Work Education In India

History Of Work Education In India | Work Education In The National Policy On Education(NPE) | Concept Of Work Education According To NPE 1986 And 2000 - pupilstutor

Work Education In India

Historical Background And Perspective

Over the past fifty years in our country and especially in the last twenty years or so, there has been an increasing appreciation of the need to include work as a vital component at all stages of school education.

This has its roots in the perceptions about work education as a powerful means of

  • Restoring respect and dignity to all types of manual work,
  • Promoting self-reliance in meeting one’s daily needs and those of the society,
  • Removing distinctions between manual workers and white-collar workers,
  • Accelerating the process of economic development in the country through community service and social work by students.
  • Increasing productivity through the development of proper work skills and values.

In view of the unique importance of work education for the all-around development of the child and well-being of the country, considerable importance has been given to it in almost all-important schemes, reports, and documents on education which have come out in the last fifty years.

For Example:

  1. Gandhiji’s Scheme of Basic Education,
  2. Kothari Commission’s Report,
  3. NCERT’s Ten-Year School Curriculum,
  4. Report of the Ishwar Bhai Patel Committee,
  5. The National Policy of Education, 1986, and more recently the National Curriculum Framework 2000.

Consequently, work education has come to be viewed as

  • Important link between education and productivity, as an
  • Important instrument for the preparation of the child as a self-supporting and productive citizen, and
  • Potent means of social reconstruction and national development.

It has been introduced and implemented under different names, such as

  • Craft Education (1937),
  • Work Experience ( 1967),
  • Socially Useful Productive Work (1977), at different times and in different parts of the country.
The National Policy on Education (NPE) has assigned a very important place to work education in the school curriculum at all stages. It has reverted to the term “Work Experience” which was earlier used by Kothari Commission for work education.

The National Curriculum Framework for School Education developed by the NCERT (2000a) suggested a more comprehensive term “Work Education” in place of the earlier nomenclature of Work Experience.

Concept of Work Education According to NPE (National Policy on Education 1986)

The National Policy on Education 1986 has conceived Work Education as purposive and meaningful manual work that results in goods or services which are useful to society.

Work Education comprises activities consisting of services, foods, and community development in various areas of human needs such as

  • Health and hygiene,
  • Food,
  • Clothing,
  • Recreation,
  • Availability of local resources, and
  • Social service in accordance with mental abilities and manual skills of children at various stages of education.

The Policy visualized intensive participation in production and service-oriented projects for the middle and lower-secondary stages along with an “Earn while you learn” dimension for needy students on an optional basis.

It assigned equal importance to community work/social service for creating social awareness and concern for the welfare/ development of the local community or society at large.

Work Education In The National Policy On Education (NPE)

The most important goal of education is

  • To prepare children for life as adults and
  • To impart knowledge, skills, qualities, and attitudes which make them self-supportive individuals and productive citizens.

Pre-vocational programs at the secondary and higher secondary (academic stream only) stages, as visualized in the NPE, are aimed specifically at the development of skills in different work areas through well-designed courses so that those who stop studies after the high/higher secondary stages are able to enter the world of work directly or with a little more preparation.

The National Policy on Education (NPE) states:

  • Work Experience, viewed as purposive, meaningful, manual work, organized as an integral part of the learning process and resulting in either goods or services useful to the community, is considered as an essential component (of curriculum) at all stages.
  • Pre-vocational programs provided at the lower secondary stage will also facilitate the choice of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage.
  • Work Experience is to be provided through well-structured and graded programs.
  • Work Experience would comprise activities in accordance with the interests, abilities, and needs of students, the level of skills and knowledge to be upgraded with the stages of education.
  • This experience would be helpful to a student on his entry into the workforce.

The emphasis in such courses is on practical work to satisfy the needs of students, school, and community and to find the solution to problems.

  • The sale ability and commercial acceptability of the goods or services produced should be highlighted in pre-vocational courses to sensitize pupils to the production of quality goods.
  • Pre-vocational courses in Work Education should be viewed as ground preparation for vocational for those who drop out after class 10th and as preparation for vocational courses for those who opt for them at the plus two stage.

Work Education In The National Curriculum Frame Work for School Education (2000)

The National Curriculum Frame Work for School Education (2000) has also emphasized the concept and philosophy of Work Education and it stressed that the activities pertaining to work education should be so organized as to realize the objectives of Work Education such as

  • Inculcation among learners of respect for manual work,
  • Values for self-reliance,
  • Cooperativeness,
  • Perseverance,
  • Helpfulness,
  • Tolerance and
  • Work ethics besides developing attitudes and
  • Values- related to productive work and concern for the community.

The theory and practice have to be such that it enables learners

  • To understand the facts, terms, concepts, and scientific principles involved in various forms of work situations.
  • Know the sources of raw materials.
  • Acquire skills needed for technologically advancing society and conceptualize their role in productive situations.
  • Understand the use of tools and equipment’s in production and service processes.

The program should develop among learners the skills for identifying, selecting, arranging, and developing innovative methods and observing, manipulating, and participating in work practices and thereby enhancing production efficiency.

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