History Of Peace Education

When Did Peace Education Start? - What Is The History Of Peace? | Highlight Key Historical Development Of Peace Education | Peace Education History - pupilstutor.com

History Of Peace Education

World War I (1914 - 1918) and World War II (1939- 1945) ended with countless innocent victims and with the terrifying use of nuclear weapons against Japan (Hiroshima & Nagasaki).

Witnessing the horrors of the 1st and 2nd World Wars there was a call and reawakening for the need of developing the humanistic side of education.

The rampant carnage of World Wars brought

Creation of Various Institutions And Organizations for Peace Development

1. UN (United Nations)

Franklin Roosevelt, president of the United States of America, created the name ‘UNITED NATIONS’ & it was announced on 1 January 1942.
  • On 24 October 1945, the UN came into existence when 51 countries decided and agreed for making peace.
  • UN is not a world government & does not make laws.
  • UN headquarter is situated in New York.

UN has 6 main parts out of which 5 are based at UN headquarter. They are

  1. Security Council,
  2. General Assembly,
  3. Secretariat,
  4. Trusteeship Council, and
  5. Economic & Social Council.

The 6th part - “International Court of JUSTICE”, is situated at The Hague(Netherlands).

Purpose Of United Nation

  1. To solve international conflicts.
  2. To maintain international security and peace.
  3. To develop friendly relationships between nations.
  4. To become a center for harmonizing actions of nations.

2. UNICEF (United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund)

In the aftermath of the Second World War, the UN General Assembly voted to create the UNICEF, an organization to assist in providing support and relief to children living in nations devastated by the war.

  • After the food & medical crisis and emergency of the late 1940s passed, UNICEF still continued its role as a relief organization for the children of troubled countries.
  • During the 1970s UNICEF expanded as a vocal advocate for the rights of children.
  • UNICEF has repetitively proven itself to be one of the highly influential & most effective organisation working for protecting Children’s rights all around the globe.

3. AI (Amnesty International)

AI was established in 1961 by Peter Berenson (British lawyer). It highlights issues like international protection of Human Rights.

  • The AI center is International Secretariat in London.
  • Amnesty International, today has more than 1, 00,000 members & regular donors in more than 160 territories and countries.
  • AI groups are registered in more than 90 territories and countries all around the world.

Some of the things Amnesty International does to help includes:

  1. Campaign for Human Rights and its education,
  2. Exposing Human Rights violations,
  3. Working for Victims of Human Rights violations.

Compare to other international Human Rights organizations and groups, Amnesty has the longest history & broadest recognized name and is believed by many to set standards for the movement as a whole.

4. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization)

UNESCO was founded as an Umbrella institution of the UN.

  • 37 countries signed the Constitution of UNESCO on November 16, 1945, in London, and with 20th rectification, UNESCO came into existence on November 4, 1946.

UNESCO was charged with developing, planning, & implementing general modifications in education in line with the principle of international politics of security and peace. It works as a laboratory of ideas & set criteria and standards to build Universal agreements about rising ethical issues.

Purpose Of UNESCO

a. To contribute to peace & security by promoting collaboration among nations through

b. To promote universal respect for

  • Human rights,
  • Justice,
  • Rule of law &
  • Fundaments freedoms, which are affirmed for the peoples of the world, by the charter of the United Nations.

5. ICRC (International Committee of Red Cross)

ICRC was established on February 17, 1863, in Geneva (Switzerland) and is three times recipient of Nobel Peace Prize (1917, 1944 & 1963)

  • ICRC is a humanitarian institution.
  • Originally ICRC was a 5 member committee, consisted of influential Geneva families called the Geneva society of public welfare.

They all came together for a conference & made numerous proposals including

  1. Protection and Neutrality for injured soldiers,
  2. Foundation of ‘National Relief Societies’ for injured soldiers, and
  3. Utilization of volunteer forces for relief assistance on the battlefield.

6. UNDP (United Nation Development Program)

UNDP was founded in the year 1965 & headquarter is in New York City.

  1. UNDP promotes change and advocates to connect countries by
    • Knowledge,
    • Resources and
    • Experience to help people build a better life.
  2. It is a UN global development network and provides
    • Training,
    • Expert advice and
    • Grant support to developing nations, with increasing emphasis upon giving assistance to the least developed nations.

UNDP is sponsored and funded only by voluntary assistance from member nations.

  • UNDP operates in 177 countries, where it works with local governments to develop local capacity and meet development challenges.
  • In addition, UNDP also works internationally to assist countries to achieveMillennium’ Development goals.

UNDP also works

  • To promote early recovery after a crisis happened
  • To reduce the risk of disasters or armed conflicts.

7. UNHRC (United Nation Human Rights Council)

UNHRC was founded on March 15, 2006, by passing a resolution at the UN general assembly. It comprises of 47 member states.

  • It was established as a replacement of the previous CHR, which was criticized heavily for allowing nations with poor human rights records to be members.
  • UNHRC is a UN system inter-governmental body whose members are responsible for protecting promoting and human rights all around the earth.

Some of the conflicts addressed by UNHRC includes,

  • Israeli-Palestinian conflict,
  • Human rights situations in nations such as
    • North Korea,
    • Burma,
    • Syria,
    • Iran, Kyrgyzstan,
    • Libya,
    • Sri Lanka, and
    • Guinea.

8. UNEP (United Nations Environment Program)

UNEP was founded by Maurice Strong, on June 5, 1972, as a result of the UN Conference about Human Environment.

  • The headquarters of UNEP is in Nairobi (Kenya).
  • IT has numerous country offices and 6 regional offices

1. ROE

Regional Office for Europe

2. ROA

Regional Office for Africa

3. RONA

Regional Office for North America

4. ROLAC

Regional Office for Latin America & the Caribbean

5. ROWA

Regional Office for West Asia

6. ROAP

Regional Office for Asia & the Pacific

UNEP cover a large range of topics concerning

  • Atmosphere and Climate change,
  • Environmental governance,
  • Resource efficiency,
  • Marine & terrestrial ecosystems,
  • Green economy, and
  • Management of disasters & conflicts eco-system.

UNEP also plays a major role in developing and promoting international conventions regarding environmental issues. It publishes many articles, newsletters, and reports.

For instance: The 5th Global Environment Outlook or in short GEO-5 is a comprehensive report about development, environment, & human wellbeing.

UNEP is an organization that helps in coordinating environmental activities and assist developing and under-develop countries in implementing environmentally sound practices and policies.

B.Ed B.Ed Notes Peace Education

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When Did Peace Education Start? - What Is The History Of Peace? Notes

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