Constituents Of Food

What Is Meant By A Food Constituents? | Explain In Detail 6 Essential Constituents Of Our Food – Protein, Minerals, Carbohydrates, Fat, Vitamin, Water - www.pupilstutor.com

Constituents Of Food

The following are the 6 main constituents of food.

1. Protein

The most essential element in our food is protein. This is a mixture of

  • Carbon,
  • Hydrogen,
  • Nitrogen,
  • Oxygen,
  • Sulphur and phosphorus.

The amount of nitrogen in protein is about 1/6 part.

Uses Of Protein

  1. Produce heat in the body.
  2. Builds up tissues in the body.
  3. Serves as a source of fat in the body when it is in excess.
  4. Repair the worn-out tissues of the body.
  5. It increases hemoglobin.
  6. It is helpful in the development of mental faculty.
  7. It is helpful in the growth of energy and working ability.

The Deficiency Of Proteins Causes The Following Harms:

  • It increases the ability to intake oxygen.
  • Body development is hindered.
  • Children suffer from rickets.
  • Swelling occurs in the legs and stomach.

Sources

Vegetable’s proteins:

Beans

Soybeans

Cashew nut

Barely

Wheat

Arhar

Groundnut

Gram

Sesamum

Bitter Gourd

Cabbage Etc.


Animal protein:

The first-grade protein is found in

  • Milk,
  • Egg,
  • Cheese,
  • Meat,
  • Fish etc.

2. Minerals

Minerals are much needed for the body. The food we eat contains different types of minerals.

  • Most minerals are found in fresh fruit and green vegetables. Their amount decreases in cooking.

Uses

  • They enhance digestive power.
  • They make up the deficiency of fibres.
  • They maintain the balance of acid chemicals.
  • They assist in the normal growth of the body.
  • They are important for the constitution and health of the body.

The chief minerals are:

a. Calcium:

It is called lime in common dialect.

Sources:

It is found insufficient amount in

Milk

Cheese

Egg

Green vegetables

Reddish

Pomegranate

Orange

Carrot

Lemon

Fresh fruit and guava

Small fish and nuts


Uses

  1. It controls the heart rate.
  2. It strengthens the bones.
  3. It constructs teeth and keeps the muscles active in order to keep them strong.
  4. It begets energy to the blood.
  5. It protects from asthma and skin diseases

b. Iron:

It is a very essential element for a healthy body. It produces hemoglobin.

Sources:

It is found in

Egg

Spinach

Green Vegetables

Green Dhania

Banana

Dates

Mustard

Sesame

Wheat

Pulses

Apple

Neem

Pudina

Dry Beans

Guava

Sago

Cashew

Nut

Turnip


Uses

  1. It protects the skin.
  2. It protects new blood.
  3. It enhances appetite.
  4. It saves from breath lessens.
  5. It is useful for girls during adolescence.
  6. It is essential for pregnant women.
  7. It does way fatigue and lethargy.

c. Iodine

Iodine is helpful in the development of thyroid glands.

  • Iodine deficiency causes thyroid ailments and the thyroid gland swells.

Sources:

It is found insufficient amount in

Garlic

Onion

Tomato

Spinach

Apple

Banana

Seawater

Sea

Fish

Sea Salt

Coastal Vegetables Etc.


d. Potassium:

It is generally found in all types of food articles.

Sources:

It is found in

  • Pulses
  • Green vegetables
  • Lemon
  • Dried plum
  • Pear etc.

Uses

  1. It strengthens the liver and heart.
  2. It makes tissues flexible
  3. It heals wounds sooner.
  4. It removes constipation.

The deficiency of potassium causes the following harms

  1. It causes fickleness.
  2. The heart rate becomes slower.
  3. It causes less sleep.
  4. The heart muscles become weaker.

e. Phosphorus:

  • It is very helpful in the growth of bones, teeth, and hair.
  • Its deficiency stops physical growth.
  • It helps the nervous system healthfully.

Sources:

It is got from

Milk

Curd

Cheese

Egg

Fish

Liver

Meat

Apple

Spinach

Wheat

Green Vegetables

Black Pepper


f. Sodium:

This is helpful in preventing kidney and stomach ailments.

Sources:

It is found in

Sea Salt

Carrot

Reddish

Salt

Milk

Pulses

Egg

Meat

Green Vegetables

Coconut

Turnip etc.


g. Copper:

  • It provides hemoglobin to the blood.
  • It provides oxygen to red blood cells.

Sources:

It is found in

Pulses

Tomato

Carrot

Cabbage

Dates

Choker (Husk)

Spinach

Dry fruits


h. Magnesium:

  • It protects the body from skin ailments.
  • It keeps all body systems healthy.
  • It also saves from vein-related ailments.

Sources:

  • It is mostly found in wheat, goat milk, and orange.

i. Silicon:

It provides flexibility to fibres and glows to the eyes.

Sources:

  • It is found in tomatoes and spinach.

j. Chlorine:

Chlorine produces digestive juice and it does the task of excreting polluted matters from the body.

k. Sulphur:

  • It is found in all protein matters.
  • It keeps body fibres healthy.
  • It keeps growing nails and hair.
  • Its deficiency causes digestive power.

Sources:

  • It is found in carrots, cabbage, onion, and milk.

l. Common salt

  • It is called by the name sodium chloride too.
  • It makes food tasty and digestive.
  • It excretes extra water from the body and thus makes the body active.
  • It diminishes activity in the body.

Sources:

  • It is found in milk, meat, and vegetables.

3. Carbohydrates

It is also called sugar. It is a mixture of Carbohydrates, carbon with hydrogen, and oxygen.

Uses

  1. Carbohydrates change into glucose by digestion activity and after absorption, they are carried to muscles by the blood where they are used.
  2. After this, it changes into glycogen and stores in the liver and muscles.
  3. When heat or energy is needed glycogen can be used by bringing it back to sugar.
  4. It makes up for the weakness as produced by physical work.
  5. Supply energy to the body quickly.
  6. Produces heat in the body.

The deficiency of carbohydrates causes the following harms;

  1. Activeness of the body decreases.
  2. The skin starts to shrink.
  3. The body becomes weak due to its deficiency.
  4. The individual proceeds towards old age.

A person’s daily diet should contain 300gm of sugar & starch.

Sources

Sugars:

Simple Sugar

Fruit Sugar Or Fructose, Grape Sugar Or Glucose

Complex Sugar

Beet Sugar, Mannose

Cane Sugar

Sucrose

Malt Sugar

Maltose

Milk Sugar

Lactose


Starches:

Cereal

Barley, Maize, Rice, Wheat

Root Vegetables

Arrow Root, Tapioca, Turnip

Stem Vegetables

Colossi, Potato and Yam.


4. Fats

Fats contain fatty acids and glycerin.

  • Like Carbohydrates, fats too are made from 3 elements – the mixture of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. But their proportion varies.

Uses of fat

  1. Supply more energy to the body as compared with other food.
  2. The body looks strong and glowing.
  3. Prevents loss of energy from the body.
  4. The internal bones, joints, and tissues remain safe.

The deficiency of fats causes the following harms:

  1. The weight decreases.
  2. The skin dries up.
  3. The body becomes weak.
  4. It may cause heart ailments.
  5. It may cause a stone.

A normal person needs 100 gm of fats every day.

Sources

Fats may be obtained from 2 sources

  1. From Vegetables –

    • Ground and Nut,
    • Mustard Oil,
    • Coconut Oil Etc.
  2. From Animals –

    • Eggs,
    • Ghee,
    • Butter,
    • Fish,
    • Milk,
    • Meat Etc.

5. Vitamins

  1. Vitamin A
  2. Vitamin B
  3. Vitamin C
  4. Vitamin D
  5. Vitamin E
  6. Vitamin K

a. Vitamin A

(anti-infective vitamin) Vitamin A is soluble in fat.

Sources:

Vitamin A is found in

Fish Liver

Oil

Pudina

Dahlia

Pan

Cholai

Milk

Butter

Egg

Carrot

Sweet Potato

Ripe Tomato

Spinach

Gram

Ripe Mango

Ripe Papaya

Cabbage Etc.


Uses

  1. It is very essential for body growth.
  2. Helps in digestion and increases appetite.
  3. Keeps up general bodily health.
  4. It prevents infectious diseases.
  5. It keeps the eyes healthy.
  6. It is very essential fern children and pregnant women.
  7. It supplies food to the eyes intestines lungs skin and soft fibres.

Deficiency Diseases:

  1. It causes deafness.
  2. It causes eye ailments.
  3. It causes cough and cold.
  4. It causes intestinal ailments.
  5. It stops watering in the nose, ears, mouth and kidney.
  6. It causes a deficiency of blood in the body.
  7. It causes swelling in the body.

2. Vitamin B

Vitamin b is very beneficial to the body.

  • Vitamin B1, B2, and B12 are very important. The mixture of this vitamin is called vitamin B complex.

Vitamin B1 thiamine

Sources:

Beans

Peas

Germinating Seeds

Green Vegetable

Egg Yolk

Rice

Yeast

Wheat

Fish

Meat

Spinach.


Uses
  1. Needed by the nerves, appetite, and digestion.
  2. It is necessary for the communication of sensation and the natural activity of the intestines.
  3. Helps in using up the Carbohydrates stored in the body.
  4. It is essential for the virus-destruction ability of the white blood cells.
  5. It prevents beriberi.
  6. It changes food into energy.
Deficiency
  1. It causes headaches.
  2. It decreases appetite.
  3. It causes pain to the hands, feet, and other body parts.
  4. It causes anxiety and fear.
  5. It causes darkness before the eyes.
  6. It diminishes memory.
  7. It causes vertigo.
  8. It diminishes the desire to work hard and to stimulate tasks.

Vitamin B2 (or Rhib of lavin)

Sources:

It is found in

  • Milk
  • Cheese
  • Yeast
  • Fish
  • Egg White
  • Liver
  • Kidney
  • Meat
  • Green Vegetables Etc.
Uses
  1. It maintains youthfulness.
  2. It assists in maintaining the amount of air balanced in the body.
  3. It protects the body from plague and skin diseases.
  4. It gets destroyed in sunlight.
Its deficiency causes the following effect
  1. The rate of growth of the body becomes slow.
  2. Eyesight becomes weak.
  3. Eyes become red.
  4. It causes a burning sensation to the tongue while eating.
  5. The tongue becomes reddish.

Vitamin B12 (Or niacin)

Sources:

It is found in

  • Milk
  • Grains
  • Leafy vegetables
  • Eggs
  • Liver
  • Kidney and yeast etc.
Uses
  1. It is essential for tissues and fibres and the metabolism and transportation of hydrogen.
  2. Niacin (B12) is needed for enzymes structures and actions.
Its deficiency can cause the following effect
  1. It causes the skin to become wrinkled and thin.
  2. Its deficiency causes an ailment called pellagra.
  3. It causes swelling on the tongue.
  4. It causes headaches and lethargy.
  5. It causes hands and legs to tremble.
  6. It causes swelling in the gums.
  7. It causes loose motions continuously.
  8. It can cause mental insanity.

c. Vitamin C

Sources:

It is found in

Orange

Lemon

Grapes

Apple

Tomato

Potato

Sour Fruits

Green Vegetables

Sprouted Grains Etc


Uses

  1. It heals the wound soon.
  2. It strengths the bones.
  3. It purifies the blood.
  4. It strengthens the teeth and gums of children.
  5. It increases red blood cells.
  6. It kills infectious viruses such as joint pain and cold.

Its deficiency causes the following effect:

  1. It causes swelling of the gums.
  2. It causes weakness in the body.
  3. It causes scurvy.
  4. It causes a deficiency of blood in the body.
  5. It causes tuberculosis.
  6. It causes arthritis.

d. Vitamin D

Sources:

It is got from

  • Direct sunlight,
  • Milk,
  • Butter,
  • Egg,
  • Yellow ghee,
  • Fish,
  • Oil and cream etc.

Uses

  1. It strengthens bones.
  2. It is helpful in constructing bones.
  3. It is essential for pregnant and feeding mothers.
  4. It can be accumulated in body fibres.
  5. It is helpful for strong teeth.

Its deficiency can have the following effect on the body;

  1. It can cause bones to weaken and curve.
  2. It can cause arthritis and rickets.
  3. It can cause pain in the waist and thighs.
  4. Teeth do not erupt at the proper times in children.
  5. It can curve the spine and cause a hump.

e. Vitamin E

(Anti sterility vitamin) Vitamin E is very important for reproduction.

Sources:

It is available in animals as well as in vegetables.

It is found in

Wheat

Carrot

Spinach

Peanut

Milk

Butter

Cabbage

Potato

Seed

Egg

Meat

Green Vegetables Etc.


Uses

  1. It is helpful in body growth.
  2. It increases weight.
  3. It prevents loose motions.
  4. It prevents miscarriage.

Its deficiency can cause the following effect

  1. The females suffer a miscarriage.
  2. The male becomes unable to copulate.
  3. The child in the womb can suffer death.
  4. The females become unable to reproduce.

f. Vitamin K

(Meno-dion or coagulation vitamin) Vitamin K is discovered in 1964.

Sources:

This vitamin is available in

Spinach

Cabbage

Cauliflower

Soybeans

Oil

Tomato

Carrot

Egg Yellow And Orange Peel.


Uses:

  1. It avoids the clotting from blood.
  2. It is needed for normal coagulation of blood.
  3. It is essential for pregnant women.
  4. It is essential for mothers.

Its deficiency can cause harms

  1. The power to coagulate the blood decrease.
  2. Bleeding is severe in case of an injury.
  3. Its deficiency causes the cessation of production of prothrombin.

6. Water

Water is essential for our bodies. Our body constitutes 75% of water and 25% of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals.

Element:

  • Hydrogen (Two Parts) And
  • Oxygen (One Part)

Functions of water

  • It maintains the temperature of the body.
  • It helps to absorb food.
  • Needed for all tissues of the body.
  • Needed for every chemical process.
  • Mixing with blood, it supplies food and oxygen to all fibres of the body.
  • The blood and all juices of the body look liquid due to water.
  • It mixes body toxins into waste urine and sweat and excretes it out of the body.
  • It keeps the body fibres soft and flexible.

Sources:

  • Rain, lakes, tanks, springs, wells, rivers, and the sea are the sources of water.
  • Rainwater is the purest form of water and seawater is the dirtiest form of water.
  • Certain foods like
    • Cucumber,
    • Green leafy vegetables,
    • Milk,
    • Watermelon contains a high percentage of water.
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Explain In Detail 6 Essential Constituents Of Our Food Notes

Constituents Of Food Notes For B.Ed In English Medium

(What Is Meant By A Food Constituents? | Explain In Detail 6 Essential Constituents Of Our Food – Protein, Minerals, Carbohydrates, Fat, Vitamin, Water) Notes And Study Material, PDF, PPT, Assignment For B.Ed 1st and 2nd Year, DELED, M.Ed, CTET, TET, Entrance Exam, All Teaching Exam Test Download Free For Value Education Subject.

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