Types Of Injuries In Sports

How Many Types Of Sports Injuries Are There? - Meaning, Definition, Cause, Sign & Symptom, First Aid Treatment | Describe Concept Of Athletic Injuries - www.pupilstutor.com

Types Of Injuries In Sports

Every day millions of people of all ages in the world participate in games and sports activities.

Participation in sports improves physical fitness, coordination, self-discipline and gives children and adults valuable opportunities to learn teamwork, Games, and sports but sometimes may also result in injures.

  • Some of which are minor
  • Some are serious and
  • Some others are so serious which may require lifelong medication.

The common types of sports injuries are

  1. Exposed injuries or open wounds
  2. Unexposed injuries or Internal injuries

Injuries may be further classified into

1

Soft Tissue Injuries:

 Skin Muscle And Fascia

2

Bone Injuries:

 Fracture

3

Joint Injuries:

 Dislocation


a. Exposed Injury (Open Wounds)

Any injury that is external in nature and visible to the naked eyes is known as exposed injury or open wounds.

Eg:

  1. Abrasion
  2. Laceration
  3. Punctured wounds

1. Abrasion

Definition: An abrasion is a scarping injury to the skin by which a loss of epidermis and dermis in the skin takes place.

Causation: A sudden fall on the hard surface and slide.

Signs and Symptoms

  • It is extremely painful and blood may ooze from injured capillary vessels to the surface.
  • The wound does not penetrate completely through the skin.

First Aid Treatment

  • Clean the skin with soap and water.
  • The soap acts as a solvent for grease and embedded dirt.
  • Washing can be done with a soft brush to remove the ground dirt and any other foreign material.
  • A tincture of benzoin may be applied to reduce pain.
  • An antibiotic ointment like furacin may be used.
  • A suitable dressing and gauze with adhesive tape to prevent reinjure must be done.

2. Laceration

Laceration is a separation of the skin, an irregularly torn wound with sharp edges of objects.

  • The wound may occur to the skin subcutaneous tissue, the underlying muscles, and associated nerves and blood vessels

Causation:

  • Direct contact of a sharp instrument.

Treatment:

  • Clean the area with soap and water.
  • Remove the pieces of torn tissue from the wound.
  • Clean with antiseptic (Dettol). If the cut is deep suture the wound.
  • Apply hydrotherapy once daily a week.
  • Do not use adhesive tape to bring the edges of the wound together.

3. Punctured Wounds

Usually, it occurs while playing or doing physical activities. This is caused by projectiles or pointed objects like

  • Spikes
  • Splints
  • Studs (football shoe)
  • Javelin etc.

Direct penetration of tissues by these types of pointed objects is called punctuated wounds. There is a possibility of tetanus bacillus infection. When left careless it makes the athlete or individual be a victim of lockjaw.


Treatment

  • Dieppe lacerations and punctured wounds are to be referred to the physician immediately.
  • Using a ring pad, put a bandage around the wound and take the injured to the nearby physician.
  • If any implement or piece is left inside the wound do not try to remove it.

b. Unexposed Injury (Internal Injuries)

Even though the injury is factored by an external force that does not affect the epidermis but causes internal injury. This is known as unexposed injury.

Eg:

  1. Sprain
  2. Strain
  3. Contusions
  4. Fracture

1. Sprain

Definition

Sprain is an injury to a ligament resulting from over-stress.

  • A sprain is usually produced by twisting or stretching it beyond its normal range of motion, stretching or tearing some of the supporting capsule and ligaments.
  • Sprain is a partial dislocation.
  • Sprain is a muscular-skeletal injury.

Types of Sprain causation

According to the severity of the injury, there are 3 categories of sprains.

1. Mild Sprain (First Degree)
  • This is a sprain in which some fibres of alignment are torn with little hemorrhage.
  • There is no functional loss and the ligament is not weakened.
2. Moderate Sprain (Second Degree)
  • A moderate sprain is one in which some portion of the ligament is torn and some of the functional loss is present.
  • There may be tearing of a small portion of the ligament.
  • There may be mild functional loss or severe complete functional loss of ligament.
3. Severe Sprain (Third Degree)
  • In a severe sprain, the ligament is completely torn from one or the other of its attachments with separation of end or pulls it apart from within its substances.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Pain and tenderness around the joint are increased by movement.
  • Swelling around the joint followed later by bruising and later discoloration.
  • The joints lose the power of movement.
  • Severe pain is experienced in that part.
  • Inflammation appears on the affected part.
  • The color of the skin changes.

Treatment

  • The affected parts should be given complete rest and movements should be stopped for some days.
  • The affected part should be thoroughly massaged with mustard oil.
  • The affected part should be tightly bandaged and put in ice water.
  • If the above treatments do not relieve pain, the sprained part should be washed with hot water. This is likely to reduce the pain.
  • Rest and support the injured part in the most comfortable position for the causality to elevate an injured limb.
  • Carefully expose the joint and if the sprain is of recent origin apply a cold compress to reduce swelling and pain.
  • If the patient has no relief, the bandage should be removed and retied.
  • The sprained part should be given complete rest.

2. Strain

A strain is a sudden twist pull or tear of a muscle or tendon.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Severe pain, bruising, and inflammation.
  • Swelling, discoloration of the injured place.
  • Non-functionality of the joints.
  • One may hear a snap sound when the tissue tear.
  • Sharp pain at the moment of injury is felt.
  • Loss of function of the part affected.
  • Raise in the temperature.

Treatment

  • Take complete rest.
  • Apply cold compression bandage and ice pack around the injured place for about 24 hours.
  • Apply hot water fomentation or contrast bath.
  • Call physician help if pain persists.

3. Contusions

Contusions are actually brushing of the tissues and are caused by a direct blow by a blunt instrument or by crushing.

Definition

An injury pressure or a fall causes the blood vessels beneath the skin to break as the result of which the injured part turns blue.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Blood vessels in the underlying tissues are torn and bleeding takes place.
  • The blood gradually moves towards the skin and causes discoloration with black and blue marks.
  • Swelling and pain develop in the area which may be superficial or deep depending upon the type of object striking the blow.
  • If more damage is caused in the tissue and large blood vessels are damaged more blood is collected at the site of contusion and it is called hematoma or blood donor.
  • When a fracture of a large bone-like femur happens more than a liter of blood collects.

Treatment

  • Arrest bleeding by the application of cod and pressure bandage in the early stage for 12 hours.
  • Immobilize the part and protect it to prevent further injury.
  • If the damage is serious with a fracture splinting is needed to control bone injury.
  • Fomentation is also beneficial.
  • The injured part should be given sufficient rest.

Classification of Contusions

  1. Simple or superficial contusions
  2. Muscle contusions
  3. Joint contusions
  4. Visceral Contusions

4. Fractures

  • A fracture is a break, usually in a bone.
  • If the broken bone punctures the skin, it is called an open or compound fracture.
  • Fractures commonly happen because of

    • Car accidents,
    • Falls, or
    • Sports injuries.
  • Other causes are low bone density and osteoporosis, which cause the weakening of the bones.
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