What Is The Best Way To Include Peace In The Curriculum? – Methods And Strategies

How Can Peace Education Be Integrated In School Curriculum? | Explain 6 Major Methods And Strategies To Integrate Peace Education In The Curriculum - pupilstutor.com

What Is The Best Way To Include Peace In The Curriculum? – Methods And Strategies

Integrating Peace Education In The Curriculum

One of the most significant components in education is ‘Peace Education’.

Peace education

  • Emphasize the need to sensitize the country’s young minds with the knowledge of common cultural heritage.
  • Helps the learner to grow & develop as complete human beings.
  • Establishes the foundations using which students can build a truly just & humane society.

Major Media Of Integrating Peace Education In The Curriculum

Looking at the modern-day world, integration of peace education in the educational system is just not a need but an emergency.

Peace education could be incorporated in the 6 media:

  1. Subject Context
  2. Subject Perspectives
  3. Curricular And Co-Curricular Activities
  4. Teaching Methods
  5. Staff Development And Classroom
  6. School Management

1. Integrating Peace Education Through Subject Context

Peace education can be included in the classroom simply as a subject in itself.

Moreover, it can be a part of the formal ongoing curricula in a classroom, with peace education concepts being introduced as they seem to fit.

The message of peace education can be easily woven into the topics of the school subjects.

The conceptual framework of every subject should include

  • Spread of peace values &
  • Enduring attitudes in the minds of students.

The subjects such as Science, Mathematics, Social science, Language, Arts & Design can be effectively taught with the integration of peace components.

a. Science

Peace education Topics that can be incorporated into the subject of Science are:

  • Environmental sustainability,
  • Environmental protection,
  • Pollution control,
  • Scientific research ethics,
  • Effects of Nuclear War etc.

b. Mathematics

In mathematics too peace education concepts can be successfully integrated.

Charts, graphs, etc. can be used to show and teach the different statistics and relationships. For example:

  • To show the impact of the cost of defense budgets among the residents of the concerned country.
  • To show a relationship between different countries.
  • To show world problems like hunger, malnutrition, crime rate, etc.

c. Social Science

In social science students can study and analyse, what role peace movements and peacemakers performed for a non-violence past & present.

The social science lecture can discuss topics such as:
  • Role of world agencies like - UN Security Council
  • Right to life & responsibility of not to kill.

d. Language

The combination of peace issues into the syllabus of language can stimulate both teaching and learning, and create space in the classroom that is instructive, interactive, & fun.

Activities (related to peace issues), like
  • Writing,
  • Roleplay,
  • Reading,
  • Listening,
  • Speaking,
  • Negotiation,
  • Debates can enhance student's ability to make peace and do conflict management in their life.

e. Art & Design

Using art and design, students can get more insights and understandings of peace.

  • Students can plan and design their own logo or symbol to promote a culture of peace.
  • By encouraging students to do specific projects which bring light towards the necessity of peace is necessary for human race own good.

2. Integrating Peace With Subject Perspectives

A subject or topic is not studied just for the sake, the teachers should also make the subject more meaningful.

The subjects need to be explained in such a way that they contribute to student’s

  • Emotional,
  • Intellectual,
  • Moral and
  • Social self-development.

Subjects teaching in the educational institutions is meaningful & assists the learner in attaining their life goal.

Peace Education tries to humanize subjects by bringing effective dominion and human perspectives into learning.

  • In educational institutions, various diverse instructional strategies (Suitable to teach peace education) can be adopted in teaching all subjects.
  • Different activities can be designed and planned to foster a peace vision attitude among Children.
  • Some activities could be assimilated as hidden activities of all subject matters, like:
    • Self-development activities,
    • Peace-building activities,
    • Self-discipline activities,
    • Religions harmony,
    • Story of civilization,
    • Environmental awareness and
    • All faith prayer.

Teaching Methods For Peace Education

In a broader sense, teaching is any experience or act which creates a formative effect on the mind, character, and physical ability of a person.

In the course of integrating peace education, “HOW TO TEACH IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN WHAT TO TEACH.”

The teaching approaches and methods already applied by the teachers for the existing subjects can be effectively used in teaching peace education too.

Some teaching methods as discussed below can be more beneficial and suitable in teaching peace education.

  1. Cooperative Learning
  2. Group Discussion
  3. Peer Teaching
  4. Brainstorming
  5. Roleplay
  6. Energizers
  7. Storytelling
  8. Service-learning
  9. Experimental Teaching
  10. Inquiry-based learning and teaching
  11. Dialogues
a. Cooperative Learning

In Cooperative learning, small groups are formed,

  • Each consist of students at various level of ability and
  • Use a number of different learning activities.

In the cooperative learning environment, the teacher is a facilitator for the class, a mature trusted person who will advise and guide the students.

Cooperative learning
  • Improves the subject understanding of students
  • Increases their problem-solving skills, and
  • Enables them to think and find more solutions that show practicality and creativity.

Cooperative learning is considered one of the successful strategies for teaching peace.

b. Group Discussion

In a group discussion, class can be divided into small or big groups to examine and discuss peace topics like:

c. Peer Teaching

Peer teaching assist students in sharing their

  • Ideas,
  • Experience and
  • Knowledge about themselves.
In this method, students are divided into smaller groups to discuss topics like:
  • How do people learn violence because of Video games, war toys, and mass media?
  • Contributions of Mahatma Gandhiji, Martin L. King, and other great peacemakers.

Through peer teaching, both the peers & other students get benefits of imbibing peace values.

Effective peer tutoring provides students with opportunities to develop
  • Social responsibility, and
  • Understanding and awareness about community problems and issues.
Some points for effective peer tutoring

Before the groups start to discuss a topic, teacher must

  • Provide them a topic overview and
  • Give each group some specific task that they must meet within a given time frame.
d. Brain Storming

Brainstorming is a method to solve problems in creative ways and breeds fresh ideas.

  • Brainstorming is a famous technique, formally used by Socrates (a great philosopher).
  • It nurtures the creativity and thinking capabilities of students.
Three levels of Brain Storming

The first level in the Brainstorming method is referred as ‘Identifying Problem’.

  • In this stage, the students will identify and categorize the problem in a well-defined way.

The second level in the Brainstorming method is referred as ‘Consolidation Phase.

  • In this stage, a well-defined topic is to be developed by combining ideas into one large idea map.
  • During this stage, students can find a common understanding of the issue, as they share the meaning behind their ideas and opinions.

The third & final level in the Brainstorming method is referred as ‘Assessment Phase’.

After refining and analyzing the problem, students should be made to draw a mind map, which includes, analyzing the problem in the context of

  • Consequences,
  • Causes,
  • Ways to explore the problem in-depth,
  • finding a solution,
  • Human values to be sustained and cultivated, and
  • Emotions to be managed during the process.
Some points for effective Brain Storming
  • The responsibility of teachers are
    • To guide the session,

    • To encourage participation and

    • Write down ideas.

  • Teachers should dedicate most of their effort
    • To design their teaching more effectively and
    • To bring peace into the classroom.
e. Role Play

Generally, role play refers to the situations where a participant assumes a ‘Role’ by enacting a part in a specific scenario or situation.

In the context of peace education, students can play
  • Role of incredible peace heroes who during their lifespan made important contributions to peace like
    • Martin Luther King,
    • Gandhi,
    • Swami Vivekananda,
    • Mother Teresa,
    • Nelson Mandela and others.
  • Role of politicians who give advice to countries on how to avoid war and not to participate in terrorism.
f. Energizers

School can become quite a bore if students are not able to move and stretch during class. Students of all ages are better learners if they take periodic rests.

To energize and strengthen the student's various activities can be used like:
  • Doing motivational activities for 5-10 minutes.
  • Watching news clippings, reading magazines and journals regarding peace education.
g. Story Telling

Storytelling is regarded as a far-reaching methodology for teaching peace education.

Vocalizing and listening about the lives, great deeds, and experiences of prominent as well as ordinary peace members of society can easily instill peace education in the minds of students.

Some points for effective Storytelling
  • Teachers should use this method in an innovative and unique manner to promote and foster positive social changes of peace.
  • Peace-building stories must be shared in as many different ways as possible.
h. Service Learning

This is a teaching & learning strategy which integrates meaningful community service with instruction & reflection to strengthen and enrich

  • Civic responsibility,
  • Learning experience, and
  • Communities.

Service-learning activities enhance the peacebuilding behavior among the individuals by providing valuable service experience which would aid them to understand and appreciate

  • Mutual respect and
  • Diversity among the human race.

Moreover, it helps students to develop skills such as:

  • Group decision making,
  • conflict resolution and
  • Inter-personal skills.
i. Experiential Teaching

Experiential teaching promotes learning by doing.

In experiential learning, students are not necessarily taught how to do something but how to find out the answer to a problem they are looking for through trial & error.

The process of teaching becomes more of an interaction between the leader & student, awakens learner’s intelligence and curiosity, using experiential learning.

5-step experiential model as per Pfeiffer and Jones includes:

Share

Communication with others

Experience

Doing activity

Generalize

Relate experience with real word

Process

Reflect and Analyze on experience

Apply

Use what was learned in various situation

j. Inquiry-Based Teaching And Learning

As inquiry-based teaching and learning, begin with questions where the teacher could make students answer the questions.

Inquiry-based techniques increase students ability
  • To listen actively and
  • To ask critical questions
Critical questioning and answering, make students
  • More engaged with issues.
  • Actively participate in the classroom and
  • Share their personal experiences and knowledge.

More importantly, this method helps students in experiencing a diverse range of perspectives and thoughts about

  • Cultural understanding,
  • Conflict Management Skills, and
  • Non-violent communication.
k. Dialogues

Dialogue is the greatest form of interaction; it includes the 2-way communication where every student

  • Voices one’s own opinion with integrity,
  • Searches for new meaning,
  • Draws the other out,
  • Search for truth or a mutually-acceptable course of action.

Dialogue creates a shared space where through discussion students can come together.

Dialogue method enhances Tolerance and Open- mildness by perceiving the world openly & feeding the skill to accept differences.

Dialogues promote peace between nations and promote principles of
  • Peace,
  • Tolerance,
  • Human rights,
  • Respect for diversity,
  • Citizenship etc.

3. Curricular And Co-Curricular Activities

Curricular activities: Those activities which are content-specific and subject-specific.

For instance:
  • Curricular activities content includes learning about science, mathematics, social studies, language, etc.
  • Additionally, includes practical & extension reading which are connected to the specific content of the subject matter also includes in curricular activities.

Co-curricular activity: It is an out-of-class activity or program which teaches character-building experiences.

For instance:
  • Co-curricular activities train students practically for the future.
  • These activities are particularly good for students in giving opportunities like:
    • work in teams,
    • Take the initiative themselves, and
    • Exercise Leadership.
Peace education can be integrated with co-curricular activities in a variety of different ways, through
  • Sports & Games,
  • Assembly,
  • Cultural Meets,
  • Debates,
  • Organizing Uniformed Groups and
  • Club Activities.

As an answer to increasingly growing violence, conflicts among humans, teaching peace education programs into co-curricular activities is a must.

4. Staff Development

The curriculum, teacher, and student all are important parts of the Teaching-Learning process.

Between these parts, teachers play a dominant role in developing and enriching the learning outcome among students. Especially, for integrating peace education in the syllabus, staff development is most necessary.

Making a school a place of peace is an achievement of a cooperative effort & the commitment of the whole staff under the supportive leadership of a competent school principal.

Hence, proper training in the peace education curriculum should be provided to all the team and staff involved in the educational system.

This professional program and training can be organized in the lines of promoting and advocating peace-building values and culture within the staff. It can be done via

  • Seminars & Workshops,
  • Staff Meeting,
  • Intensive Training Programmes,
  • Discussion Forums etc.

5. Classroom and School Management

Management is considered as the topmost form of cognitive skill, a necessary requirement for administrators and teachers.

A culture of teaching peace formally begins in pre-school & progresses developmentally throughout university educations and extends outwards into each and every aspect of life.

Educational institution and Classroom are the key media that addresses how student conflicts can be resolved in a manner that also improves student’s relationships with their peers and teacher.

Philosophy of school management and classroom management are built on

    • Ethics,
    • Morals,
    • Personal responsibility,
    • Values.

Administrative and teachers of any institution are supposed to inspire others with their refined way of management skills. They should

  • Demonstrate proper manners,
  • Exhibit good values and morals,
  • Mediate peer conflicts,
  • Teach right from wrong,
  • Show support towards students, and
  • Employ effective & impartial listening.

One can understand how teachers can manage classrooms to instill peace among students from classroom management principles.

B.Ed B.Ed Notes Peace Education

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Explain 6 Major Methods And Strategies To Integrate Peace Education In The Curriculum Notes

What Is The Best Way To Include Peace In The Curriculum? – Methods And Strategies Notes For B.Ed In English Medium

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