Culture Of Peace


What Is Culture Of Peace - How Can We Promote It | 7 Ways To Promote Peace Culture - Gender Equality, Non-Violence, Democratic Participation, Security -

Culture Of Peace

Concept And Introduction

Historically, the struggle for justice and human rights has often been violent, and violence breeds the culture and philosophy of

  • Authoritarian,
  • War,
  • Exploitative,
  • Hierarchical,
  • Secretive,
  • Male-Dominated, and above all
  • Mobilized to destroy ‘The Enemy’.

Because of this culture of war humankind has paid a high price with the lives and livelihood of millions & millions of innocent people.

During the 20th century, humankind has started choosing a new road to social justice and peace - the road of Non-Violence.

Martin Luther King and Mahatma Gandhi called it - ‘Active Non-Violence’, & they showed yes the non-violent walk to freedom is long, but it is a sure way to peace.

  • In the effort and struggle for non-violence and a culture of peace, there are no foes.
  • Each person must be respected and considered as a potential partner.
  • The task is to continuously negotiate and argue with those involved in the culture of violence, and refuse to surrender and quit the struggle, up until they all are convinced to become a member of a culture of peace.

The topmost duty of humankind is to build a culture of peace, which is linked intrinsically to non-violent struggle.

What Is Culture of Peace?

As per UN Resolutions (1998),

A culture of peace is an integral approach to preventing violence & violent conflicts, & an alternative to the culture of war & violence based on

  • Respect for human rights,
  • Education for peace,
  • Equality between women & men,
  • The free flow of information & disarmament,
  • Tolerance,
  • Democratic participation, and
  • The promotion of social development and sustainable economic development.

The predominant aim of education for peace  is

  • Reduction in violence and
  • Transformation of attitudes and mindsets which emphasize cultures and beliefs of war.

A culture of peace is one where the definition of security will have changed from just national security to include human security.

A culture of peace means

  1. A daily attitude of non-violence, & fierce determination to defend human dignity and human rights.
  2. The main feature of a culture of peace is
    • Cooperation,
    • Global awareness & perspective, and
    • A deep regard for interdependency.
  3. As per this culture, peace will be an everlasting feature of every social institution, particularly –
    • Economy,
    • Schools, &
    • Political scene.
  4. The relationships, media, and sports will all be based on peace.
  5. Dominant principles will be of
    • Democracy,
    • Open-mindedness,
    • Tolerance,
    • Participation, and
    • Sustainability.
  6. Central beliefs of culture of peace are:
    • Accountability and Responsibility,
    • Freedom and Sharing,
    • Inclusiveness,
    • Empowerment,
    • Hope and solidarity,
    • Free flow of information,
    • Morality and persistence.

    Culture of peace aims for the change of behaviors, attitudes, and values within each person, and head towards a culture shaped by peace, rather than by violence and war.

    Ways To Promote Culture For Peace

    The culture of peace can be implemented only by a process of teaching-oriented towards

    1. Inner peace
    2. Democratic participation
    3. Participatory communication
    4. Sustainable economic and social development
    5. Gender equality
    6. International peace and security
    7. Non-violence

    1)Inner Peace:

    Inner peace or peace of mind means a state of being spiritually and mentally at peace and having enough understanding and knowledge to hold oneself tough in the face of stress or discord.

    Being ‘At Peace’ is generally believed by many to be healthy & the reverse of being anxious or stressed.

    Peace of mind is normally associated with

    • Happiness,
    • Bliss, &
    • Contentment.

    Descriptions of nature free from the effects of stress are having

    • Calmness,
    • Serenity, and
    • Peace of mind.

    In many cultures, inner peace is believed to be a state of enlightenment or consciousness which may be nurtured by several training forms, such as meditation, yoga, and prayer.

    • People face difficulties in embracing and accepting their inner spirituality because of the everyday stress, it gets the best out of them.
    • Finding happiness and peace in the little joys of life seems a lot in life, & results don’t appear all that rewarding.
    • Achieving spirituality is a step-by-step procedure; there are methods using which one can be more spiritual day by day.

    Human being inner peace can be understood via the expression of

    1. Tolerance
    2. Understanding
    3. Solidarity


    Tolerance is acceptance, appreciation, and respect of the rich diversity of our world's cultures, our forms of expression & ways of being human.
    Tolerance is nurtured by
    • Communication,
    • Knowledge,
    • Openness, &
    • Freedom of belief, thought, and conscience.
    Tolerance is harmony in difference. It is not only a moral duty; it is also a legal and political requirement.
    • Tolerance is the virtue that makes peace a possibility and contributes to transforming – ‘Culture of War’ into a ‘Culture of Peace.
    • The creation of an encouraging atmosphere surely will help to boost tolerance among humans.
    • Above all, tolerance is, an active attitude encouraged by recognition and respect for universal human rights & fundamental freedoms of others.

    b. Understanding:

    The culture of peace intended by the UN (United Nations), calls on humans
    • To see and view themselves as peaceful individuals with values like co-operation
    • To be educated (or socialized), and
    • To find conflicts resolution by negotiations,dialogue, & non-violence.
    All this can be accomplished by promoting a culture of peace, understanding global problems & acquiring skills such as
    • Non-violence,
    • Resolving conflicts,
    • Appreciation of the cultural diversity,
    • Respect of earth & each other,
    • Struggle for justice,
    • Live for international standards for equity and human rights.


    A world of solidarity and peace can only be achieved by acknowledging & celebrating diversity.
    Human solidarity is established on
    • A shared respect for each other’s uniqueness,
    • A deep sense of gratitude for common humanity,
    • To know and value that all human beings are brothers and sisters within one human family inhabiting planet earth, our heritage & our home.
    Human solidarity is promoted by the strengthening and realization of the links and bonds which bind humankind together are–
    • Our universally-shared values.
    • Our common destiny and habitat.
    • Our human condition and nature.
    • Our mutual humanity.

    2)Democratic Participation:

    The development of democratic governance and participation is one and only one way to change the authoritarian power structures which were created by & which have, in the past, sustained the culture of violence and war.

    The “Copenhagen Declaration” about Social Development, says>

    Democratic, transparent, and accountable administration & governance in every sector and part of society is:

    • Fundamental for achieving and maintaining peace and security within & among countries.
    • Necessary for getting people-centered sustainable growth.

    But most crucially and seriously, importance should be given to DEMOCRATIC PARTICIPATION, because often

    • Governments come to power via such political systems which have the name & just name of ‘Democracy’.
    • This type of government tolerates and allows very little participation of ordinary citizens.
    • As a matter of fact, actions of these type of government is frequently so secretive (typically bearing ‘National Security’ name, in reality - ‘Culture Of War’), that the general public have no clue or knowledge about what their so-called Democratic government is actually doing.

    3)Participatory Communication:

    It is the practices and theory of communication which is used to include people in the decision-making process. It is an effective strategy that helps individuals to be more involved in the sustainable development of peace culture.

    According to the participatory communication method,

    • Communication is supposed to be naturally related with a balanced, 2-way flow of information and
    • Sharing means an equitable division of what is being shared.

    Purpose and goal of communication as per participatory communication is

    • To share – knowledge, meanings, worldviews or perceptions, and
    • To make and find something common.

    The Peace-making missions are a noteworthy work of humans, their goals are realized via citizen participation, but the reaction against these missions (to some extent, realization of global structural imbalances) gave birth to numerous participatory approaches.

    Participatory approaches shared the common intent with peace-making missions like actively involving people. But in most situations, this is where the similarity ends & the diversity of differences began.

    Generally, in most development projects, 4 ways of participation can be observed. They are:

    1. Participation In Evaluation
    2. Participation In Implementation
    3. Participation In Decision-Making
    4. Participation In Benefit

    Some development projects provide all 4 ways of participation. Many do not, and restrict participation to 1 or 2 ways.

    Participation In Evaluation

    Upon peacemaking project completion, individuals are invited to analyze and critique the success or failure.

    Participation In Implementation

    People are encouraged & mobilized to take actual part in the peacemaking projects. People are given a certain set of tasks or responsibilities or required to contribute to specified resources.

    Participation In Decision-Making

    People discuss, initiate, plan and conceptualize activities they all will do as a community.

    Participation In Benefit

    People participate in enjoying the fruits of a peacemaking project, this may be a good relationship or tangible natural resources.

    Most people will agree that the third point - Participation in Decision-Making as the most important form because

    • Help people in acquiring conflict management skills,
    • Gives people control of their environment and their lives, and
    • Contribute most towards securing sustainable development of their community with all peace.

    Some activities that can be done using Participatory approaches are:

    1. Activities can be related to development areas, like
      • Cleaning environment,
      • Help in setting renewable energy sources,
      • Assisting healthcare etc.
    2. Activities can be related to politics, like
      • Removing misunderstanding and difference of the peoples
      • Broadcasting peace messages using mass media,
      • Resisting pressures from the elites, or
      • Supporting deserved parliamentary runners.
    3. Activities can be related to culture or religion, like
      • Arranging traditional feast,
      • Organizing All faith prayers, and
      • Throw a big party just to have a good time.

    4)Sustainable Economic And Social Development:

    Sustainable economic growth means economic growth which satisfies human needs but in such a way that it sustains the environment and natural resources for future generations.

    Peace education is a powerful driver of development. A peaceful society worth living in is built upon basic social policy values, like, solidarity, equality of opportunity, and participation.

    Conflicts do not arise only because of military and political threats to national sovereignty but can arrive due to environmental degradation & prevention of development opportunities.

    Investment in long-term good social policy promotes sustainable economic growth and development.

    • For Instance: Education, social, and health protection systems offer people a chance to develop using their own resources and live independently.

    We must promote and support peace culture via formal & informal education in school, and university as Peace & economic development are inseparable.

    5)Gender Equality:

    Gender equality is one of the 8 domains of the United Nations Programme of Action (POA) on the culture of peace; & also plays a vital part in the remaining domains.

    Gender equality is a necessity on a part of the promise and guarantee of human rights.

    Gender equality is both

    • Important aim on its own, in terms of equality and justice for women, &
    • An important contributor to peace promotion.

    The involvement of women has been proportionately less in war & more in peace movements than men, which itself is the reason why gender equality must be promoted through a culture of peace.

    • A knowledgeable informed woman is crucial to campaign for the culture of peace in the world.
    • Women must be given equal claims and rights in
      • Political participation,
      • Studies, and
      • Recruitment in the higher position.
    • The full participation of women in different peace initiatives, conflict prevention & resolution, decision-making is vital in realizing and achieving lasting peace.

    6)International Peace And Security:

    The United Nations is an organization that works to maintain international peace & security all over the world.

    • Although the UN has had many achievements and successes, unfortunately, there are several tragic incidents where the UN has not been so successful.
    • The line has increasingly become blurred between peace spoilers and criminals and hostile groups, including extremists and terrorists with sophisticated tactics and transnational strategies.
    • Recent ever-increasing conflicts have killed millions of innocent people.

    The collapse of the State security system in inter-communal and intra-State conflicts poses massive security challenges and disputes & truly tests UN capacity to successfully carry out its programs and mandates.

    • With the growing complexity & rising costs of addressing and tackling crisis situations, the requirement of prevention of conflict is higher than ever.
    • UN works for conflict prevention as a mediator.
    • It continues to tackle challenges and questions like: What is the best way to engage with fractured armed groups or with amorphous movements?


    Today, all around the world violence, exclusion, and discrimination cause suffering for millions and millions of people. All these factors are born out of ignorance, mistrust, and fear, and undermine the health, safety & potential of human beings.

    Disagreements and differences of opinion are natural, but the question is:


    Often times we looked at Violence, exclusion, and discrimination, as separate issues. But, in reality, they are interconnected & share common root causes.  To seek common solutions we must deeply study common root causes.

    The promotion and support of a culture of peace and nonviolence is an intrinsic principle of humanity,

    • It is not restricted to just the absence of war. It is not a final or end goal, but a process.
    • It is about preventing & minimizing sources of tensions, as much as possible.
    • It is about establishing a healthy environment for discussion and dialogue,
    • Finding answers to problems & tensions, without any fear of violence, with a process in which everyone is able to participate and equally valued.

    Seeing the present-day world, the human race needs to take immediate concrete actions for a more equal, non-violent, and humane society.

    • We have seen non-violence working greatly as a foundation for so many religious and social movements.
    • With appropriate promotion and support, nonviolence can also be used by individuals to reach out to others to find common solutions to problems.
    Developing a non-violent trait in individuals is a key, for peaceful living within communities, families, organizations, schools, & within our “global village”.
    B.Ed B.Ed Notes Peace Education


    Culture Of Peace Notes

    What Is Culture Of Peace - How Can We Promote It? Notes For B.Ed In English Medium

    ( 7 Ways To Promote Peace Culture - Gender Equality, Non-Violence, Democratic Participation, Security) Notes And Study Material, PDF, PPT, Assignment For B.Ed 1st and 2nd Year, DELED, M.Ed, CTET, TET, Entrance Exam, All Teaching Exam Test Download Free For Peace Education Subject.

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