Work Education: (B.Ed Notes)


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What Is Work Education?

Meaning Of Work

Generally, work is believed to be an activity that requires more physical labour. Physical labour is done in any direction towards the production for oneself or societal cause is considered as ‘WORK’.

Some of our activities related to labour are related to the

  • Fulfilment of our needs,
  • Our physical and mental health,
  • Administration and organization in our social and economic life, and finally
  • All are related to the welfare of humanity.

Thus, work means those activities related to physical labour and which fulfills our responsibilities towards

  • Self,
  • Society and
  • Other people.

Concept And Meaning Of Work Education

Work may be described as purposive and meaningful manual work, designed to prepare the students in producing either goods or services which are useful to the community.

  • In every country, the main objective of education is to develop such an educational system that provides opportunities to develop talents and skills which are needed throughout their life, to its citizens.
  • It is compulsory to determine that physical labour should be associated with education i.e., work education should be made an inseparable part of education.

Work education is considered purposeful and meaningful physical labour, which is organized as the inherent part of the educational process.

  • Work education emphasizes including knowledge, understanding, and practical skills in educational activities.
  • It is deemed as the production of meaningful material and community service, in which the children share the experience of contentment and pleasure.
  • It should be an essential component at all stages of education and must be provided through a well-structured and graded program.
  • The competencies to be developed in this field should include knowledge, understanding skills, and values through need-based life activities.

Work Education is viewed as purposive and meaningful manual work, organized as an integral part of the learning process and resulting in goods or services useful to the community, besides the pleasure of self- fulfillment.

Characteristics Of Work Education

The characteristics of work education that makes it unique and important are:

  1. Work Education is an essential and significant factor in learning processes.
  2. It establishes coordination in the hand & brain.
  3. It is visible in the form of useful services and productive work for the community.
  4. It is based on the principle of learning by doing.
  5. It is associated as an essential factor with all the aspects of education in the multilevel education system.
  6. It is Socially useful physical labor that is inherent in educational activities.

Factors Essential for The Success of Work Education

Work education is a purposeful, meaningful activity with physical labor which is included in all the stages of the school curriculum in an organized and systematic way and is visible as a product or social service.

In Words Of Rabindra Nath Tagore:

  • Education cannot be separated from physical labor for cultural re-awakening.
  • Every student should participate in some programs of service to mankind by coming out of the sphere of his particular community.
  • Work should be taken as a medium of education because experiences are the windows of our brain.

The 5 most important factors that are essential for the success of work education are:

  1. Dignity of labor and positive aptitude
  2. Broadmindedness
  3. Feelings of cooperation
  4. Imaginative & creative aptitude
  5. Positive relationship between community and school

Importance Of Work Education

Importance of work education can be understood from the following perspective.

  1. Work education develops skills like
    • Problem-solving,
    • Critical thinking and
    • Decision making.
  2. It develops the abilities of students according to different stages of education.
  3. It helps in the development of personality.
  4. It develops and enhances professional readiness and efficiency in production.
  5. It invites partnership of teachers teaching all the subjects.
  6. It is based on the needs, interests & capabilities of students.
  7. It provides opportunities for experiencing conditions related to community services.
  8. It introduces the world of work.
  9. It provides an opportunity for interaction with different
    • Tools,
    • Techniques,
    • Methods,
    • Materials and objects.
  10. It develops regular habits and a positive attitude to fulfill the basic needs of the body.
  11. Work education provides the opportunity for self-expression on an individual basis after organizing artistic activities.
  12. It nurtures the ability to appreciate the feelings of conservation of local and national cultural legacy.
  13. Regularity, feelings to serve, feelings of responsibility perseverance, dutifulness, punctuality, cleanliness, self-control, laboriousness, sensitivity towards equality, the fraternity cannot be developed by mere reading books or listening to preaching’s, but can be developed at the time when the students perform different activities with each other.
  14. Work education provides information about the rules related to nutrition, food, infection diseases, and hygiene. They become alert and aware of maintaining community cleanliness through work education.
  15. To sensitize and bring awareness towards ambiance and develop an understanding of the inter-relation of environment and humanity.
  16. Develops understanding and feeling of pride towards the importance of physical work and labor.
  17. It helps in developing socially desirable values.
  18. Work education provides the opportunity to know various work conditions and to participate in them. It inspires to know the work and routine of workers.
  19. The real and ideal responsibility of education is to prepare children to face the challenges of life.
  20. Work education helps in developing necessary life skills like
    • Problem-solving,
    • Critical thinking,
    • Empathy,
    • Decision making,
    • Creative thinking,
    • Effective communication & enables children to face the demands and challenges of daily life effectively.
  21. In the whole school program, work education is probably one such subject which brings school closer to the society effectively.
  22. Work education takes care of each condition of the cultural and social background of the community. It invites artisans to display their talents and art.
  23. It helps in initiating feelings of leadership and leadership skill. Some children are naturally introverted and hesitate in initiating. Work education provides such experiences so that leadership can be developed and nurtured through easy activities.

Objectives Of Work Education

In order to give proper direction to Work Education activities, it is necessary to be clear about the objectives of Work Education.

The Overall Aims And Objectives Of Work Education Are:

  1. Objectives Of Work Education in Cognitive Domain
  2. Objectives Of Work Education in Affective Domain
  3. Objectives Of Work Education in Psychomotor Domain

1. Objectives Of Work Education in Cognitive Domain (Knowledge)

Work Education helps the students to

  1. Identify his needs and those of his family and community in respect of
    • Food,
    • Health and hygiene,
    • Clothing,
    • Shelter,
    • Recreation and social service.
  2. Understand scientific facts and principles involved in various forms of work.
  3. Acquaint himself with productive activities in the community.
  4. Understand the process of planning and organizing productive work.
  5. Understand his role in productive situations.
  6. Know the sources of raw materials and understand the use of tools and equipment in the production of goods and services.
  7. Understand the needs of a technologically advancing society in terms of productive processes and skills.

2. Objectives Of Work Education in Affective Domain (Attitudes)

It helps the students to

  1. Develop respect for manual work and regard for manual workers.
  2. Develop proper work habits and values such as
    • Regularity,
    • Punctuality,
    • Discipline,
    • Honesty,
    • Efficiency,
    • Love of excellence and dedication to duty.
  3. Develop self-esteem and confidence through achievements in productive work and services.
  4. Inculcate socially desirable values such as
    • Self-reliance,
    • Helpfulness,
    • Cooperativeness,
    • Team-work,
    • Perseverance,
    • Tolerance, etc.
  5. Develop awareness of socio-economic problems of society.
  6. Appreciate the utility of productive work and services to the community.
  7. Develop a deeper concern for the environment and a sense of belonging, responsibility, and commitment to society.

3. Objectives Of Work Education in Psychomotor Domain (Skills)

Work Education helps the students to

  1. Develop skills for the
    • Selection,
    • Procurement,
    • Arrangement and use of tools and materials for different forms of productive work.
  2. Use his creative faculties for devising innovative methods and materials.
  3. Develop skills for the application of problem-solving methods in productive work and social service situations.
  4. Develop skills for greater production efficiency.

How to Promote Work Education Programme? – Ways And Strategies

Systematic and intensive efforts are necessary for the promotion of the Work Education Programme.

The following course of action and strategies can be undertaken for the purpose of promoting work education program:

  1. Orientation Of Parents And Community
  2. Counselling Of Students
  3. Involvement Of Community
  4. Orientation Of Teachers
  5. Awareness & Popularization Programmes
  6. School Committee
  7. Exhibition-Cum-Sale Of Products
  8. Recognition Of Teachers For Outstanding Contribution In Work Education
  9. Role Of State Education Department In Promoting Work Education

1. Orientation Of Parents And Community

  • Parents need orientation with regard to the Work Education program, its principles, values, philosophy, need, etc.
  • This is required for ensuring cooperation from them.
  • Special community contact programs and briefings at the time of school functions may also be undertaken.

2. Counselling Of Students

  • The students at different levels or classes should be counseled about the career options, keeping in view the variety of
    • Interests,
    • Aptitude and
    • Needs of the individuals.
  • Students also need orientation before entering various pre-vocational courses.
  • Career talk, group guidance, and career conference may be organized to facilitate the selection of work education activities by the students.

3. Involvement Of Community

  • For effective implementation of Work Education in schools, community support and participation are necessary.
  • A mechanism for involvement and creating a sense of awareness among the local people is to be developed.
  • Professionals and learned members of the community may be involved as guest speakers for explaining the local specific work education activities.
  • The school should establish linkages with Government institutions, artisans, and professionals, business enterprises, work centers, workshops, etc. in the community.
Schools should take advantage of their expertise in the promotion and implementation of the work education Programme.

4. Orientation Of Teachers

  • Work Education in various areas as per community needs may be performed both by the
    • Work education teacher and
    • Other teachers in the school.
  • The Headmaster Or Principal of the school may work as a coordinator for this purpose.

5. Awareness & Popularization Programmes

  • The school should organize awareness and popularization programs in the community for the work education activities offered in the school.
  • The members of the community may come forward to help the school in their respective fields of expertise and encourage the children.
  • Exhibition of work education products may be organized as a medium for the popularization of Work education activities.
  • These programs will also help the school in the selection and revision of work education activities as per community needs.

6. School Committee

  • A committee consisting of the Head of Institution, enterprising and enthusiastic teachers, representatives of students, parents, and enterprises should be constituted.
  • This committee will provide necessary input for effective implementation and furtherance of work education programs in schools.

7. Exhibition-Cum-Sale Of Products

  • Some tangible goods are produced in certain work education activities which require a suitable source of disposal.
  • The products may be disposed of through the cooperative stores of the school or a stall may be arranged at the time of the annual function for exhibition-cum-sale of products.
  • Income generated through the sale of products or services may be distributed among the Head of the Institution, teachers, and students as an incentive for their efforts.

8. Recognition Of Teachers For Outstanding Contribution In Work Education

  • The teachers who significantly contribute to the cause of work education in a particular session should be given due recognition at the time of the annual function.
  • Certain awards may also be thought of depending upon the availability of resources.
  • The contribution should find a place of appreciation in the school magazine.

Role Of State Education Department In Promoting Work Education

The state department of education through its zonal and district educational authorities may start an awareness program for sounding the general masses, school teachers, and students regarding the importance of work education program as envisaged at the national level from time to time.

The Department of Education should prepare handouts, brochures, and posters indicating the salient features of work education.

Following departments and agencies may be also approached for seeking educational assistance, services, and linkage with educational institutions in making work education program successful:

  • Municipal Corporation
  • District Industries Officers
  • Social Service Department
  • District/ Divisional Level
  • General hospitals
  • Forest Officer
  • Local Postmaster
  • Husbandry Officers
  • LIC Branches
  • Hospital services
  • Public Park & Zoo
  • Agriculture
  • Local Industries / Mills
  • State Road Transport
  • Food Corporation of India Ltd.

Methods Of Teaching Work Education

The 5 methods of teaching work education are as follows:

  1. Practical Method
  2. Observation Method
  3. Project Method
  4. Demonstration Method
  5. Excursion Method

1. Practical Method

Some of the fundamental principles of this method are as follows:

  • Learning by doing
  • Activeness of students
  • Psychological
  • Scientific

In this method, the Learners, work in a practical way to achieve a definite goal. Through this method, the principle of learning by doing in new circumstances and on the basis of previous experiences is emphasized.

  • While practicing, all sensory and motor senses are active.
  • The students work as a researcher because learning by doing is important in a practical method.

2. Observation Method

We can use this method in two ways:

  1. To ask the students to observe any occurrence, object, or social-cultural events and to develop their knowledge and understanding.
  2. They can gain experience by observing economic activities in the social environment and workplaces.

As far as the social-cultural occurrences are concerned, the children are not given any instructions, but the sessions are organized in such a way that the observed events and activities are described in the class and then the children give their comments.

Observation of different kinds of events must be given a suitable place in work education because every occurrence related to life is a subject area for work education.

3. Project Method

Project Method is a purposeful activity accomplished with complete involvement in a social environment.– Kilpatric

In this method, for a particular task, the students decide themselves

  • Objective, prepare, plan, collect the required resources to attain their goal,
  • What would be the technique and how much time is required to accomplish the task before trying to know the real form of the work education.

4. Demonstration Method

How do children learn the ways to behave?
This question has an easy answer:
They start doing the same thing which they observe or learn from their elders by their observational power. Why only elders, they even try to bring in their daily routine whatever they observe their companion doing.

Demonstration method of work education proceeds from general to specific.

  • It means the procedure of a particular activity is demonstrated before the learners.
  • Along with the demonstration of the activity, the validity of the rules related to that activity is also proved through examples.

5. Excursion Method

Excursion is a wonderful method of teaching.

The condition of the students enriched with bookish knowledge given in the four walls of the classroom is like that of a frog who considers the well as an ocean.

There are many advantages and benefits of the excursion method in teaching-learning of work education:

  1. It is very important for the students to have practical knowledge of the subject which is discussed in the class. This method plays an important role in this direction.
  2. The system of sessions in the classrooms brings monotony and boringness. Excursion method can bring a positive change in this direction.
  3. Knowledge attained through excursion is permanent because it involves the active participation of the learners.
  4. Through excursion, the students develop an understanding as to how to behave at other places and how to communicate with people.
  5. The students get the opportunity to work in groups while traveling.
  6. While traveling, the students’ ability to observe is developed. They observe the task being accomplished in reality; they observe the objects in real situations.

Basis For Selecting Activities In Work Education

There are many points on the basis of which you plan and select work education activities.

Given below are some of the bases for selecting activities in work education:

  1. Objectives of work education
  2. Level of students, Interests, and need
  3. Background of the children
  4. Availability to time and space

Work Education In School And Community

Mahatma Gandhi emphasized the need to bring school and community classes, according to him, “If a new social system is to be established through education, both of them can’t survive separately.

What Do You Mean By Community?

Community is a group of people residing at a particular place and which fulfills its daily needs from the sources available equally and is interdependent.

  • The description of a community can be anything from the group of many people to the whole world.
  • The concept of community changes with every example.

Still, we know that the following conditions are involved in the concept of community.

  • Community is formed by uniting different people the way creatures are formed by uniting different cells.
  • Knowingly/unknowingly all the people are connected with the common cause.
  • The relationship among the members of the community is like the relationships between cells and living beings and this exchange continues.
  • All the people make an effort joint to achieve a certain goal and share their experience.

We all know that the education processes are enriched by bringing teachers and parents closer.

  • The community should be worried about the needs of children in the school.
  • But, society should not leave the entire responsibility of the development of children and educational achievements on schools.

Role Of Community In Work Education

The expectation of the school from the community are:

  1. Due attention should be paid to their punctuality at school.
  2. The child should be sent to school regularly.
  3. Enhance their partnership in monitoring the educational process of the school.
  4. Active participation in assessing and evaluating the students.
  5. Community may contribute actively in founding a lab for work education. For example,
    • Participation in sale purchase of material and equipment’s for work education,
    • communication about the information regarding their maintenance etc.
  6. To cooperate in the exhibition of activities.
  7. Community may give suggestions in selecting activities related to work education.
  8. Community may present their opinion about deciding the need and time for work education in the timetable.

Role Of School In Community Development

To Promote Work Education, the school can also organize many activities for the society and community.

For Example:

  • The School may select such activities in work education through which cleaning of water places, filling of pits, gardening in community gardens, managing compost can be done.
  • May participate in decorating at the time of social festivals in the society.
  • The students should be familiarized with the significance of labor in such a way that they might respect them.
  • A survey can be conducted to find the number of students not coming to school and adult illiterates through students. It will not suffice to survey but the school should organize such activities that adult education center may be organized and coordinate and the students who are unable to come to school may be motivated to join the school.
  • The school should provide its premises for the campaigns like pulse polio etc., at the same time it should provide the support of teachers and students for these campaigns.
  • May organize interviews of artisans not only to give recognition but also boosts up their morale.
  • The school should play the role of a pioneer in organizing exhibitions of local handicraft work.

Organization of Orientation Programmes in Work Education

Organization Of Orientation Programmes for The Parents and Community Regarding the Significance of Work Education

Possibly the parents are not aware of the teaching-learning process and they consider bookish knowledge as real knowledge.

In this scenario, it is the duty of the work education teachers to organize orientation programs formally through which they may show the significance of work education.

In any academic session, the following situation can be marked for constructive programs.
  • PTA Meetings
  • Parent’s Teachers’ Meeting
  • Home Visit
  • Meetings of Mother’s Club

Evaluation And Assessment In Work Education

In the Scheme of Examinations prepared by the Board, the evaluation of Work Education of all classes has been left to the schools.

  • However, the Grades as awarded by the schools in classes 10th and 12th will be reflected in the Board Certificates.
  • It is, therefore, incumbent on the schools to draw good scientific programs for the evaluation of Work Education.

Programs planned by the schools for the evaluation of Work Education should be:

  • Objective-based
  • Continuous
  • Dynamic
  • Comprehensive

To fulfill these 4 requirements of evaluation, the schools must keep in view the objectives of teaching Work Education and try to make an assessment in respect of all of them.

Especially the focus must be on the important behavioral changes expected through Work Education.

What Is Evaluation? (Assessment)

Evaluation is an inseparable part of the teaching-learning process. The process of evaluation makes the task of guidance easy.

  • Evaluation is a process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting evidence to judge the level of achievement acquired by an individual learner or a group of learners in cognitive and non-cognitive domains for making a variety of decisions.
  • The value of any teaching should be measured on the basis of changes in the behavior of students and how these behavioral changes are in accordance with the desired educational objectives.
  • Teaching and assessment walk hand in hand.

The evaluation is a process in which the interdependence and productivity of all the aspects like teachers and students are checked.

On the basis of this, not only the students are checked on the basis of their achievements but also teachers, teaching methods, textbooks, other educational resources, and co-operation of the community are also checked and efforts are made to make the teaching-learning process more significant and useful from the point of view of the learners.

According To Hanna And Qwelain:

Evaluation Is The Process Of Accumulation Of Evidences And Explanation Of These In Relation To Changes In Behavior Of Students.

After contemplating the above-mentioned definition, it is clear that evaluation is a decision-making process.

Ross and standby said, This decision should be at every level of education.

The following points that are discussed through the process of evaluation are:

  • Effectiveness of experiences generated through the learning process in the class and school.
  • The level of achievement of predetermined goals.
  • Process of achieving goals.

Tools and Techniques of Assessment

  • Observation
  • Checklist
  • Cumulative Record
  • Project work
  • Competition
  • Activities
  • Group Work
  • Questionnaire
  • Interview
  • Photos/Portfolio
  • Lecture
  • Rating Scale
  • Assignment Work
  • Examination
  • Question Forum
  • Debate

Methods of Assessment

There are four fundamental methods of assessment.

  1. Individual Assessment
  2. Group Assessment
  3. Self-Assessment
  4. Assessment By Classmates (Peer Assessment)

Work Education And Evaluation

a) Indicators For Assessment Of Students During Visit To A Place Of Work

  1. Seriousness In The Purpose Of The Visit
  2. Interest And Inquisitiveness
  3. Showing Proper Courtesy, Respect And Dignity To The People, Particularly, The Workers Of The Place Of Visit
  4. Discipline And Orderly Behavior
  5. Avoidance Of Putting Embarrassing Questions And Making Humiliating Or Derogatory Comments
  6. Tactfulness In Eliciting Information
  7. Making Relevant And Probing Queries
  8. Avoidance Of Repetitiveness In Making Queries

b) Indicators For Assessment Of Cognitive And Non-Cognitive Learning Outcomes For Work Education

  1. Utility
  2. Orderliness
  3. Team Spirit And Cooperativeness
  4. Beauty
  5. Neatness And Cleanliness In Work
  6. Durability
  7. Patience And Tolerance
  8. Planned And Systematic Work
  9. Use Of Appropriate Tools And Materials
  10. Perseverance And Zeal For Perfection
  11. Regularity And Punctuality
  12. Sustainable Resource Utilization
  13. Self-Effort And Problem-Solving Spirit
  14. Imagination And Creativity
  15. Positive Attitude
  16. Devotion And Honest Effort In Work
  17. Care Of Tools And Leaving Them In Proper Place After Work
  18. Workmanship And Skill In The Performance Of Work

c) Indicators For Assessment Of A Report Of A Visit To A Place Of Production Cum Service Center

  1. Understanding Of The Importance Of The Role Played And Contribution Made By The Center Visited (Production Or Services) For The Individuals As Well As The Society As A Whole.
  2. Detailed, Thorough, Correct, And Systematic Presentation.
  3. Care, Sincerity, And Seriousness In Preparing The Report.
  4. Sensitivity Reflected
  5. Understanding Of How Various Economic Activities And Public Services Are Going On Through The Process Of Their Necessary Interdependence In The World Of Work As Well As Their Indispensability Individual, Society And National Life.
  6. Reflective Thinking And Feeling Developed.

d) Indicators For Assessment Of A Work Book

  • Care And Neatness In Maintaining The Work-Book.
  • Regularity In Maintaining The Work- Book And Getting Regularly Checked Up By The Teacher.
  • Detailed And Systematic Keeping Of Records.

e) Indicators For Assessment Of A Post Visit Discussion Or Debate

  • Sensitivity And Insight Developed
  • Understanding The Simple And Basic Facts Of Life And Living Through
    • Mutual Cooperation,
    • Participation And Contribution.
  • Social Awareness Reflected
  • Understanding The Importance Of The Economic Activities
  • Patiently Listening And Allowing To Others Point Of View
  • Observance Of Proper Etiquette, Courtesy, And Respect While Interacting With Others
  • Presenting Own Point Of View


It is widely felt that if numerical marks are awarded instead of grades after evaluation, the seriousness towards implementation of the WEP (work education program) and expected levels of attainment by the students will be enhanced.

  • This issue has been debated time and again and has been explicitly dealt with in a document entitled “Grading in Schools” brought out by the NCERT (2000b).

The Work Education activities have multiple dimensions:

  • Intellectual,
  • Emotional,
  • Spiritual,
  • Ethical,
  • Aesthetic,
  • Physical, etc.,
  • All of these can be broadly categorized into cognitive and non-cognitive capacities.

Assigning marks to the learning outcomes in all these dimensions will be cumbersome and a difficult task for an evaluator.

  • It is, therefore, suggested that the assessment of cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes may be carried out by the institution and for awarding grades, the method of direct grading may be employed.
  • Grades awarded by the schools in Classes 10 and 12 will be reflected in the Board Certificates.
  • It is, therefore, incumbent on the schools to draw a good scientific program for the evaluation of Work Education.

Performa For Keeping Records For Work Education

The records can be maintained under the following headings & the workbook should be checked daily as the assessment of the work done by the students on daily basis.

Name Of The Work/Project

Use Of The Product

Objective/Purpose Of The Work

Tools And Equipment Used. (Name, Nos., Source Of Availability)

Raw Materials Used

Procedure Followed

Precautions Followed In The Process Of Execution

Difficulties Faced In The Process And How To Overcome

Costing Of The Product

Suggestions For Further Improvement

Self-Evaluation And Learning Outcome

Work Education Syllabus

National Education Policy 1986 accepted the concept of Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW) and deemed it as purposeful, meaningful physical work.

  • It was recommended that it should be considered as an important factor at all the levels of education which should be provided as well organized and systematic program.
  • Objectives of work education should be observed before contemplating the syllabus of work education.

It is clear that essential life skills are developed in students through work education. Hence, the basis of the syllabus for work education should have been or should be around daily life.

What Are The Six Areas In Work Education?

The activities done through this subject are selected mainly from six areas.

  1. Health And Health Science
  2. Food And Nutrition
  3. Cultural And Entertainment
  4. Residence
  5. Dresses
  6. Community Work And Social Services

It is important that the syllabus of work education should be related to the condition of surroundings. All these six areas are the necessary factors of the life of an individual, therefore the syllabus of work education cannot be different from these areas.

Work Education Activities

The following points should be focused While planning for the activities related to work education.

  1. Providing a chance to arouse interest and observe their environment.
  2. Providing opportunities for self-expression to the children.
  3. Helping children in acquiring basic skills required to solve the day-to-day problem.
  4. Helping them perform their routine activities properly.
  5. Helping in integrating experiences gained through different activities.
  6. Bringing awareness about conservation of environment.
  7. Develop a positive attitude for helping others and living in groups.

Planning Sessions And Activities For Work Education For Different Classes

1. Activities Related To Better Fulfillment Of Basic Needs

The following programs and activities can be included under this area.

a) Food and Agriculture:
  • Identifying Various Seeds, Forest Products, Manure, And Soils.
  • Preparing Compost Pits.
  • Preparing Flower, Plant Beds.
  • Selecting Good Quality Seeds.
  • Food And Fruit Preservation.
  • Making Tea, Coffee, Or Jaljeera Etc.
  • Preparing Squash And Pickles.
  • Sowing Seeds.
  • Taking Care And Maintaining Plants.
  • Preparing Coolers With The Help Of Pitchers, Clay Drums, And Vases.
  • Preparing Swings With The Help Of Plastic, Jute, And String.
  • Identifying Tools Used In Cultivation, Agricultural Products, And Manure
b) Health and Hygiene:

Awareness about personal hygiene, cleanliness, and maintenance of things needed in daily life.

  • Maintaining Cleanliness In School And Home
  • Binding Books And Note Books
  • Maintain Of Book Rack, Carpets, Poster, Calendar, Chart Paper Or Other Pictures
  • Repair Work
c) Clothes:
  • Preparing cover for T.V. and boxes etc.
  • Preparing foot mats, aasans, etc. with leftover small pieces of wool, rags, and jute, etc.
  • Learning to prepare dolls and puppets.
d) Residence:
  • Preparing bottle brush with the help of socks, swab for cleaning utensils by using useless things like
    • Grass,
    • Coconut fiber,
    • Gourd bark,
    • Thin wire and net etc.
  • Repairing rack, table, chair, stool, bed or tap, etc.

2. Activities Related To Beautification Of Environment

a) Preparing Material For Decoration:
  • Making flowers with the help of strips of clothes, thin colorful strips of paper wire, pearls or threads, etc.
  • Making decorative things with jute strings, rope, plastic strings, etc.
  • Making mats with old wool.
  • Decorating clay utensils
  • Making flower vases with bamboo.
  • Making different articles like clay toys, birds, and animals.
b) Making Useful Things:
  • Make pen/pencil holder, pin holder, letterbox, or hand fan.
  • Decorating clay utensils with the help of broken bangles or any other material.
  • Making masks
  • Making clay toys.
  • Preparing material for display board in the school.

3. Activities Related To Community Services

  • Participating in decorating at the time of festivals and events
  • Participating in cleanliness campaign in the nearby locality
  • Helping physically challenged people in their day-to-day work.
  • Participating in cleaning school premises as per their capacity.

4. Activities related to Environmental Awareness:

  • Preparing charts related to harmful effects of environmental pollution.
  • Collecting news and pictures related to environmental pollution.
  • Making slogans regarding environmental pollution and displaying them.
  • Displaying bulletin board with pictures related to factors polluting the environment.
  • Participating in programs like
    • Van Mahotsava and
    • Tree plantation.

5. Activities Related To Cultural Legacy And National Integration

  • To explore the food habits and living style of the people from different states.
  • Making pictures of national symbols like national flags etc.
  • To celebrate and know about the national festivals like Independence Day, Republic Day, etc.
  • To collect pictures of different musical instruments, dances.
  • To collect information about handicrafts from different places.

Essential And Elective Activities In Work Education

The core and elective areas of work education are:

a) Core Areas

  1. Health Education
  2. Textile Designing
  3. Value Development
  4. Media and Mass Communication
  5. Food Processing and Catering Management
  6. Nutrition Education
  7. Consumer Education
  8. Environment
  9. Population Education
  10. Culture and Recreation
  11. Commercial Art
  12. Information Technology
  13. Meal Planning and Preparation
  14. Home Management and Interior decoration
  15. Child Care and Creche Management
  16. Elements of Dress Designing
  17. Craft Work

b) Elective Areas and Activities

  • Preparation of Specific items & their value addition
  • Office Routine and Practices
  • Book Keeping
  • Repair & maintenance of Electrical Gadgets
  • Computer Applications
  • Typewriting
  • Repair & maintenance of Simple Electronic Devices

Work Education In India

Historical Background And Perspective

Over the past fifty years in our country and especially in the last twenty years or so, there has been an increasing appreciation of the need to include work as a vital component at all stages of school education.

This has its roots in the perceptions about work education as a powerful means of

  • Restoring respect and dignity to all types of manual work,
  • Promoting self-reliance in meeting one’s daily needs and those of the society,
  • Removing distinctions between manual workers and white-collar workers,
  • Accelerating the process of economic development in the country through community service and social work by students.
  • Increasing productivity through the development of proper work skills and values.

In view of the unique importance of work education for the all-around development of the child and well-being of the country, considerable importance has been given to it in almost all-important schemes, reports, and documents on education which have come out in the last fifty years.

For Example:

  1. Gandhiji’s Scheme of Basic Education,
  2. Kothari Commission’s Report,
  3. NCERT’s Ten-Year School Curriculum,
  4. Report of the Ishwar Bhai Patel Committee,
  5. The National Policy of Education, 1986, and more recently the National Curriculum Framework 2000.

Consequently, work education has come to be viewed as

  • Important link between education and productivity, as an
  • Important instrument for the preparation of the child as a self-supporting and productive citizen, and
  • Potent means of social reconstruction and national development.

It has been introduced and implemented under different names, such as

  • Craft Education (1937),
  • Work Experience ( 1967),
  • Socially Useful Productive Work (1977), at different times and in different parts of the country.
The National Policy on Education (NPE) has assigned a very important place to work education in the school curriculum at all stages. It has reverted to the term “Work Experience” which was earlier used by Kothari Commission for work education.

The National Curriculum Framework for School Education developed by the NCERT (2000a) suggested a more comprehensive term “Work Education” in place of the earlier nomenclature of Work Experience.

Concept of Work Education According to NPE (National Policy on Education 1986)

The National Policy on Education 1986 has conceived Work Education as purposive and meaningful manual work that results in goods or services which are useful to society.

Work Education comprises activities consisting of services, foods, and community development in various areas of human needs such as

  • Health and hygiene,
  • Food,
  • Clothing,
  • Recreation,
  • Availability of local resources, and
  • Social service in accordance with mental abilities and manual skills of children at various stages of education.

The Policy visualized intensive participation in production and service-oriented projects for the middle and lower-secondary stages along with an “Earn while you learn” dimension for needy students on an optional basis.

It assigned equal importance to community work/social service for creating social awareness and concern for the welfare/ development of the local community or society at large.

Work Education In The National Policy On Education (NPE)

The most important goal of education is

  • To prepare children for life as adults and
  • To impart knowledge, skills, qualities, and attitudes which make them self-supportive individuals and productive citizens.

Pre-vocational programs at the secondary and higher secondary (academic stream only) stages, as visualized in the NPE, are aimed specifically at the development of skills in different work areas through well-designed courses so that those who stop studies after the high/higher secondary stages are able to enter the world of work directly or with a little more preparation.

The National Policy on Education (NPE) states:

  • Work Experience, viewed as purposive, meaningful, manual work, organized as an integral part of the learning process and resulting in either goods or services useful to the community, is considered as an essential component (of curriculum) at all stages.
  • Pre-vocational programs provided at the lower secondary stage will also facilitate the choice of vocational courses at the higher secondary stage.
  • Work Experience is to be provided through well-structured and graded programs.
  • Work Experience would comprise activities in accordance with the interests, abilities, and needs of students, the level of skills and knowledge to be upgraded with the stages of education.
  • This experience would be helpful to a student on his entry into the workforce.

The emphasis in such courses is on practical work to satisfy the needs of students, school, and community and to find the solution to problems.

  • The sale ability and commercial acceptability of the goods or services produced should be highlighted in pre-vocational courses to sensitize pupils to the production of quality goods.
  • Pre-vocational courses in Work Education should be viewed as ground preparation for vocational for those who drop out after class 10th and as preparation for vocational courses for those who opt for them at the plus two stage.

Work Education In The National Curriculum Frame Work for School Education (2000)

The National Curriculum Frame Work for School Education (2000) has also emphasized the concept and philosophy of Work Education and it stressed that the activities pertaining to work education should be so organized as to realize the objectives of Work Education such as

  • Inculcation among learners of respect for manual work,
  • Values for self-reliance,
  • Cooperativeness,
  • Perseverance,
  • Helpfulness,
  • Tolerance and
  • Work ethics besides developing attitudes and
  • Values- related to productive work and concern for the community.

The theory and practice have to be such that it enables learners

  • To understand the facts, terms, concepts, and scientific principles involved in various forms of work situations.
  • Know the sources of raw materials.
  • Acquire skills needed for technologically advancing society and conceptualize their role in productive situations.
  • Understand the use of tools and equipment’s in production and service processes.

The program should develop among learners the skills for identifying, selecting, arranging, and developing innovative methods and observing, manipulating, and participating in work practices and thereby enhancing production efficiency.


The Work Education Plays A Vital Role In Shaping The Next Generation Of Scientifically Literate Individuals. By Understanding The Principles And Strategies Discussed In This Blog Post, You Will Be Well-Prepared To Create Meaningful And Impactful Work Education Learning Experiences For Your Students.


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