Scope Of Geography


What's the scope of geography? | Discuss The Scope And Subject Matter Of Geography With Changing Times |  Explain The Scope Of Geography In Detail

Scope Of Geography

Geography has a wide perspective and outlook;

  • Geography attempts to explain the actions & combinations of all the physical factors as a relation with complicated difficulties of the human life on the earth’s surface.
  • The Geographer investigates and studies each obstacle and tries to put forward a geographical explanation for its conditions and vice versa.

The scope of geography is very wide and significant. Geography subsequently use knowledge from both scientist and student of

  1. Social sciences,
  2. Physical sciences like
  3. Natural studies and
  4. Humanistic studies.

Geography has well established itself as a science.

  • The scope of geography has become so extensive and complex that compulsion has arisen for specialization.
  • Geography today covers a vast field,
    • Comprises of many branches of scholarship in its fold,
    • Has its own particular unit of study, and
    • Each unit although interlinked has its own peculiarities.

The subject matter of geography has broken up into a number of branches as shown below:

1.  Physiography

Physiography is an extremely crucial branch of geography. It studies physical patterns, structure, changes, and processes of the world like:

  • Rock formation.
  • Water.
  • Climate and heat.
  • Ocean current etc.
The whole superstructure of the discipline of Geography is built upon Physiography.

Physiography makes geography most inclusive but also makes it more interesting.

Physiography is also the birthplace of other branches and sub-branches. Some of physiography important divisions are:

a. Climatology:

  • Climatology studies the climate.

b. Geomorphology:

  • Geomorphology studies the structure of the earth, covering different types of mountains, rocks & their evolution.

c. Hydrology:

  • Hydrology studies the earth’s water, especially its movement with respect to land.

d. Biogeography:

  • Biogeography studies the geographical distribution of animals and plants.

e. Glaciology:

  • Glaciology studies the internal dynamics and effects of glaciers.

f. Paleogeography:

  • Paleogeography studies the geographical features at periods in the geological past.

g. Seismology:

  • Seismology studies the movements in the earth’s surface (earthquakes).

h. Medical geography:

  • Disease or Medical geography studies the spatial patterns and processes of health and disease outcomes.

2.  Human Geography

A well-known fact is that man’s life these days are not tied up entirely to his immediate environments and man’s life is a partial and restricted adjustment to his surroundings.

Human geography covers:

  • Evolution of mankind ( Evolution of its different races with the dispersal of races).
  • Man’s adaptation to environments.

Geographers are as much interested as anthropologists to study, effects of the environment and nature on human life. 

Human geography moves in different trajectories and has different types for instance:

a) Settlement geography:

  • It deals with the size form and functions of settlement built up by the man & analyses their historic growth.

b) Population geography:

  • Population geography studies the numerous reasons for regional disparities in the distribution of population.

In past, the widespread belief was that physic- biological environments determine the man’s ability to make the best use of natural resources around him but with time it is confirmed that with physic- biological environments that Philosophy of life and Technical skills play the most prominent role.

3.  Urban Geography

Urban geography deals with

  • Classifications of cities
  • Level of the hierarchy of towns,
  • Land use pattern,
  • Structure of the towns and
  • Functions of the towns with reference to the models as per their function.

Basic and non-basic urban employments are expressed in urban geography. Urban geography highlights

  • Concepts of location,
  • Concepts of the population of urban territories, all of their
    • Movements,
    • Distribution,
    • Accessibility, and
    • Interaction.
Also Read: Modern Geography

Urban geography put in plain words the

  • Socioeconomic composition,
  • Sex and age structure,
  • Housing sites and Modes of travel,
  • Journey to work movements etc. of the urban regions.

4.  Agricultural Geography

Agriculture geography is an additional branch of geography that attracts the attention of both geographers and agriculturists.

Agricultural Geography enables a geographer to understand

  • Various kinds of agriculture are distributed over the earth and
  • How does this distinct agriculture function in the spatial arrangement?

Agricultural Geography helps to know:

  • How discrete types of farms and farming systems have progressed in particular areas.
  • Similarity and difference, found among many farms and farming systems of different parts of the planet.

5.  Economic Geography

Economic geography concerns with the

  • Production and Distribution of the resources and raw materials in the nation.
  • Impact of constructional investment over socio-economic life of the people.
  • Trade domain:
    • Internal,
    • External and
    • International trades.

Economic geography is the core of numerous industrial developments. Many industries benefit gigantically with geography help like:

  • Mine industry
  • Agricultural and animal husbandry etc.

a) Mine industry:

  • The finding of the location and distribution of mine-based raw materials etc. depends upon geography.
  • Setbacks due to labor movement & industrial locations are tackled both by economists and geographers.

b) Agricultural and livestock industry:

  • Soil erosion, an important research topic in geography is one of the greatest single evils to agriculture and animal husbandry.
  • The agricultural methods and practices are typically dependent on the livestock working which constantly suffers from starvation because of the scarcity of sufficient fodder resources.

6.  Political Geography

Political geography deals with the government of States and Countries.

  • In Countries like, USA, Germany, Greece, United Kingdom political geography took birth.
  • Political geography is among the least developed branch of geography.

7.  Anthropogeography

Anthropogeography is the study of the distribution of human communities on the planet in relation to their geographical environment.

Geography bears the equivalent relation to anthropology as

  • Zoogeography does to zoology, and
  • Biogeography does to biology.

8.  Cartography

Cartography applied to the art of drawing maps and charts alongside there

  • Conception,
  • Designing and
  • Execution.

The cartography on the certain selected scale is responsible for

  • Topographic surveys and
  • Preparation of map.

Geography consistently relies on cartography. For example:

  • In reading and making maps and charts.
  • In using cartographic presentation, surveys, etc.

So, Even though a geographer has no monopoly on cartography, it is vital that every geographer should have a working knowledge of cartography.


B.Ed Notes

Pedagogy of Geography

Teaching of Geography


Discuss The Scope And Subject Matter Of Geography With Changing Times Notes

Scope Of Geography Notes For B.Ed In English Medium

What's the scope of geography? Notes And Study Material, PDF, PPT, Assignment For B.Ed 1st and 2nd Year, DELED, M.Ed, CTET, TET, Entrance Exam, All Teaching Exam Test Download Free For Pedagogy of Geography And Teaching of Geography Subject.

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