Malaria Symptoms, Causes And Treatment

How To Know You Have Malaria? - Signs And Symptoms Of Malaria | How Is Malaria Transmitted – Causes, Precautions, Treatment And Prevention Of Malaria - www.pupilstutor.com

Malaria Symptoms, Causes And Treatment

Malaria is a common disease found in most of the tropical regions of the world.

  • It is a protozoan disease transmitted by the bite of Anopheles mosquitoes.

Causes of Transmission Of Malaria

It is the most important parasitic disease of human beings. The mode of transmission is by two means.

1. Mosquito Transmission (Asexual)

  • An infected female anopheles mosquito may infect several persons.
  • The mosquito is not infective unless the sporozoites are present in its salivary.

2. Human Transmission (Asexual)

  • It may be transmitted directly by injections of infected blood or plasma. Eg.

    • Blood transfusion,
    • Drug addicts use the same syringe.

Symptoms and Stages of Malaria

There are 3 stages in the infection process:

1. Cold Stage:

Sudden onset of fever with rigors and chills and sensation of extreme cold & shivering which lasts about 15 minutes to one hour.

2. Hot Stage:

  • Temperature rises up with an intense headache and the patient feels burning hot and casts off his clothes.
  • This stage lasts for 2-6 hours.

3. Sweating Stage:

  • Fever decreases with profuse sweating.
  • This is stage lasts for 2-4 hours.

In some cases, nausea, vomiting, and delirium are common. Mild anemia and a palpable spleen are also observed.

Prevention and Treatment of Malaria

  1. Protection against mosquito by using

    • Repellents,
    • Protective clothing,
    • Bed nets and screening.
  2. To control human reservoirs, mass drug administration should be undertaken in highly endemic areas.
  3. Management of environmental sanitation, water, and drainage will reduce the source of infection.
  4. Control of adult infected mosquito/larvae-intermittent drying water containers and using larvicides to kill the mosquito larva sides.
  5. Spraying of insecticides will also control the mosquito.
  6. Keep the patient warm during the shivering stage.

    • Rub him down with a towel, sponge with weak vinegar, and change his clothes when he has perspired.
    • Even after perspiration, if the temperature stays high, sponge the patient with cold water or apply cold packs.
    • If he feels a headache, keep a cold wet cloth on the forehead.
  7. Give a very light diet and during the attacks, only provide liquids diets.
  8. Give enough water to drink.
  9. Treat with quinine or another drug on the doctor’s advice.
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