distress are apparent.
  • Clinically, it may appear that the patient is unable to ventilate and/ or oxygenate.

Respiratory distress is the most common breathing emergency.

Respiratory distress is often associated with physical illnesses including

  1. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and
  2. Infant respiratory distress syndrome.

Causes of Respiratory Distress:

  • Airway obstruction
  • Choking
  • Electrocution
  • Pulmonary contusions
  • Flail chest
  • Allergic reactions
  • Emotional distress
  • Pneumothorax, whether open or closed
  • Tension pneumothorax
  • Asthma
  • Diaphragmatic hernia
  • Drowning


  • Increased breathing rate signifying an individual is having breathing troubles or not getting adequate oxygen.
  • Cyanosis (bluish) around the mouth, inside of the lips, or on the fingernails, which may also appear pale or Gray at times.
  • Grunting sound upon exhalation.
  • Nasal flaring indicates laboured breathing.
  • Wheezing sounds denote tighter air passages.
  • Chest retractions appear to sink in below the neck and/ or under the breastbone for every respiration.
  • Increased sweating on the head.
  • Cool or clammy skin.

First Aid Treatment:

  • Call for emergency medical assistance immediately.
  • Check for the casualty’s pulse, airway, and breathing.
  • To check for a pulse, place two fingers on the groove of the neck.
  • To check for any airway obstruction, place two fingers on the forehead and two fingers on the chin and slightly tilt the head.
  • To check for breathing, place your own cheek in between the nose and mouth of the casualty and feel for breathing on the cheek. Watch for rising and fall of the chest. Do this for 5-10 seconds.
  • If there is no breathing, give mouth-to-mouth breathing.
  • With the airway open, pinch the nostrils and seal the victim’s mouth with its own mouth.
  • Give two rescue breaths.
  • Perform CPR if necessary.
  • Do not leave the victims of respiratory distress alone until professional help arrives.

First Aid Treatment For Unconsciousness

Unconsciousness is when a person suddenly becomes unable to respond to stimuli and appears to be asleep. A person may be unconscious for a few seconds (fainting) or for longer periods of time.

  • People who become unconscious don’t respond to loud sounds or shaking.
  • They may even stop breathing or their pulse may become faint.
  • This calls for immediate emergency attention.
  • The sooner the person receives emergency first aid, the better their outlook will be.

Causes of Unconsciousness:

Unconsciousness can be brought on by a major illness or injury, or complications from drug use or alcohol abuse.

a) Common Causes Include:

  • A car accident
  • A drug overdoses
  • Severe blood loss
  • A blow to the chest or head
  • Alcohol poisoning

A person may become temporarily unconscious (faint) when sudden changes occur within the body.

b) Common Causes Of Temporary Unconsciousness Include:

    • Low blood sugar
    • Dehydration
    • Problems with the heart’s rhythm
    • Low blood pressure
    • Straining
    • Syncope (loss of consciousness due to lack of blood flow to the brain)
  • Neurologic syncope (loss of consciousness caused by a seizure, stroke, or transient ischemic attack)

First Aid Treatment Of Unconsciousness

  1. Check whether the person is breathing.
  2. If not go for immediate help.
  3. If he is breathing, position the person on their back.
  4. Raise the person’s legs at least 12 inches above the ground.
  5. Loosen any restrictive clothing or belts.
  6. Check the person’s airway to make sure there’s no obstruction.
  7. Check again to see if the person is breathing, coughing, or moving.
  8. These are signs of positive circulation.

First Aid Treatment Of Heat Stroke

Heatstroke is the most serious form of heat injury and is considered a medical emergency. Heatstroke can kill or cause damage to the brain and other internal organs.

  • Although heat stroke mainly affects people over age 50, it also takes a toll on healthy young athletes.
  • Heatstroke results from prolonged exposure to high temperatures usually in combination with dehydration which leads to failure of the body's temperature control system.

The medical definition of heatstroke is a core body temperature greater than 105 degrees Fahrenheit, with complications involving the central nervous system that occur after exposure to high temperatures. Other common symptoms include nausea, seizures, confusion, disorientation, and sometimes loss of consciousness or coma.


  1. Rapid Heartbeat, Which May Be Either Strong Or Weak
  2. Rapid, Shallow Breathing
  3. Unconsciousness
  4. Red, Hot, And Dry Skin
  5. Muscle Weakness Or Cramps
  6. Dizziness And Light-Headedness
  7. Lack Of Sweating Despite The Heat
  8. Nausea And Vomiting
  9. Seizures
  10. Behavioural Changes Such As Confusion, Disorientation, Or Staggering
  11. Throbbing Headache

First Aid Treatment For Heat Stroke:

  1. The initial treatment of patients with heat exhaustion involves stabilization in a cool area.
  2. Patients who are significantly dehydrated, who are hyponatremic, or who have mental status changes or central nervous system irritability should be transferred to an appropriate medical facility.
  3. Oral rehydration solutions containing sodium may be used in the field to treat most cases of mild dehydration.
  4. It is essential that physicians recognize the signs of hyponatremic heat exhaustion and avoid administering hypotonic fluids (as regards sweat).
  5. Repletion of sodium with normal saline should be performed gradually.
  6. Symptoms of heat exhaustion often resolve within 2 to 3 hours.
  7. Slower recovery should initiate a transfer to a medical facility and a careful search for missed diagnoses.

Topics Covered:

  • First Aid Treatment For Fracture
  • Different Types Of Fractures
  • Signs And Symptoms Of Fracture
  • First Aid Treatment Of Fractures

First Aid Treatment For Fracture

Fractures are the commonest injuries involving the bones. A fracture is a break in the normal continuity of a bone.

Different Types Of Fractures

There are several types of fractures but they are generally classified as

Simple Or Closed Fracture

  • A Simple Fracture Is A Clean Break In The Bone Without The Ends Puncturing Through The Skin.

Compound Or Open Fracture

  • A Compound Fracture Is One In Which The Broken Ends Of Bones Are Fragmented Or Shattered Into Many Pieces.
  • This May Be Simple Or Compound.

Communicated Fracture

  • A Bone Is Broken Into Several Pieces

Impacted Fracture

  • The Broken Ends Of The Bones Are Driven Into One Another And It Is Called As Impacted Fracture.

Greenstick Fracture

  • A Greenstick Fracture Occurs Mostly In Young Children.
  • The Bone May Be Cracked And Bent Without Breaking Completely Across.

Depressed Fracture

  • In A Depressed Fracture, The Upper Parts Or Sides Of The Skull Or Broken Part Of The Bone Is Driven Inwards.

Spiral Fracture

  • It Results When A Bone Is Broken By Twisting Force.

Multiple Fracture

  • Multiple Fracture Means A Bone Is Broken In More Than One Place.

Signs And Symptoms Of Fracture

  1. Pain at or near the seat of fracture
  2. Deformity of the limb
  3. Irregularity of the bone
  4. Swelling around the seat of fracture
  5. Limitation of normal movement
  6. Unnatural movement at the seat of the fracture
  7. Crepitus (body grating) may be heard or felt

First Aid Treatment Of Fractures

  1. Immobilize the injured part to prevent further damage.
  2. Use the uninjured part of the patient’s body as a splint.
  3. Place thick padding using sterile cotton, folded towels, scarves, socks and to fill spaces between two parts of the body.
  4. Bandages and signs should not be tight that they cut off the blood circulation.
  5. Avoid having a bandage directly over a fractured part.
  6. Hospitalize the injured individual.

First Aid Treatment For Burns

First Aid Treatment For Burns are:

  1. Remove the brunt clothes carefully.
  2. Do not remove clothes from above the vesicles formed due to burns.
  3. Don’t disturb vesicles.
  4. Cover the burnt part of the body with a clean cloth.
  5. Keep the patient warm with a blanket.
  6. Use splints and slings to support the burnt part of the body.
  7. Treat the shock.
  8. Call the doctor for help.

First Aid For Bleeding From Nose

Bleeding from the nose is caused by heat or injury to the nose.

The following points should be kept in mind while giving first aid for bleeding nose.

  1. Seat the child in front of an open window and bend his head backward with his hand raised up.
  2. Loosen the tight clothing around the neck and chest.
  3. Ask the child not to breathe through the nose but through the mouth.
  4. Place the feet in warm water.
  5. Apply a cold compress over the neck.
  6. Do not allow the child to sneeze.

What Is The Meaning Of Communicable Disease?

What Is Communicable Disease?

In ancient times, people were not sufficiently aware of diseases. Hippocrates the father of medicine was the first physician of Greece, who described the symptoms of diseases in detail.

After a long gap, Robert Koch a German scientist studied the various causes of diseases and concluded that diseases spread through germs.

Since then, medical scientists are engaged in research work but we are still often attacked by new diseases.

  • The environment in which we live has a vital influence on us in spite of many scientific achievements.
  • We live in a highly competitive world where the struggle for survival is acute.
  • Our internal environment is persistently under the influence of external forces of nature.

Diseases that can be passed or transmitted from one person to another are called- infectious or contagious diseases.

  • Infectious disease is “disease of man resulting from an infection”.
  • A contagious disease is “one that is transmitted through direct contact”.

A disease of infectious nature can be transmitted from one person to another or from a reservoir to a susceptible host, directly (or) indirectly is called a communicable disease.

The infectious agents maybe

  • Virus,
  • Bacteria,
  • Protozoa,
  • Fungi,
  • Rickets Etc.

This disease may be directly or indirectly transmitted from

  • Man to Man,
  • Animal to Animal,
  • From the environment like through air, dust, soil water, food, insects, etc. to man and to animal.

Some Communicable Diseases Are

Air Borne Diseases
Water & Food Borne Diseases
Through Direct Contact
Through Insects

Symptoms And Prevention Of Whooping Cough

Whooping cough is a highly infectious disease of young children which causes inflammation of the respiratory tract with severe attacks of cough. It is airborne in nature.

Symptoms And Signs

  1. Onset is sudden cold and, in the beginning, simple mild cough with fever.
  2. Severe running of nose and sneezing.
  3. Later severe bouts of coughing and will become more severe at late night ending in deep inspiration during which the characteristic whoop occurs.
  4. Face turns red and eyes bulge with tears and ends with vomiting.
  5. Lungs severely affected.

Treatment And Prevention

  1. Keep the child in a warm and ventilated room.
  2. Keep the infected child in a separate room.
  3. Discharges from the nose and throat should be disposed of immediately and disinfection should be done.
  4. Give light food to the infected.
  5. In early-stage itself, the child needs to be immunized against whooping cough with DPT vaccine at 2nd, 3rd, 4th months, 11/2, and 5 years.
  6. As a treatment, erythromycin may be injected in consultation with a physician to reduce the severity of the infection.

Smallpox Signs And Symptoms And Treatment

Smallpox is known as a serious infectious disease. Even grown-up people also come under the grip of this infection.

  • This infection is caused by Typical Viruses.
  • However, the spread of infection is also caused by droplets and scabs floating in the air.

Sign And Symptoms of Smallpox

  1. There is chill and headache in the beginning.
  2. Sometimes face becomes red.
  3. Severe pain in the back and limbs of the body.
  4. After 3 or 4 days, eruptions appear on the forehead. Then they spread throughout the body and become watery blisters, diminishing, eruption becomes dry and at last crust starts falling.
  5. Itching feeling is also there is an eruption.
  6. Fever remains high for 8-9 days.


  1. The stomach should be clean.
  2. Give light easily digestible food
  3. Use soap water enemas as a purgative.
  4. Used greasy substance for removing scabs.
  5. When the temperature goes above, place a cold compress or ice bad over the head.
  6. Use boric lotion for reducing pain in the eyes.


  1. A child suffering from this disease should be segregated from others.
  2. Patient should be kept in a clean place.
  3. No medicine should be given except proper nursing.
  4. Child should be got vaccinated against smallpox.
  5. Patient should not be given salt.

Typhoid Symptoms And Treatment

Typhoid is an acute infectious disease that affects the gastrointestinal tract. In countries where sanitation is poor and sub-standard, typhoid and paratyphoid may occur.


  1. It is caused by Salmonella typhi.
  2. Contamination of drinking water by way of sewage and food by way of flies are the main reasons for the spread of this disease.
  3. It affects almost all age categories.
  4. The incubation period is 10-15 days.
  5. It spreads through fecal-oral route.

Signs and Symptoms of Typhoid

  1. The onset of sudden fever of moderate to a high degree with rigors and chills.
  2. Fever rises in step ladder fashion.
  3. Malaise with headache and pain in the limbs.
  4. Small rose-colored spots will be seen in the middle part of the body and these spots fade away later.
  5. Tongue will be centrally coated.
  6. Constipation and retention of urine will occur because the germs attack the intestine and cause ulcers.
  7. Low pulse.
  8. Diarrhea occurs.
  9. If the patient has a relapse of typhoid, the same symptoms reappear.

Prevention and Treatment of Typhoid

  1. Active immunization by vaccines and injecting other children with anti-typhoid injections.
  2. Early detection and notification, to the health authority.
  3. Isolation of the infected.
  4. Boiled water and ensures safe water for drinking and administering light liquid food.
  5. Proper disinfection of urine and stools is necessary and even burning after disinfection all excreta will be the right choice.
  6. Specific drugs on consultation with a physician such as ciprofloxacin, chloromycetin should be administered.
  7. Complete bed rest is recommended for the infected persons.

Cholera Symptoms And Treatment

Cholera is an acute gastrointestinal infection.

  • It is an epidemic as a well endemic disease.
  • The disease is caused by a germ called ‘Vibrio cholera’.


  1. It spreads through contaminated
  2. Drinking water,
  3. By files,
  4. Insects and improper storage.
  5. It also spreads from infected patients to others.
  6. It affects all age groups. The incubation period is generally ranging from a few hours to 5 days.

Signs and Symptoms of Cholera

  1. It starts with diarrhea and the watery stools and vomiting leading to dehydration.
  2. Too much thirst is felt
  3. Urine output is suppressed
  4. Pain in the muscles of hands and feet is observed and it causes muscle cramps.
  5. Fluid and electrolyte imbalance may occur
  6. Fatal death occurs if left uncared.

Prevention and Treatment of Cholera

  1. Strict personal hygiene.
  2. Boil water and safe water for drinking.
  3. Early detection may be made by testing stools and immediately it should be reported to the health authority.
  4. Disinfection of clothing is recommended.
  5. Disinfect surroundings with DDT and make it fly free.
  6. Cholera vaccination
  7. Adequate compensation of electrolytes and water by intravenous fluids and CRS solutions should be undertaken.
  8. Provide antibiotics such as Tetracycline, and Fuazolidone in consultation with the physician.

Diarrhea Symptoms, Causes And Treatment

People suffer from this disease mostly in the summer and rainy seasons.

  • It is spread by flies.
  • If it is allowed to continue it may take the shape of dysentery.

Causes of Diarrhea

  1. It is caused due to the spread of bacteria by flies.
  2. It may be caused due to taking infected
      • food,
      • water, and other drinks.
  3. It is caused by the presence of bacteria in unripe food.

Symptoms of Diarrhea

  • There is frequent movement of bowels.

Prevention And Treatment

  1. Food should be protected from flies.
  2. A person suffering from the disease should take only very light food.
  3. Water should be disinfected before it is used.
  4. During the rainy or summer season light diet should be taken.

Malaria Symptoms, Causes And Treatment

Malaria is a common disease found in most of the tropical regions of the world.

  • It is a protozoan disease transmitted by the bite of Anopheles mosquitoes.

Causes of Transmission Of Malaria

It is the most important parasitic disease of human beings. The mode of transmission is by two means.

1. Mosquito Transmission (Asexual) :

  • An infected female anopheles mosquito may infect several persons.
  • The mosquito is not infective unless the sporozoites are present in its salivary.

2. Human Transmission (Asexual) :

It may be transmitted directly by injections of infected blood or plasma. Eg.
  • Blood transfusion,
  • Drug addicts use the same syringe.

Symptoms and Stages of Malaria

There are 3 stages in the infection process:

1. Cold Stage:

Sudden onset of fever with rigors and chills and sensation of extreme cold & shivering which lasts about 15 minutes to one hour.

2. Hot Stage:

  • Temperature rises up with an intense headache and the patient feels burning hot and casts off his clothes.
  • This stage lasts for 2-6 hours.

3. Sweating Stage:

  • Fever decreases with profuse sweating.
  • This is stage lasts for 2-4 hours.

In some cases, nausea, vomiting, and delirium are common. Mild anemia and a palpable spleen are also observed.

Prevention and Treatment of Malaria

  1. Protection against mosquito by using
    • Repellents,
    • Protective clothing,
    • Bed nets and screening.
  2. To control human reservoirs, mass drug administration should be undertaken in highly endemic areas.
  3. Management of environmental sanitation, water, and drainage will reduce the source of infection.
  4. Control of adult infected mosquito/larvae-intermittent drying water containers and using larvicides to kill the mosquito larva sides.
  5. Spraying of insecticides will also control the mosquito.
  6. Keep the patient warm during the shivering stage.
    • Rub him down with a towel, sponge with weak vinegar, and change his clothes when he has perspired.
    • Even after perspiration, if the temperature stays high, sponge the patient with cold water or apply cold packs.
    • If he feels a headache, keep a cold wet cloth on the forehead.
  7. Give a very light diet and during the attacks, only provide liquids diets.
  8. Give enough water to drink.
  9. Treat with quinine or another drug on the doctor’s advice.

Causes Of Lifestyle Diseases And Preventive Measures

What Do You Mean By Lifestyle Disorders?

A particular lifestyle of a person is a cumulative product of his/her physical capacity to coordinate with psychological functioning, displayed in the form of habits, behavior, dietary and living pattern based on his own training sought from childhood, and mimicries he gained from his immediate companions including parents, siblings, peers, etc.

Thus, it involves a purely psychological and innate control over physical and sensory activities. When this initiation, control, and coordination are disturbed, it leads to the derangement of lifestyle and results in any lifestyle disorder.

Improper removal of the waste products formed during metabolism leading to accumulation of toxins is the basic cause of a disease.

  • Therefore, the habit of suppression of urge in improper lifestyle can be considered as one of the root causes of lifestyle diseases.
  • These preventable chronic diseases are the outcome of our unhealthy choices.
  • Identifying the causes of lifestyle diseases is critical because the elimination of the causes is the obvious and only way to achieve healing and enhanced health.
  • Physical activity improves cardiovascular fitness, strength, and flexibility, and burns up calories to keep fit and trim.
  • This improves the individual’s looking, feeling, and thinking better.

What Are The Causes Of Lifestyle Diseases?

  1. Malnutrition
  2. Dehydration
  3. Fatigue
  4. Inflammation
  5. Poor Physical Fitness


  • The lack of living foods in our diet along with the overconsumption of dead foods causes chronic diseases.


  • Dehydration of the muscles and tendons is a primary cause of muscle fatigue, strain, tendonitis, and other disorders of the musculoskeletal system.


  • Lack of sleep is associated with numerous serious medical illnesses including:
    • High Blood Pressure,
    • Stroke,
    • Heart Disease,
    • Obesity, And
    • Mental Impairment.


  • Inflammation is a primary cause of most lifestyle-related disorders, including heart disease and musculoskeletal disorders.

Poor Physical Fitness:

  • It’s widely recognized that there’s a direct correlation between poor levels of physical fitness and increased risk of chronic diseases.

7 Tips To Prevent Lifestyle Diseases

  1. Regular health screening.
  2. Use less salt in your meals; instead, spice up your food with herbs and spices.
  3. The right choice of food.
  4. Cutting down your sugar intake to avoid unnecessary calorie intake that could lead to weight gain.
  5. Limiting intake of high-fat foods to maintain healthy body weight and heart.
  6. Avoid alcohol intake.
  7. Proper rest and relaxation.

Cardiovascular Disease Causes And Prevention

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

  • Cardiovascular disease includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as Angina and Myocardial (commonly known as a heart attack).
  • Other CVDs are
    1. Stroke,
    2. Aortic aneurysms,
    3. Rheumatic heart disease,
    4. Cardiomyopathy,
    5. Hypertensive heart disease,
    6. Atrial fibrillation,
    7. Congenital heart disease,
    8. Endocarditis,
    9. Peripheral artery disease and
    10. Venous thrombosis.

Causes Of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD):

There are several risk factors for heart diseases (cardiovascular diseases). They are

  • Age,
  • Gender,
  • Excessive alcohol consumption,
  • Unhealthy diet,
  • Tobacco use,
  • Physical inactivity,
  • obesity,
  • Raised blood cholesterol,
  • Psychosocial factors,
  • Family history of cardiovascular disease,
  • Raised blood pressure (hypertension),
  • Raised blood sugar (diabetes mellitus),
  • Poverty and low educational status, and
  • air pollution.

While the individual contribution of each risk factor varies between different communities or ethnic groups, the overall contribution of these risk factors is very consistent.

Some of these risk factors, such as age, gender, or family history, are immutable; however, many important cardiovascular risk factors are modifiable by
  1. Lifestyle change,
  2. Social change,
  3. Drug treatment and prevention of hypertension,
  4. Hyperlipidemia, and
  5. Diabetes.
Age is very much related to serum cholesterol levels.
  1. The serum total cholesterol level increases as age increases.
  2. In men, this increases levels off around age 45 to 50 years.
  3. In women, the increase continues sharply until age 60 to 65 years.
  4. The risk of stroke doubles every decade after age 55.
  5. Men are at greater risk of heart disease than pre-menopausal women.
Once past menopause, it has been argued that a woman's risk is similar to men.
  1. If a female has diabetes, she is more likely to develop heart disease than a male with diabetes.
  2. It is also found that gender differences explain nearly half the risk associated with cardiovascular diseases.
  3. One of the proposed explanations for gender differences in cardiovascular diseases is hormonal difference.
  4. Among women, estrogen is the predominant sex hormone. Estrogen may have protective effects through glucose metabolism and hemostatic system and may have a direct effect on improving endothelial cell function.
  5. The production of estrogen decreases after menopause and this may change the female lipid metabolism.
Another main cause is physical inactivity.
  1. Insufficient physical activity is currently the leading risk factor for mortality worldwide.
  2. In addition, physical activity
    • Assists weight loss and improves blood glucose,
    • Control blood pressure, lipid profile, and insulin sensitivity.
  3. High dietary intakes of saturated fat, trans fats, and salt and low intake of fruits, vegetables, and fish are linked to cardiovascular risk.
  4. The amount of dietary salt consumed is also an important determinant of blood pressure levels and overall cardiovascular risk.
  5. Frequent consumption of high-energy foods, such as processed foods that are high in fats and sugars, promotes obesity and may increase cardiovascular risk.

Cardiovascular Disease Prevention And Control

  1. A low-fat, high-fiber diet including whole grains and fruit and vegetables.
    • Five portions a day reduce risk by about 25%.
  2. Tobacco cessation and avoidance of second-hand smoke.
  3. Increase daily activity to 30 minutes of vigorous exercise per day at least five times per week.
  4. Reduce sugar consumptions.
  5. Avoid alcohol consumption.
  6. Lower blood pressures, if elevated.
  7. Decrease psychosocial stress.
  8. Decrease non-HDL cholesterol.
  9. Decrease body fat if overweight or obese.
Topics Covered:
  • Meaning Of Cancer
  • 6 Characteristics Of Cancer Cells
  • Causes Of Cancer
  • Signs And Symptoms Of Cancer
  • Five Types Of Cancer
    • Carcinoma
    • Leukemia
    • Lymphoma
    • Sarcoma
    • Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors
  • Preventive Measures For Cancer

Cancer Types, Symptoms Causes And Prevention


Cancer is also known as a malignant tumor or a malignant neoplasm is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

6 Characteristics Of Cancer Cells

The characteristics of cancer cells are:

  1. Cell growth and division without the proper signals to do so.
  2. A limitless number of cell divisions.
  3. Promoting blood vessel construction.
  4. Continuous growth and division even when there are signals telling them to stop.
  5. Avoidance of programmed cell death.
  6. Invasion of tissue and formation of metastases.

What Are The Causes Of Cancer?

Most cancers are related to

  • Environmental,
  • Lifestyle, or
  • Behavioral exposures.

The term "environmental", as used by cancer researchers, refers to everything outside the body that interacts with humans. In this sense, the environment is not limited to the biophysical environment (e.g. exposure to factors such as air pollution or sunlight, encountered outdoors or indoors, at home or in the workplace), but also includes lifestyle, economic and behavioral factors.

  • Common environmental factors that contribute to cancer death include tobacco.
  • It is nearly impossible to prove what caused cancer in any individual because most cancers have multiple possible causes.
    • For example, if a person who uses tobacco heavily develops lung cancer, then it was probably caused by the tobacco use, but since everyone has a small chance of developing lung cancer as a result of air pollution or radiation, then there is a small chance that cancer developed because of air pollution or radiation.
  • Cancer is generally not contagious in humans, though it can be caused by oncoviruses and bacteria.

It should be noted that aging has been repeatedly and consistently regarded as an important aspect to consider when evaluating the risk factors for the development of particular cancers; aging is considered a risk factor and this is explained by the observation that many molecular and cellular changes are involved in the development of cancer, so it is very likely that these changes accumulate during the aging process.

    • Cancers are potentially avoidable by reducing key risk factors, of which much the significant is tobacco use, which is the cause for more cancer deaths.
  • Another important reason is
    • obesity,
    • a poor diet,
    • lack of physical activity, and
    • drinking alcohol.
  • Other factors are
    • Infections,
    • Exposure to ionizing radiation, and
    • Environmental pollutants.

In the developing world, nearly 20% of cancers are due to infections such as

  • Hepatitis B,
  • Hepatitis C, and
  • Human papilloma virus.

These factors act, at least partly, by changing the genes of a cell.

  • Typically, many such genetic changes are required before cancer develops.
  • Approximately 5–10% of cancers are due to genetic defects inherited from a person's parents.

Signs And Symptoms Of Cancer

Not all tumors are cancerous. Possible signs and symptoms of cancer include:

  • A new lump,
  • Abnormal bleeding,
  • Unexplained weight loss, and
  • A prolonged cough,
  • A change in bowel movements among others.

While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may also occur due to other issues. There are over 100 different known cancers that affect humans.

What Are The Five Types Of Cancer?

There are more than 100 types of cancer. Types of cancer are usually named for the organs or tissues where the cancers form.

For example,

  • Lung cancer starts in cells of the lung, and
  • Brain cancer starts in cells of the brain.

Cancers also may be described by the type of cell that formed them, such as an

  1. Epithelial Cell Or
  2. Squamous Cell.

The Five Types of Cancer Are:

    • Carcinomas are the most common type of cancer.
    • They are formed by epithelial cells, which are the cells that cover the inside and outside surfaces of the body.
  • Cancers that begin in the blood-forming tissue of the bone marrow are called leukemia.
  • These cancers do not form solid tumors.
    • Instead, large numbers of abnormal white blood cells (leukemia cells and leukemic blast cells) build up in the blood and bone marrow, crowding out normal blood cells.
  • The low level of normal blood cells can make it harder for the body to get oxygen to its tissues, control bleeding, or fight infections.
  • Lymphoma is cancer that begins in lymphocytes (T cells or B cells).
  • These are disease-fighting white blood cells that are part of the immune system.
  • In lymphoma, abnormal lymphocytes build up in lymph nodes and lymph vessels, as well as in other organs of the body.

Sarcomas are cancers that form in bone and soft tissues, including

  • Muscle,
  • Blood vessels,
  • Fat,
  • Lymph vessels, and
  • Fibrous tissue.
Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors:
There are different types of brain and spinal cord tumors.
  • These tumors are named based on the type of cell in which they formed and where the tumor first formed in the central nervous system.
  • For example, an astrocytic tumor begins in star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes, which help keep nerve cells healthy.
  • Brain tumors can be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer).

Preventive Measures For Cancer

  1. Avoid tobacco
  2. Limit Processed Meats:
    • A report from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the cancer agency of the World Health Organization, concluded that eating large amounts of processed meat can slightly increase the risk of certain types of cancer.
  3. Healthy Diet:
    • Plenty of fruits and vegetables and other foods from plant sources, whole grains, and beans.
  4. Avoid Obesity:
    • Eating lighter and leaner by choosing fewer high-calorie foods, including refined sugars and fat from animal sources.
  5. Maintaining a healthy weight and being physically active
    • It lowers the risk of various types of cancer, including cancer of the
      • Breast,
      • Prostate,
      • Lung,
      • Colon and kidney.
Topics Covered:
  • What Is HIV/AIDS?
  • Signs & Symptoms Of HIV AIDS
  • How Can We Prevent HIV AIDS?

HIV/AIDS Symptoms And Treatment


AIDS is a serious disorder of the immune system.

  • AIDS was first recognized in the USA in 1981.
  • The first confirmed evidence of AIDS infection in India came in April 1986.
  • AIDS stands Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome


  • Means acquired from outside.


  • Refers to body immune system (defense mechanism of the human body).


  • Indicates the weakening of the immune system.


  • Refers to the presence of signs and symptoms.

Sexual contact is the major mode of transmission of HIV worldwide.

    • The virus can be transmitted by infected blood or blood products, both in individuals who share contaminated needles and those who receive transfusions of blood or blood products.
    • An infected mother transmits the virus to the infants.
  • The incubation period for adults is approximately 8-10 years, whereas children under 5 years of age generally develop symptoms within 2 years.

HIV/AIDS the Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (sometimes called “slim disease”) is a newly described, usually fatal illness caused by a retrovirus of the lent virus group known as the Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV) which breaks down the body’s immune system, leaving the victim vulnerable to subsequent development of persistent constitutional symptoms or diseases such as Secondary infections, Neoplasm and, Neurological disorders.

AIDS can be called our modern pandemic, affecting both industrialized and developing countries.

Signs & Symptoms Of HIV AIDS

  1. Majority experience no recognizable signs or symptoms, but some develop
    • Acute illness showing-fevers,
    • Abdominal cramps,
    • Diarrhea,
    • Rigors,
    • Arthritis,
    • Aseptic meningitis etc.
  2. Diarrhea persists for more than one month.
  3. Fever persists for more than one month.
  4. Weight loss of greater than 10% of baseline.
  5. General itching dermatitis.
  6. Persistent cough for a period longer than one month.
  7. Recurrent Herpes Zoster.
  8. Oropharagyal candidiasis-fungal infection in mouth and throat.
  9. Swelling in lymph glands-Lymphadenopathy.

How Can We Prevent HIV AIDS?

  1. Prevention of sexual transmission is an immediate priority education, counseling, and behavior modification in sexual contact and – safe sex assumes importance.
  2. Prevent blood-borne transmission of HIV by using disposable syringes, properly boiled needles.
  3. Avoid sharing of injection, equipment and follow a reduction in drug usage.
  4. Counseling and contraceptive service should be made available to HIV-infected persons.
  5. Screening of blood and blood products for HIV antibodies through testing of blood samples, sometimes blood screening will be a failure during the window period of an infected HIV patient and universal precautions while handling blood and body fluids.
  6. To avoid transplacental or prenatal transmission of HIV, HIV-infected women should avoid pregnancy.

What Do You Mean By Reproductive Health?

Reproductive health is defined as

A state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters related to the reproductive system and to its functions and process.

Reproductive health is defined as a state of physical, mental, and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system, at all stages of life.

  • Good reproductive health implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life, have the capability to reproduce, and have the freedom to decide if, when, and how often to do so.
  • Men and women should be informed about and have access to safe, effective, affordable, and acceptable methods of family planning of their choice, and the right to appropriate healthcare services that enable women to safely go through pregnancy and childbirth.

Depression Symptoms And Prevention

Sign And Symptoms Of Depression

  1. Depressed mood.
  2. Lack of interest or concern about what's going on around you.
  3. Feelings of agitation.
  4. Lack of energy.
  5. Marked loss of interest or pleasure in activities that used to give you pleasure.
  6. Significant weight loss or gain.
  7. Insomnia or difficulty sleeping (usually waking up in the early morning rather than having difficulty falling asleep) or sleeping too much.
  8. Inability to concentrate or make decisions.
  9. Feelings of worthlessness and/or guilt.

Prevention And Treatment For Depression.

  1. Built a strong social support network.
  2. Make yourself physically fit.
  3. Cultivate the habit of meditation.
  4. Have a deep sleep for 6 to 8 hours.
  5. Nurture your body, mind, and spirit in a positive and enjoyable way.

What Are Unintentional Injuries?

Unintentional injuries are harmful acts that occurred without any intention of causing damage to oneself or others.

What Causes Unintentional Injuries?

  1. A large proportion of unintentional injuries occur in or around the home and many of these injuries occur as a result of falls, like down the stairs or when someone uses a ladder to fix something.
  2. For people aged 65 or older, unintentional falls are the number one cause of unintentional injury death.
  3. Those in the age group of 25-64 should be wary of unintentional poisonings with substances at home like chemicals, drugs, and so on.
  4. Children and young adults aged 5-24 who die as a result of an unintentional injury mainly do so because of problems sustained from motor vehicle-related accidents.
  5. And children below the age of five are most at risk for unintentional death via suffocation and drowning, hence the need to watch the kids near the tub and pool.
  6. Motor vehicle crashes, unintentional poisonings, suffocation, drowning, accidental firearm discharges, and burns fall under unintentional injuries.

What are Intentional Injuries?

Intentional injuries are injuries resulting from purposeful harmful actions upon oneself or others.

Causes Of Intentional Injuries

Violence is a term that describes the exercise of force to harm oneself or another person. It's similarly a very unfortunate fact that the majority of these intentional injury deaths occur not at the hands of others, but when a person commits suicide.

The three major contributing factors to suicide deaths are

  1. Firearms,
  2. Suffocation, and
  3. Poisoning

Effects Of Intentional Injuries

Injuries are responsible for

  • Countless lost lives,
  • Decreased quality of life, and
  • Substantial health care costs.

While injuries affect everyone, low-income populations are particularly vulnerable.

5 Preventive Measures For Intentional And Unintentional Injuries

Ways To Prevent Intentional And Unintentional Injuries

  1. Get your vision checked at least annually by an eye doctor.
  2. Make your home safer by
    • Reducing tripping hazards,
    • Installing handrails and
    • Grab bars and improve lighting.
  3. Consult with a health professional about getting a fall risk assessment.
  4. Begin a regular exercise program to increase the
    • Balance,
    • Strength, and
  5. Have all medications, prescriptions, and over-the-counter reviewed periodically for drug interactions that could lead to falls.

Topics Covered:

  • Meaning Of Diabetes
  • Two Main Types Of Diabetes
  • Complications Of Diabetes
  • Main Causes Of Diabetes

What Are The Main Causes Of Diabetes?

What Do You Mean By Diabetes?

Diabetes is a complex group of diseases with a variety of causes. People with diabetes have high blood glucose, also called high blood sugar or hyperglycemia.

  • Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism- the way the body uses digested food for energy.
  • The digestive tract breaks down carbohydrates, sugars, and starches found in many foods into glucose, a form of sugar that enters the bloodstream.
  • With the help of the hormone insulin, cells throughout the body absorb glucose and use it for energy.

Diabetes develops when the body doesn’t make enough insulin or is not able to use insulin effectively, or both.

  • Insulin is made in the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach.
  • The pancreas contains clusters of cells called islets.
  • Beta cells within the islets make insulin and release it into the blood.
  • If beta cells don’t produce enough insulin, or the body doesn’t respond to the insulin that is present, glucose builds up in the blood instead of being absorbed by cells in the body, leading to prediabetes or diabetes.

Two Main Types Of Diabetes

The two main types of diabetes are

  • Type 1 Diabetes
  • Type 2 Diabetes
  • A third type, gestational diabetes, develops only during pregnancy.

Complications Of Diabetes

Over time, high blood glucose damages nerves and blood vessels, leading to complications such as

  • Heart disease,
  • Stroke,
  • Kidney disease,
  • Blindness,
  • Dental disease, and amputations.

Other complications of diabetes may include

  • Increased susceptibility to other diseases,
  • Depression,
  • Pregnancy problems,
  • Loss of mobility with aging

No one is certain about the causes of diabetes, but scientists believe genes and environmental factors interact to cause diabetes in most cases.

Main Causes Of Diabetes

  • Diabetes is caused by a lack of insulin due to the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.
  • In type 1 diabetes the body’s immune system attacks and destroys the beta cells.
    • Normally, the immune system protects the body from infection by identifying and destroying bacteria, viruses, and other potentially harmful foreign substances.
    • The immune system attacks the body’s own cells.
  • In type 1 diabetes, beta-cell destruction may take place over several years, but symptoms of the disease usually develop over a short period of time.
  • Type 1 diabetes typically occurs in children and young adults, though it can appear at any age.
  • In the past, type 1 diabetes was called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) may be a slowly developing kind of type 1 diabetes. Diagnosis usually occurs after age 30.

  • In LADA, as in type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system destroys the beta cells.
  • At the time of diagnosis, people with LADA may still produce their own insulin, but eventually, most will need insulin shots or an insulin pump to control blood glucose levels.

Other types of diabetes are caused by

  • Defects in specific genes,
  • Diseases of the pancreas,
  • Certain drugs or chemicals,
  • Infections, and other conditions.

Some people show signs of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes Due To Obesity And Physical Inactivity

Physical inactivity and obesity are strongly associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. People who are genetically susceptible to type 2 diabetes are more vulnerable when these risk factors are present.

  • An imbalance between caloric intake and physical activity can lead to obesity, which causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes.
  • Central obesity, in which a person has excess abdominal fat, is a major risk factor not only for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes but also for heart and blood vessel disease, also called cardiovascular disease (CVD).
  • This excess “belly fat” produces hormones and other substances that can cause harmful, chronic effects in the body such as damage to blood vessels.

Preventive Measures For Diabetes Due To Obesity And Physical Inactivity

  1. Get more physical activity.
  2. Skip the sugary drinks, and choose water, coffee, or tea instead.
  3. Get plenty of fibre.
  4. Choose whole grains and whole-grain products over highly processed carbohydrates.
  5. Choose good fats instead of bad fats.
  6. Avoid alcohol.
  7. Limit red meat and avoid processed meat; choose nuts, whole grains, poultry, or fish instead.
  8. Avoid smoking.
Topics Covered:
  • Back Pain
  • Causes Of Back Pain
  • Sign And Symptoms of Back Pain
  • Types Of Back Pain And Causes
  • Prevention And Treatment

Back Pain: Meaning, Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

The back is a complex structure made up of

  • 33 vertebrae,
  • Over 30 muscles,
  • Numerous ligaments,
  • Multiple joints, and intervertebral discs.

What Are The Causes Of Back Pain

Pain felt in the low or upper back. Causes of pain in the low and upper back include

  1. Conditions affecting the bony spine,
  2. Spinal inflammation,
  3. Chest, and abdomen,
  4. Spinal cord and nerves,
  5. Muscles,
  6. Discs between the vertebrae,
  7. Ligaments around the spine and discs,
  8. Internal organs of the pelvis,
  9. Tumors, and the skin.

Sign And Symptoms of Back Pain

  1. The large nerve roots in the low back that go to the legs may be irritated.
  2. The bones, ligaments, or joints may be damaged.
  3. The smaller nerves that supply the low back may be irritated.
  4. The large paired lower back muscles (erector spinae) may be strained.
  5. An intervertebral disc may be degenerating.

Types Of Back Pain And Causes

  1. Muscular Strains
  2. Spinal Stenosis
  3. Ligamentous Sprains
  4. Fibromyalgia
  5. Osteoporosis

1. Muscular Strains:

  • The most common cause of back pain is due to muscular strains.
  • This happens when an unexpected force, twist, or pull is applied to one or several of the muscles in the back.
  • As a result, several tears occur in the muscle.
  • These muscular tears cause pain felt in the back.

2. Spinal Stenosis:

  • It occurs more commonly in people over 50 years old.
  • The term refers to a narrowing of the spinal canal.
  • Spinal stenosis has many causes including thickened ligaments along the spinal canal, bony spurs, and enlarged joint cartilage from arthritic changes.

3. Ligamentous Sprains:

  • This occurs when the ligaments of the back are stretched beyond their means.

4. Fibromyalgia:

  • It is a rheumatic condition characterized by
    • Widespread soft tissue pain,
    • Fatigue,
    • Sleep disturbance, and
    • The presence of evenly distributed areas of tenderness.
  • A history of at least 3 months of widespread pain and tenderness in 11 or more of the 18 designated tender point sites is required in diagnosing this disorder.

5. Osteoporosis:

  • This occurs especially in women.
  • It is a disease characterized by progressive loss of bone density.
  • This results in thinning of bone tissue making one more susceptible to fractures, or broken bones.
  • The bones of the spine are especially affected by this disorder.
  • Injury from falls, lifting of heavy objects, or even the force of sneezing can result in painful vertebral compression fractures.

Prevention And Treatment

  1. Never hold an item higher than your armpit or lower than your knees.
  2. Don't pivot, twist, or turn while lifting.
  3. Bend your knees and keep your back straight.
    • Don't bend at your waist.
  4. Point your feet at the item you're lifting and face it as you pick it up.
  5. Change direction with your feet, not your waist.
  6. Keep the object close to you.
    • The farther away you hold it from your body, the more it stresses your back.
  7. Don't move something that weighs more than 20% of your body weight.

7 Types Of Pollution

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that causes adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, or light.

  • Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution.
  • The point sources are easy to identify, monitor and control, whereas the non-point sources are hard to control.

What Are The 7 Types Of Pollution?

The 7 Types Of Pollution Are:

  1. Water Pollution
  2. Air Pollution
  3. Soil Pollution
  4. Radioactive Pollution
  5. Noise Pollution
  6. Light Pollution
  7. Thermal Or Heat Pollution

1. Water Pollution:

Water Pollution has taken a toll on all the surviving species of the earth. Almost 60% of the species live in water bodies.

It occurs due to several factors:
  • The industrial wastes dumped into the rivers and other water bodies cause an imbalance in the water leading to its severe contamination and death of aquatic species.
  • Eutrophication is another big source of water pollution. It occurs due to daily activities like Washing clothes, Utensils near lakes, ponds, or rivers.
    • This forces detergents to go into water which blocks sunlight from penetrating, thus reducing oxygen and making it inhabitable.
  • Also spraying insecticides, pesticides like DDT on plants pollutes the groundwater system and oil spills in the oceans have caused irreparable damage to the water bodies.

Water pollution not only harms aquatic beings but also contaminates the entire food chain by severely affecting humans dependent on these. Water-borne diseases like cholera, diarrhea has also increased in all places.

2. Air Pollution:

Air pollution is the most prominent and dangerous form of pollution.

It occurs due to many reasons.
  • Excessive burning of fuel which is a necessity of our daily lives for cooking, driving, and other industrial activities, releases a huge number of chemical substances in the air every day, these pollute the air.
  • Release of Sulphur dioxide and hazardous gases into the air causes global warming and acid rain which in turn have increased temperatures, erratic rains, and droughts worldwide making it tough for the animals to survive.
  • Smoke from chimneys, factories, vehicles, or burning of wood, coal burning, releases Sulphur dioxide into the air making it toxic.

Breathing this polluted particle from the air result in an increase in asthma and cancer in the lungs.

3. Soil Pollution:

Soil Pollution occurs due to the incorporation of unwanted chemicals in the soil due to human activities.

  • The use of insecticides and pesticides absorbs the nitrogen compounds from the soil making it unfit for plants to derive nutrition from.
  • Since plants can’t grow properly, they can’t hold the soil and this leads to soil erosion.
  • Release of industrial waste, mining, and deforestation also exploits the soil.

4. Radioactive Pollution:

Radioactive pollution is highly dangerous when it occurs. It can occur due to

  • Nuclear plant malfunctions,
  • Improper nuclear waste disposal,
  • Accidents, etc.
It causes
  • Cancer,
  • Blindness, and defects at the time of birth;
  • Infertility,
  • Can sterilize soil and affect air and water.

5. Noise Pollution:

  • Continuous noise that is loud enough to be annoying or physically harmful is known as noise pollution.
  • Noise pollution is caused when noise which is an unpleasant sound affects our ears and leads to psychological problems like
    • Stress,
    • Hypertension,
    • Hearing impairment, etc.
  • It is caused by machines in industries, loud music, etc.

6. Light Pollution:

Light from cities and towns at night that interferes with astronomical observations is known as light pollution.

  • It can also disturb natural rhythms of growth in plants and other organisms.
  • Light pollution occurs due to prominent excess illumination of an area.
  • In residential areas, the lives of the inhabitants are greatly affected by this.
  • It also affects astronomical observations and activities by making the stars almost invisible.
  • It is largely visible in big cities, on advertising boards and billboards, in sports or entertainment events at the night.

7. Thermal Or Heat Pollution:

Heat from hot water that is discharged from a factory into a river or lake, where it can kill or endanger aquatic life, is known as thermal pollution.

  • Thermal pollution is due to the excess heat in the environment creating unwanted changes over a long time period.
  • It is due to the huge number of industrial plants, deforestation, and air pollution.
  • It increases the earth’s temperature, causing drastic climatic changes and the extinction of wildlife.

Harmful Effects Of Pollution

Some of the harmful effects of Pollution are:

  1. Harmful Effects On Human Health
  2. Environment Degradation
  3. Ozone Layer Depletion
  4. Global Warming
  5. Infertile Land

1) Harmful Effects On Human Health:

  • Water pollution occurs due to contamination of water and may pose skin-related problems including skin irritations and rashes.
  • The decrease in quality of air leads to several respiratory problems including asthma or lung cancer.
  • Chest pain, congestion, throat inflammation, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease are some of the diseases that can be caused by air pollution.
  • Similarly, Noise pollution leads to
    • Hearing loss,
    • Stress and
    • Sleep disturbance.

2) Environment Degradation: 

  • Environment is the first casualty for an increase in pollution whether in air or water.
  • The increase in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere leads to smog which can restrict sunlight from reaching the earth.
    • This prevents plants from the process of photosynthesis.
  • Water pollution in terms of the Oil spill may lead to the death of several wildlife species.
  • Gases like Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide can cause acid rain.

3) Ozone Layer Depletion:

  • Ozone layer is the thin shield high up in the sky that stops ultraviolet rays from reaching the earth.
  • As a result of human activities, chemicals, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), were released into the atmosphere which contributed to the depletion of the ozone layer.

4) Global Warming:

  • The emission of greenhouse gases particularly CO2 is leading to global warming.
  • Every other day new industries are being set up, new vehicles come on roads, and trees are cut to make way for new homes.
  • The increase in CO2 leads to the melting of polar ice caps which increases the sea level and pose danger for the people living near coastal areas.

5) Infertile Land:

  • Due to the constant use of insecticides and pesticides, the soil may become infertile.
  • Plants may not be able to grow properly.
  • Various forms of chemicals produced from industrial waste are released into the flowing water which also affects the quality of the soil.

Preventive Measures Of Pollution

Preventive Measures Of Water Pollution:

  • Recycling: various products should be recycled instead of dumping them into rivers, e.g.,
    • Biogas can be made from city waste.
  • Adequate sewage: Adequate sewage and industrial waste treatment in sewage treatment plants before dumping them into river bodies.

Preventive Measures Of Air Pollution:

  • Using smokeless sources of energy like smokeless stoves which use biogas, solar energy, etc.
  • Locating industries away from residential areas.
  • Strictly checking pollution levels in automobiles’ exhaust emission.
  • Using devices for filtering smoke in chimneys of factories and powerhouses.
  • Planting more trees.

Preventive Measures Of Land Pollution:

  • Proper solid waste disposal like a sanitary landfill.
  • Avoid polythene bags.
  • Using limited amounts of fertilizers and pesticides.


The Health And Physical Education Plays A Vital Role In Shaping The Next Generation Of Scientifically Literate Individuals. By Understanding The Principles And Strategies Discussed In This Blog Post, You Will Be Well-Prepared To Create Meaningful And Impactful Health Physical And Yoga Education Learning Experiences For Your Students.


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